BITE MARKS

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BITE MARKS:

BITE MARKS By Ashik R Govt.SMC Chennai

Definition:

Definition *A bitemark has been defined as a pattern produced by human or animal dentitions and associated structures in any substance capable of being marked by these means. *A bitemark can also be thought of as a form of ‘tool mark’ – a term used in forensic science to describe a mark made by an object or implement which can be analysed to provide some information about the characteristics of that which made it.

Morphology of a bite mark:

Morphology of a bite mark

epidemiology:

epidemiology *Bitemarks are said to be seen relatively commonly and most commonly in the context of sexually motivated assault or NAI in children. They are also seen in attacks on police officers, and during sporting activities, such as rugby football. *Bitemarks can also be self-inflicted, such as during a fall onto the face, or during an epileptic fit etc. *Where bitemarks have been inflicted in an attempt to draw suspicion on somebody else, the marks are to be distributed over areas of the body that are accessible to the biter’s mouth – and in common with other wounds of self-infliction, they are more likely to be superficial wounds.

Areas of the body most likely to bitten during assaults:

Areas of the body most likely to bitten during assaults Breasts (e.g. sexually motivated assault) Arms Legs Face/ head Abdomen Back Shoulder Buttocks Female genitalia Hands/ fingers Chest Ears/ nose Neck Male genitalia

Bite mark analysis:

Bite mark analysis *Photographs *Evidence collection e g:DNA,saliva,blood stains *Examination of victim's dentition #Defect of analysis is the Distortion of bite marks

Features of suspect’s dentition for analysis of wounds:

Features of suspect’s dentition for analysis of wounds *Shape of the dental arch (any rotations, abnormal positions, gaps or missing teeth) *Number of teeth present in each jaw (odontogram) *Presence of dentures/ sharp denture clasps * Distortion of occlusive surfaces during biting ( occlusal registration) * Occlusal level of teeth within the jaw * Broken/ fractured teeth (particularly incisal fractures that may be responsible for abrasions) * Any prominent teeth * Biting pattern at various angles including bite overhang

Significance of bite marks:

Significance of bite marks *Bitemarks can provide useful evidence in cases of assault (particularly in cases of Non Accidental Injury (NAI cases) – the evidence is of a comparative nature, and this section will outline the means by which this evidence can be collected and analysed. *Bitemarks may also provide a source of assailant DNA - assessment of these injuries must therefore take place after collection of biological trace evidence, where relevant

Significance (cont..):

Significance (cont..) Bitemarks can also be self-inflicted, such as during a fall onto the face, or during an epileptic fit etc. Where bitemarks have been inflicted in an attempt to draw suspicion on somebody else, the marks are to be distributed over areas of the body that are accessible to the biter’s mouth – and in common with other wounds of self-infliction, they are more likely to be superficial wounds. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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