ULTRA-VIOLET SPECTROSCOPY : ULTRA-VIOLET SPECTROSCOPY Guided By :- Dr. K. R. Gupta sir Design By :- A.C. Alaspure S. K. B. college of Pharmacy. New Kamptee Introduction : Introduction Spectroscopy is the tool for study of atomic & molecular structure.
It deals with interaction of electronic radiation with matter involving the measurement & interpretation of the extension of absorption or emission of electromagnetic radiation by molecule.
Most important consequence of such interaction is the energy is absorbed or emitted by the matter in discrete amount called as quanta.
UV radiation starts at blue end of visible light(4000Å)
& ends at 2000A.
It divided into two spectral region-
Near UV region- 2000Å-4000Å.
Far or vacuum UV region- below 2000Å.
UV-spectroscopy involved with electronic excitation. Slide 3: Absorption And Emission spectra:-
Spectroscopy mainly concerned with interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter.
After interaction they may variation in intensity of EMR with frequency.
Instrument which record this variation in intensity known as spectrophotometer
Two way in which interaction may observed- Terminology : Terminology Wavelength(λ):-
distance between two successive maxima of one electromagnetic wave. express in Angstron units or (mu)
Number of wavelength passing through a given point. per sec.
Unit:- Hertz or cycles per second
Number of waves per centimeter in vacuum.
Reciprocal of wavelength, express as per (cm).
relation between frequency, velocity & wave number ν=(1/λ)c=(c/v)λ=(v/c) Slide 5: Electro Magnetic Spectrum 109 107 105 103 101 10-1 10-3 10-5 10-7 10-9 10-11 gamma X-rays Ultra Violet Infra red microwave Radio waves 500 600 700 Violet, indigo, blue Green, yellow Orange, red Origin & Theory Of Ultra Violet Spectra : Origin & Theory Of Ultra Violet Spectra Ultra violet absorption spectra arises from transition of electron or electron within molecule.
UV emission spectra arises from reverse type of transition.
Electron undergoes transition from lower to higher energy level, this energy difference given by,
But actually energy difference between ground & excited states of electrons E1-E0=hν
Total energy of the molecule is sum of electronic, vibrational, rotational energy. E=Eele +Evib +Erot Slide 7: UV-visible spectroscopy is the measurement of absorbance or transmittance of radiation in the ultra-violet &visible region of the spectrum.
It arises from transition of electron.
M + hν M*
M* new species Excitation of species by absorption of photon with the limited life time. Relaxation by converting M* to the new species by photochemical reaction Slide 8: three types of electrons are involved in organic molecule-
Involved in the saturated bonds.
Found in the carbon, hydrogen in the paraffin.
Energy required to excite σ-produced is electron more than the produced by the UV-light.
Involved in unsaturated hydrocarbon.
Present in triens & aromatic compounds.
It does not evolved in the bonding of the molecules. Slide 9: Types of transition in the organic molecule
σ* anti bonding
π* anti bonding
n* non bonding
σ bonding energy Allowed transition:- having ε max 104 or more.
This transition due to π-π* transition.
In 1,3-butadiene exhibits absorption at 217 nm & has εmax 21000 represent allowed transition.
Forbidden transition:- transition having εmax less than 104 .
Occurs due to n-π* transition . Slide 10: Fig. 1 The order of orbital energies and approximate order of electronic transition energies
in a hypothetical unsaturated molecule containing a heteroatom with a nonbonded
electron pair (n). Slide 11: Energy required for various transitions are in the order
σ-σ*> n-σ* > π-π*> n-π*
Thus, n-π*transition required less energy than a π-π* or σ-σ* transition. Instrumentation : Instrumentation Components of spectrophotometer
Recorder Slide 13: RADIANT
SELECTOR SOLVENT PHOTO-
DETECTOR READOUT SAMPLE Fig.-block diagram of instrumentation of UV-spectrophotometer Slide 14: Light source
b)WI Lamp Entrance slit monochromator sample Exit slit Read out amplifier detector Fig.- block diagrammatic representation of UV-spectrophotometer Slide 15: fig.-Schematic representation of
single beam UV-spectrophotometer Fig.-schematic representation of double beam UV- spectrophotometer Light source : Light source Distribution of energy through spectrum is function of temperature.
For Visible region-
Tungsten filament lamp
Use for region 350nm to 2000nm.
Due to evaporation of tungsten life period decreases.
It is overcome by using tungsten-halogen lamp.
Halogen gas prevents evaporation of tungsten. Slide 17: For ultra violet region-
Hydrogen discharge lamp
consist of two electrode contain in deuterium filled silica envelop.
gives continuous spectrum in region 185-380nm.
above 380nm emission is not continuous.
UV-Vis spectrophotometer have both deuterium & tungsten lamps.
Selection of lamp is made by moving lamp mounting or mirror to cause the light fall on monochromator. Slide 18: Deuterium lamps:-
Radiation emitted is 3-5 times more than the hydrogen discharge lamps.
Xenon discharge lamp:-
Xenon stored under pressure in 10-30 atmosphere.
It possesses two tungsten electrode separated by 8 cm.
Intensity of UV radiation more than hydrogen lamp.
Mercury vapour filled under the pressure .
Excitation of mercury atom by electric discharge Monochromator : Monochromator Filters –
Made from pieces of colored glass which transmit limited wavelength range of spectrum.
Color produced by incorporation of oxide of vanadium, chromium, iron, nickel, copper.
Wide band width 150nm.
Consist of mixture of dyes placed in gelatin & sandwiched between glass plates.
Band width 25nm.
c)Inter ferometric filters-
Band width 15nm. Slide 20: Prisms-
Prism bends the monochromatic light.
Amount of deviation depends on wavelength.
Quartz prism used in UV-region.
Glass prism used in visible region spectrum.
They produce non linear dispersion. Slide 21: Fig.-Mechanism of prism working Fig.-mechanism of working of prism. Slide 22: Grating-
Large number of equispaced lines on a glass blank coated with aluminum film. Blaze angle Normal surface vector Normal to groove face Slide 23: Spectroscopy requires all materials in the beam path other
than the analyte should be as transparent to the radiation as possible.
The geometries of all components in the system should be such as to
maximize the signal and minimize the scattered light.
The material from which a sample cuvette is fabricated controls the optical
window that can be used. Some typical materials are:
Optical Glass - 335 - 2500 nm
Special Optical Glass – 320 - 2500 nm
Quartz (Infrared) – 220 - 3800 nm
Quartz (Far-UV) – 170 - 2700 nm
•Keep the cuvette clean.
•Don’t clean with paper products.
•Don’t get finger prints on them.
•Store carefully and gently Sample cell (cuvette) Detectors : Detectors Three common types of detectors are used
Barrier layer cells
Photo voltaic cells or barrier layer cells :-
They are primarily used for measurement of radiation in visible region.
It consist of flat Cu or Fe electrode on which semiconductor such as selenium is deposited.
on the selenium a thin layer of silver or gold is sputtered over the surface. Slide 25: A barrier exist between the selenium & iron which prevents the electron flowing through iron.
Therefore electrons are accumulated on the silver surface.
These electrons are produced voltage. - terminal Silver surface selenium + terminal fig.-Barrier layer cell Slide 26: Photocell detector:-
It consist of high sensitive cathode in the form of a half cylinder of metal which is evacuated.
Anode also present which fixed along the axis of the tube
Photocell is more sensitive than photovoltaic cell. + - light Fig.- photocell detector Slide 27: Photomultiplier tube:-
it is generally used as detector in UV-spectrophotometer
It is the combination of photodiode & electron multiplier.
It consist of evacuated tube contains photo-cathode.
9-16 electrodes known as dynodes. Fig.-photomultiplier tube Recorder : Recorder Signal from detector received by the recording system
The recording done by recorder pan. Description of UV- spectrophotometer : Description of UV- spectrophotometer Single beam spectrophotometer:-
Double beam spectrophotometer:-\
Advantage of double beam spectrophotometer:-
It is not necessary to continually replace the blank with the sample or to adjust the autozero.
The ratio of the powers of the sample & reference is constantly obtained.
It has rapid scanning over the wide wavelength region because of the above two factors. Lamberts & Beer’s law : Lamberts & Beer’s law Intensity of beam of parallel monochromatic radiation decreases exponentially as it passes through medium of homogeneous thickness.
Absorption is proportional to the thickness (path length) of solution.
k=“absorption coefficient” defined as reciprocal of the thickness which required to reduced to light to 1/10 of its intensity
Intensity of a beam of parallel monochromatic radiation decreases exponentially with the number of absorbing molecule.
Absorption is proportional to concentration. Slide 31: Combination of two law yields beers- lamberts law.
Io-intensity of incident light
B-thickness Slide 32: Deviation from beer’s law:-
From the beer’s law plot the absorbance against the conc.
A straight line passing through origin is obtained.
Deviation is due to the following factors:- A foreign substance having colour particle may affect the absorption & extinction coefficient.
Deviation also occur if colored solute ionized or dissociates in the solution.
for e.g.- benzyl alcohol in chloroform
Due to the presence of impurities that fluoresce or absorb at the absorption wave length.
If monochromatic light is not used deviation may occurs.
If width of the slit is not proper.
If the solution species undergoes polymerisation Slide 33: Transmittance (T)= Io/It
% transmittance (%T)= It/Io ˣ 100
Absorbance (A) = log (It/Io)
Absorbance also term as,
Optical density (D)
A= log (Io/It) =abc
when concentration is in moles/lit. the constant called as molar absorptivity (ε) molar extinction coefficient.
absorbance of a specific concentration in a cell of specific pathlength. Slide 34: Most common form in p’ceutical analysis A1cm1%
is absorbance of 1g/100ml (1%w/v) solution in 1cm cell. ε = A 1cm1% ˣ mole.wt.
10 Woodward-Feiser rule : Woodward-Feiser rule It is used for calculating the absorption maxima
Woodward (1941) gives certain rule for correlating λmax with the molecular structure
These rules are modified by Scott & Feiser.
This rule for calculating λmax in conjugated dienes, trienes, polyenes.
cyclic dienes having conjugated double bonds in the same ring.
e.g. Slide 36: Hateroannuler dienes:-
cyclic dienes in which double bonds in conjugation are present in the different ring.
Endocyclic double bonds:-
it is the double bond present in ring as shown.
Exocyclic double bonds:-
double bond in which one of the double bonded atom is the part of ring system. e.g. Heteroannuler dienes Endocyclic double bond Exocyclic double bond Slide 37: Woodward’s-Fieser rule for conjugated dienes a)Parent values-
1. acyclic & Heteroannuler conjugated dienes 215 nm
2.Homoannular conjugated dienes 253 nm
3.Acyclic trienes 245 nm
1.Each alkyl substituent or ring residue 5 nm
2.Exocyclic double bond 5 nm
3.Double bond extending conjugation 30 nm
-OR 6 nm
-SR 30 nm
-Cl , Br 5 nm
-NR2 60 nm
-OCOCH3 0 nm Slide 38: Problems:-1) 1,4- dimethyl cyclohex-1,3,-diene
Parent value for Homoannular diene = 253 nm
Two alkyl substituent's 2 ˣ 5 = 10 nm
Two ring residues 2ˣ 5 = 10 nm
Calculated value = 273 nm
Observed value = 265 nm
Parent value for Heteroannuler diene = 215 nm
Four ring residue 4 ˣ 5 = 20 nm
Calculated value = 235 nm
Observed value = 236 nm Slide 39: Woodward’s-Fieser rule for α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds a)Parent values:-
1.α,β-unsaturated acyclic or six membered ring ketone 215 nm
2.α,β-unsaturated five membered ring ketone 202nm
3.α,β-unsaturated aldehyde 207nm
1.Each alkyl substituent or ring residue
at α, position 10nm
at β,position 12nm
at γ,position 18nm
2.Each Exocyclic double bond 5nm
3.Double bond extending conjugation 30nm
4.Homoannular conjugatated dienes 39nm
α β γ
-OH 35 30 50
-OR 35 30 17
-SR - 85 -
-OCOCH3 6 6 6 Slide 40: Problems:- C
Parent value = 215 nm
One alkyl substituent in α position = 10 nm
Calculated value = 225 nm
Observed value = 220 nm
Parent value for α,β- unsaturated 6 membered cyclic ketone=215 nm
One ring residue at α position = 10 nm
2 ring residue at β- position 2* 12 =24 nm
Double bond Exocyclic to 2 ring 2* 5 =10 nm
Calculated value = 259nm
Observed value = A α,β- unsaturated acyclic ketone Slide 41: Woodward’s rule for principal band of substituted benzene derivative Slide 42: Para chloroacetophenone
Basic value = 246 nm
Cl substitution at p- position = 10 nm
Calculated value = 256 nm
Observed value = 254nm Cl C CH3 O References : References Gurdeep R. chatwal; Sham K. Anand; Instrumental Methods Of Chemical Analysis.
Y. Anjaneyulu; K. Chandrasekhar; Valli Manickam; Text book of analytical chemistry.
Y. R.Sharma; Elementary organic spectroscopy.
P.S.Kalsi; Spectroscopy of organic compound.
B.K.Sharma; Instrumental methods of chemical analysis. Slide 44: Thank you…