ASHISH DISTILLATION

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Distillation :

Distillation Mr. ASHISH KUMAR SHARMA PREPARED BY :

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Distillation is defined as the separation of the components of a liquid mixture by a process involving vaporization and subsequent condensation at another place. Distillation

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Types of Distillation Simple distillation Batch distillation Flash distillation Continuous distillation

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Simple distillation Condenser Still Heat Accumulator

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B atch distillation

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Flash distillation Heater Separator Condenser Overhead Product Bottom Product Throttle

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The most common form of distillation used by the chemical, petroleum and petrochemical industries. The feed is constantly charged to the column at a point between the top and bottom sections. The section above the feed point rectifies the more volatile while the column section below the feed point strips out the more volatile from the less volatile component. Continuous distillation

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Continuous distillation Feed Reflux A+B A(B) B (A) Overhead Product Bottom Product

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CLASSIFICATION OF CONTINOUS COLUMNS Nature of feed Binary column Multi component column Number of product streams Multi product column Feed exits Extractive distillation Azeotropic distillation Column Internals Packed columns Tray columns

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FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION

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Multiple stages of vapor-liquid equilibrium. More Volatile component becomes abundant in vapor moving upward. Liquid contains less of the more volatile component moving downward. Constant L and V Flow Rates and Constant Pressure. Feed: Initial Liquid with fractions of component. Distillate: Condensed Vapor enriched with volatile component Bottom : Liquid. Fractional Distillation McCabe-Thiele Method

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Feed line q = 0 (saturated vapour) q = 1 (saturated liquid) 0 < q < 1 (mix of liquid and vapour) q > 1 (subcooled liquid) q < 0 (superheated vapour)

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relative volatility

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Relation between q line and feed line Slope=tan Ø =-(1-f)/f q=-(1-f)

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Operating Line to Determine the Number of Trays

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Vertical Shell It is where the separation of liquid components is carried out.

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PARTS OF DISTILLATION

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Bubble cap trays – has a riser or chimney fitted over each hole and a cap that cover the riser. TRAYS

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SIEVE TRAY

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Packing - are simply passive objects that are designed to increase the interfacial area available for vapour-liquid contacting. Segment of high efficiency metal mesh packing PACKING

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Applications Separation of volatile oils Purification of organic solvents Manufacture of official preparations Refining of petroleum products Recovery of solvents Quality control methods Separation of drugs obtained from plant and animal resources. Purification of drugs obtained from chemical process.

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