Freud Personality Theory Presentation

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Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality :

Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality Presented By: Muhammad Asghar and Shaf Ahmad MSc Psychology 1 st Semester International Islamic University Islamabad 1

Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality :

Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality Sigmund Freud Levels of Awareness Structure of Personality Defense mechanisms Psychosexual stages Assessment Criticisms Contributions 2

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939):

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Born in Moravia, Czech Republic on May 6 th 1856 Died in London, 23 rd Sep 1939 Jewish background, though did not practice any RELIGION Lived in Vienna until Nazi occupation in 1938 Had medical background- wanted to do “neurophysiological research” Private practice in nervous and brain disorders 3

Freud (cont.) :

Freud (cont.) Early 1900s published many works-- Interpretation of Dreams ( 1900 ) The Psychopathology of Everyday Life ( 1901 ) 1905 concept of sexual drive being most powerful personality component 1906 Psychoanalytic Society formed Many works burned in Nazi occupation (starting 1933 ) Left Austria, fled to England 1938 Died of jaw cancer 1939 4

3 Levels of Awareness :

3 Levels of Awareness Conscious Preconscious Unconscious 5

Conscious :

Conscious The conscious mind includes everything that we are aware of. This is the aspect of our mental processing that we can think and talk about rationally. 6

Preconscious :

Preconscious Contents of the mind you are not currently aware of Thoughts, memories, knowledge, wishes, feelings Available for easy access when needed 7


Unconscious The unconscious mind is a reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories that are outside of our conscious awareness. Most of the time the contents of the unconscious are unacceptable or unpleasant, such as feelings of pain, anxiety, or conflict. According to Freud, the unconscious continues to influence our behavior and experience, even though we are unaware of these underlying influences . 8

Freudian Structure of Personality :

Freudian Structure of Personality The Id The Ego The Superego 9

The Id:

The Id The id represents primitive desires It is the human “want” Represents chaos 10

The “Id” (contd):

The “Id” ( contd ) The “ Id” is the only component of personality that is present from birth. This aspect of personality is entirely unconscious and includes all of the instinctive and primitive behaviors. The id is driven by the pleasure principle , which strives for immediate satisfaction of all desires, wants, and needs. If these needs are not satisfied immediately, the result is a state of anxiety or tension. 11


Ego This is the “self”, or who you view yourself as. It is your personality and the way you portray yourself to the world. Attempts negotiation between Id and Superego to satisfy both realistically 12

Ego (contd):

Ego (contd) The ego is the component of personality that is responsible for dealing with reality ( Reality Principal ). According to Freud, the ego develops from the id and ensures that the impulses of the id can be expressed in a manner acceptable in the real world. The ego functions in all of the conscious , preconscious , and unconscious mind. 13


Superego Operates on “ideal principle” The superego represents the conscience It is the “should” of human beings Begins forming at 4-5 yrs of age Internalized conventions and morals The superego provides guidelines for making judgments. 14

Superego (contd):

The superego acts to perfect and civilize our behavior. It works to suppress all unacceptable urges of the id and struggles to make the ego act upon idealistic standards rather that upon realistic principles . Superego (contd) 15

Conflicts of Personality Components:

Conflicts of Personality Components Conflicts between the Id , Superego and Ego arise in unconscious mind Can’t be reached because in unconscious Come out in various ways Slips of tongue (“Freudian slip”) Dreams Jokes (Humor) Anxiety 16

Defense Mechanisms:

Defense Mechanisms Function: Used by ego to defend against anxiety Involves distortion of reality Operate unconsciously 17

Defense Mechanisms(contd):

Denial Refusal to accept external realities because too threatening to enter awareness Repression Internal impulses and memories too threatening so bared from entering awareness Defense Mechanisms(contd) Projection Attribute unacceptable thoughts or impulses onto others (project these inappropriate thoughts etc onto others) Displacement Shifting attention from one target that is no longer available to a more acceptable or “safer” substitute 18

Defense Mechanisms(contd):

Sublimation Healthiest defense mechanism Compromise Takes socially unacceptable impulses and turns them into something positive & acceptable Rationalization Explaining an unacceptable behavior in a way that overlooks present shortcomings or failures Defense Mechanisms(contd) Reaction Formation Converting unacceptable and dangerous impulses into something positive to reduce anxiety Regression Reverting to behavior that is characteristic to an earlier stage of development when confronted with stress or anxiety 19

Psychosexual Development :

Psychosexual Development Stages of development in which conflict over Id’s impulses plays out Ego must control these impulses If not resolved, psychological issues can emerge later in life 20

Freud’s Psychosexual Stages:

Freud’s Psychosexual Stages STAGE Oral (0-18 months) Anal (18-36 months) Phallic (3-6 years) Latency (6 to puberty) Genital (puberty on) FOCUS Pleasure centers on the mouth-sucking, chewing, biting Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control Pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings. Oedipus and Electra Complex Zone. Dormant sexual feeling Maturation of sexual interest 21

Complexes in the Phallic Stage:

Complexes in the Phallic Stage Oedipus Complex (boys) Unconscious sexual desires towards mother, father is competition Simultaneously fears the dad- “castration anxiety” Electra Complex (girls) Unconscious sexual desires towards father, mother is competition Penis envy Resolution? Kid identifies with same sex parent 22


Assessment Free association Patient says whatever comes to mind Catharsis: Expression of emotions that is expected to lead to the reduction of disturbing symptoms Dream analysis : The royal road to the unconscious and Guardian of Sleep Manifest content (what it Appeared to be) Latent content (repressed Thoughts Seeking Expression) 23

Criticisms of Freud:

Criticisms of Freud Deterministic, negative view of human nature Flaws in case study approach Neglect of social factors in personality Emphasis on past to neglect of present and future behavior View of women Ambiguous concepts 24

Contributions of Freud:

Contributions of Freud Contributed to empirical study of psychology Role of unconscious in behavior Role of childhood experiences Defense mechanisms 25


References 1. An Introduction to Theories of Personalities by Mathew H. Olson and B.R. Hergenhahn 2. Theories of Personality by Calvin S. Hall, Gardner Lindzey and John B. Campbell 3. 26

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A Big Thank You! 27

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