Slide 1: Prepared By - ARVIND TIRKEY POSITION & EXTENT OF SAARC COUNTRIES : Prepared By - ARVIND TIRKEY POSITION & EXTENT OF SAARC COUNTRIES PREPARED BY:
ARVIND TIRKEY CHAPTER-02
CLASS - X THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT- LOCATION AND EXTENT : THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT- LOCATION AND EXTENT SAARC NATIONS SAARC-AN INTRODUCTION- : Prepared By - ARVIND TIRKEY SAARC-AN INTRODUCTION- SAARC – INDIAN SUBCONTINENT
LARGE, SELF CONTAINED SUBCONTINENT
DISTINCTLY STAND OUT FROM REST OF ASIA
4,000 KM FROM EAST TO WEST
3,200 KM FROM NORTH TO SOUTH
4.5 MILLION SQ. KM AREA
POPULATION ABOUT 1.3 BILLION
GEOGRAPHICALLY INDIAN SUBCONTINENT IS ONE COUNTRY BUT GEOGRAPHY OF ONE COUNTRY CANNOT BE STUDIED WITHOUT REFERENCE TO THE REST OF THE REGION SAARC - NATIONS : Prepared By - ARVIND TIRKEY SAARC - NATIONS INDIA
MYANMAR (BURMA) SAARC – SOUTH ASIAN ASSOCIATION FOR REGIONAL COOPERATION ESTABLISHED IN 1985 AT DHAKA DISTINCT GEOGRAPHICAL UNIT : Prepared By - ARVIND TIRKEY DISTINCT GEOGRAPHICAL UNIT SEPARATED BY MOUNTAINS ISOLATED BY OCEANS DISTINCT CLIMATE AFFECTING THE WHOLE SUBCONTINENT UNIQUE CULTURAL SETUP RELIGIONS RACES / ETHNIC GROUPS TRADITIONS CLOTHINGS POSITION AND EXTENT OF SAARC COUNTRIES : Prepared By - ARVIND TIRKEY POSITION AND EXTENT OF SAARC COUNTRIES ENTIRELY NORTH OF EQUATOR WITH TROPIC OF CANCER PASSING THROUGH THE MIDDLE.
EXTENDS FROM 370 N TO 00 42’ S LATITUDE.
EXTENDS FROM 610 E TO 970 E LONGITUDE.
CHINA, AFGHANISTAN IN THE NORTH & MALDIVES IN THE SOUTH.
PAKISTAN IN THE WEST & MYANMAR IN THE EAST.
10 % OF THE TOTAL AREA OF THE CONTINENT OF ASIA. BIRTH OF INDIAN SUBCONTINENT : Prepared By - ARVIND TIRKEY BIRTH OF INDIAN SUBCONTINENT 250 Million years ago Pangaea broke up.
Indo-Australian (Gondwana Land) Plate began to move northwards.
50 million years ago Indo-Australian (Gondwana Land) crashed into Eurasian (Angaraland) in the north, which led to folding of Tethys Sea, giving rise to the Himalayan mountain system.
Hence in the north, Himalayas are existing.
In the south, Peninsular India (part of the ancient Gondwana Land) is occupied by hills and plateaus of Peninsular India. Reasons for formation of saarc(common features of indian subcontinent) : Prepared By - ARVIND TIRKEY Reasons for formation of saarc(common features of indian subcontinent) Central location in Asia.
All countries gained independence after Second World War.
As a result of British Colonialism, all countries have same cultural background and history.
All countries form part of the third world.
The region is poor and over populated.
Predominance of agriculture. Therefore, dependence of the economy on southwest monsoon. OBJECTIVES OF SAARC : Prepared By - ARVIND TIRKEY OBJECTIVES OF SAARC PROMOTION AND STRENGTHENING OF COLLECTIVE SELF-RELIANCE.
STRENGTHENING OF COOPERATION AMONG THE COUNTRIES ON MATTERS OF COMMON INTEREST. (REGIONAL COOPERATION)
ACCELERATION OF ECONOMIC GROWTH, SOCIAL PROGRESS AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGION.
PROMOTION OF MUTUAL/CULTURAL TRUST AND UNDERSTANDING IN APPRECIATION OF ONE ANOTHER’S PROBLEM.
SUPRESSION/ELIMINATION OF TERRORISM AND SMUGGLING OF DRUGS.
PROVISION TO ALL INDIVIDUALS THE OPPORTUNITIES TO LIVE IN DIGNITY AND TO REALISE THEIR FULL POTENTIALS.
PROMOTION OF THE WELFARE OF THE PEOPLES OF SOUTH ASIA AND IMPROVEMENT OF THEIR QUALITY OF LIFE. Need To Include Afghanistan And Myanmar as an extension of South Asia : Prepared By - ARVIND TIRKEY Need To Include Afghanistan And Myanmar as an extension of South Asia Close proximity – Afghnistan in the North West & Myanmar in the East.
Hindukush Range in Afghanistan is the western extension of Himalayas and the Arakan Yoma of Myanmar are the eastern extension.
Both Afghanistan and Myanmar have a hot wet rainy season caused by the South West Monsoon Winds.
They share the same history and polity as the rest of the subcontinent. Population distribution in SAARC Countries : Prepared By - ARVIND TIRKEY Population distribution in SAARC Countries Geographical Extent of SAARC Countries : Prepared By - ARVIND TIRKEY Geographical Extent of SAARC Countries INDIA : Prepared By - ARVIND TIRKEY INDIA Seventh largest country.
Second most populous country.
Extends from 80N to 370N latitudes & 680E to 970E longitude.
It take standard time from 82030’E Meridian.
5 and a half hours ahead of GMT.
It is bounded by three sides by Arabian Sea (west), Indian Ocean (south) and the Bay of Bengal (east).
Shares boundaries with Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar & Bangladesh.
Southernmost point is Indira Point.
Separated from Srilanka by the Palk Strait.
Eight Degree Channel separates India from Maldives and Lakshadweep.
1.02 Billion population according to 2001 Census.
Fertile Northern plains have the highest population density.
Strategic location: Central location in Asia – Trade Routes, Air Routes, Long Coastline. PAKISTAN : Prepared By - ARVIND TIRKEY PAKISTAN The Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
The country originally divided into East and West Pakistan. In 1971 East Pakistan broke away to become Bangladesh and West Pakistan come to be known as Pakistan.
Iran in the west, Afghanistan in the northwest. China in the north, India in the east and south east.
Arabian sea in south.
Extends from 240N to 370N latitude & 610E to 750E longitude.
It takes standard time from 750E longitude.
05 hours ahead of GMT & 30 minutes behind the Indian Standard Time (IST).
Has historical importance as all ancient culture and civilization existed here – Indus Valley Civilization at the sites of Harappa and Mohenjodaro. Pakistan – Physical Features : Prepared By - ARVIND TIRKEY Pakistan – Physical Features Two Physical divisions – The Western Mountains – Baluchistan Plateau, Kirthar mountain, Sulaiman and Hindukush mountains. These mountains provide natural bountary between Indian subcontinent and rest of Asia. Two natural passes – Khyber Pass near Peshawar in Hindu Kush and Bolan Pass near Quetta in Kirthar. Highest Peak Tirich Mir. Region is mostly dry.
The Indus River Basin – consist vast lowlands drained by Indus River and its various tributaries – Sutlej, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum in east and River Kabul in west. Indus flows from north to south, flows in lower course in Thar Desert and with its abundant water supply, converted this desert land into a rich agricultural region. Forms fertile delta before joining Arabian Sea. PakistanNatural Resources and Economic Activities : Prepared By - ARVIND TIRKEY PakistanNatural Resources and Economic Activities Poor in natural vegetation. Broad-leaved evergreen trees like chestnut, deodar, chir, pine, fir and spruce found on mountain. Short grasses and shrubs, scattered trees found in the semi-desert areas.
Eastern part is fertile sandy area. Water from Indus and tributaries. Largest network of irrigation canals in the world.
Main occupation is agriculture. Wheat is the staple diet mostly grown in Punjab. Other food grains – rice, maize, millets and barley.
Superior quality cotton (cash crop) grown in the dry irrigated lands. Other cash crops – sugarcane, tobacco, oilseeds and fruits.
Cattle rearing is important providing meat, dairy products, wool for carpet weaving and hides and skins for leather industry.
Not very rich in mineral resources. Reasonable reserves of coal, iron, gold, mineral oil, limestone and rock salt.
Dense network of roads and railways, mainly in Punjab.
Karachi is main seaport. BANGLADESH : Prepared By - ARVIND TIRKEY BANGLADESH Formerly East Pakistan. Came into existence in 1971 as The People’s Republic of Bangladesh.
The Tropic of Cancer passes through the middle of the country.
Almost surrounded by India on three sides – west, north and east. It shares borders with Myanmar in the southeast. To the south lies Bay of Bengal.
Extends between 20030’N to 27045’N latitudes & 880E to 93045’E longitudes.
Takes standard time from 900E Meridian.
06 hours ahead of GMT. BangladeshPhysical Features : Prepared By - ARVIND TIRKEY BangladeshPhysical Features Vast low-lying alluvial plain of Ganga-Brahmaputra delta. (largest in the world)
Brahmaputra is known as Jamuna in Bangladesh. After Brahmaputra meets Ganga in Bangladesh, the joint stream is called Padma.
Coastal region is marshy land. Rivers flood the adjoining areas during rainy season and spread fertile silt.
Hilly areas are found in north-eastern part bordering India. Southeast, near Myanmar, is the Chittagong Hill tract.
Highest peak in Bangladesh is Keyokradong. (extreme southeastern part of the country) BANGLADESHNATURAL RESOURCES & ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES : Prepared By - ARVIND TIRKEY BANGLADESHNATURAL RESOURCES & ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES Coastal areas are marshy and have mangrove forests. This area is called Sundarbans. (Sundari tree). Rich in wildlife and home to Royal Bengal Tiger.
Rich fertile alluvial soil is important natural resource.
Farming is important economic activity. Small landholdings.
Rice (Staple food) & Jute (golden fibre) are the main agricultural crops. Other crops are tea, coconuts, pulses, sugarcane, oilseeds, potatoes, betel leaves and tobacco. Livestock for farm products. Fish is essential part of diet.
Not rich in minerals. Main minerals are limestone, lignite, few petroleum and natural gas deposits.
Jute processing is the most important industry.
Land transport is not well developed.
Water transport is well developed. Inland port are Dhaka, Chandpur. Chittagong and Monga are main Sea ports.
International airport located in Dhaka, Chittagong and Sylhet.
Main export good is Jute products. SRI LANKA : Prepared By - ARVIND TIRKEY SRI LANKA Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. (Ceylon).
Only 35km away from southernmost tip of mainland of India.
Pear shaped Island country.
Extends from 60N to 100N latitude & 800E to 820E longitude.
It follows Indian Standard Time.
Surrounded by Indian Ocean and separated from India by Gulf of Munnar and Palk Strait. A chain of sand-banks, called the Adam’s Bridge runs between India and Sri lanka. SRI LANKAPHYSICAL FEATURES : Prepared By - ARVIND TIRKEY SRI LANKAPHYSICAL FEATURES Known as ‘Pearl of the East’ due to picturesque hills, rivers, waterfalls, beaches and forests.
South-central part is mountaineous.
Coast is broad in north and narrow in south, west and east.
Pidurutalagala is the highest mountain peak. Other important peak is Adams peak.
Entire island, except for Jaffna Peninsula in north and coastal plain in the northwest, is made up of hard rocks.
Rivers are short and swift flowing making waterfalls.
Mahaveli Ganga is the longest river. SRI LANKANATURAL VEGETATION & ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES : Prepared By - ARVIND TIRKEY SRI LANKANATURAL VEGETATION & ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES Agriculture most important economic activity. Alluvial soil by rivers in valleys and coastal areas.
Rice is staple diet but its total production is not enough for local needs.
Plantation is important.
Main cash crops – Tea, Rubber, Coconut, Cocoa and spices.
Pearl fishing is practised in Gulf of Munnar.
Not rich in mineral resources. Graphite & gemstones are valuable mineral resources.
Sri Lankan industries are agro based and forest based.
Well developed road and railway network. Colombo and Trincomalee are important seaports.
One-fourth of the population are Tamilians (migrants from India).
Main languages are Sinhalese, Tamil and English. NEPAL : Prepared By - ARVIND TIRKEY NEPAL The Kingdom of Nepal, also known as the Himalayan Kingdom.
Land locked country between India (east, south & west) and China (south).
Extends from 260N to 300N latitude & 800E to 880E longitudes.
Follows Indian standard time. NEPALPHYSICAL FEATURES : Prepared By - ARVIND TIRKEY NEPALPHYSICAL FEATURES Three fourth of Nepal is mountainous.
Three Physical divisions:
* The Great Himalayan Range: located north. Mt Everest (Sagarmatha in Nepali, 8848 mts), Dhaulagiri, Anapurna etc.
* The Middle part is hilly region: Upper part Mahabharat Lekh, Lower Part Shiwalik range.
* Marshy lowland (Tarai): Flooded during monsoon season. Thickly forested and full of wild animals. Large part is cleared for farming. NepalNatural Resources and Economic Activities : Prepared By - ARVIND TIRKEY NepalNatural Resources and Economic Activities Northern region has temperate evergreen coniferous forests – pine, deodar, magnolia etc.
Tarai region has moist deciduous forests.
Higher altitude – fir, birch etc are found.
Soil is generally thin and poor.
Only 30% of the total land area is suitable for agriculture.
80% of the people are engaged in agriculture.
Agriculture dependent on monsoon rains.
Rice staple diet.
Limited mineral resources – Mica, Lignite, copper, iron and limestone.
Great potential for hydroelectricity.
Difficult to develop transport in mountainous areas. Poor railway network.
Sherpas – Best mountaineers, Gurkhas – among best soldiers.
Hinduism. BHUTAN : Prepared By - ARVIND TIRKEY BHUTAN Small Land locked country in eastern himalayas.
Located between India (east, south and west) and China (Tibet) in the north and north west.
Extends between 270N to 290N latitude & 890E to 920E longitudes.
It takes standard time from 900E Meridian (Six hours ahead of GMT).
Rugged topography, hence low population density. BHUTANPHYSICAL FEATURES : Prepared By - ARVIND TIRKEY BHUTANPHYSICAL FEATURES Bhutan has high mountains, snow-covered peaks and narrow river valleys.
Steep slopes at various places.
Physical divisions are similar like Nepal.
* North part – Great Himalayas.
* Hilly regions – Mahabharat lekh, Shiwalik range.
* Southern region – Tarai.
Highest range is Gangar Punsum. BHUTANNATURAL RESOURCES & ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES : Prepared By - ARVIND TIRKEY BHUTANNATURAL RESOURCES & ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES Rich in forests and water resources. Perennial rivers. Provide good sites for the development of hydroelectricity.
60% of total area under thick forest.
90% of the people are farmers or herders.
Subsistence or shifting type of agriculture.
Main crops are rice, wheat, maize, fruits and vegetables.
Cattle rearing of Sheep and Yak.
Minerals like limestone, coal, lead and zinc.
Difficult to develop transport and communication due to mountainous terrain.
Mahayana Buddhism is state religion. MALDIVES : Prepared By - ARVIND TIRKEY MALDIVES One of the smallest nations in the world. Smallest in Asia.
Archipelago of 1,200 coral islands and sand banks. Archipelago is formed of 26 natural atolls. Only 200 islands are inhabited. Divided into 19 administrative units.
Situated in Indian Ocean, towards southwest of India and Sri lanka.
Extends between 706’N to 0042’S latitude & 72035’E to 73045’E longitudes.
Major part located towards the north of the Equator.
The water bodies (sea) cover more than 99 per cent of the total area of the country. MALDIVESPHYSICAL FEATURES : Prepared By - ARVIND TIRKEY MALDIVESPHYSICAL FEATURES Maldives forms part of submarine mountain range, associated with volcanic activity. Coral reefs have grown on the crest of this submarine mountain range. All coral reefs are low-lying and average height not more than 02 mts above msl.
Islands surrounded by sandy beaches and clear lagoons.
Barrier reefs protect these islands from the destructive effects of the monsoon winds.
Highest point is Wilingill island. MALDIVESNatural Resources and Economic Activities : Prepared By - ARVIND TIRKEY MALDIVESNatural Resources and Economic Activities Main economic activities – fishing, tourism and shipping.
Crops grown with the help of rain (south-west).
Main crops are – milltes, maize, cassava, sweet potatoes & coconuts etc.
Rice is not cultivated but imported.
Traditional industries are – Boat-building, mat-weaving, rope-making, handicrafts and other cottage industries.
Difficult to build roads or railways. Boats are the widely used mode of transportation. Air travel is increasing.
Islam is the state religion.
Most people live in small villages. Slide 33: Prepared By - ARVIND TIRKEY Merci Danke gut Thank you Dhanyavad