Propagation of ornamental plants: methods and structures : Propagation of ornamental plants: methods and structures ARVIND KUMAR VERMA M.Sc. Horticulture Roll No. 4680 Course Leader: Dr. Dr. K.V. Prasad Course: Hort - 152 Term paper presentation on INDIAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE NEW DELHI-110 012 INTRODUCTION: INTRODUCTION To produce large number of plants in a short period of time. To meet the demand domestic as well as export market for planting material. It provides gainful employment opportunities for youth since the plant multiplication business is labour intensive. To preserve a particular plant or population of plants. PowerPoint Presentation: Advantages: Disadvantages: Long lived plants. Non true to type. Hardy deep root system. Loss of seed viability. Exploitation of hybrid vigour . All plants can not propagate. Evolving new varieties. Very cheap and easy method. Sexual Methods of Propagation Sexual propagation is the raising of plants by means of seeds, which is formed due to fusion of male and female gametes within the ovule of a flower. PowerPoint Presentation: Advantages . True to type. Helpful in absence of viable seeds and poor seed germination. Maintenance of character of cross pollinated spp. Disadvantages. . Hybrid can not produced. . Required special skill. Asexual Methods of Propagation Asexual methods of propagation refers to the multiplication of any plant from any vegetative part of the plant. Methods of Asexual Propagation: Methods of Asexual Propagation PowerPoint Presentation: Herbaceous cutting: e.g. Coleus, Carnation, Chrysanthemum Semi-hard wood cutting: e.g. Jasmines , Clerodendron, Rhododendron, Croton Soft-wood cutting: e.g. Alternanthera, Dahlia, Juniper, Magnolia Hard-wood cutting: e.g. Bougainvillea, Acalypha , Hibiscus, Rose Stem cutting: Cutting: Multiplication of ornamental plants by the use of cuttings e.g. stem, leaf & root. Leaf cutting: Roots are initiated from various parts of a mature leaf which is fleshy and thick is called leaf cutting.: Leaf cutting: Roots are initiated from various parts of a mature leaf which is fleshy and thick is called leaf cutting. Types of Leaf cutting: Leaf Blade Cutting: e.g. Sansevieria, Santpaulea. Leaf Vein Cutting: e.g. begonia. Leaf Margin Cutting: e.g , Bryophyllum. Leaf Bud Cutting: e.g. Rhododendron, Camellia Budding A grafting operation where the scion part is only a small piece of bark containing a single bud: Budding A grafting operation where the scion part is only a small piece of bark containing a single bud Types of Budding : T Budding: Patch budding: Flute Budding: Chip Budding: Layering: Layering is the method of propagation in which roots develop on a shoot while it is still attached to the parent plant. : Layering: Layering is the method of propagation in which roots develop on a shoot while it is still attached to the parent plant. Tip layering: The tips of the stems are bent and a part of these are covered with the soil. Simple layering: Low and flexible one year old branches close to the ground are bent carefully and given tongue shaped cuts. e.g. Yellow Jasmine, Climbing Rose, Honey Suckle etc. Air layering: A strip of bark of about 2-4 cm length is removed from one year old shoots and covered the cut portions with a rooting media consisting of sphagnum moss and tied with a thin polythene tape. e.g. Rubber Plant, Croton, Ixora etc. Types of layering: PowerPoint Presentation: Trench layering: In this method basal and mid portion of young stems are kept in a shallow trench and covered about 5 to 10 cm deep moist soil. e.g. Rhododendron, Rose, Spirea etc. Serpentine layering: In this method, a long branch of creeping plants is alternately covered in the soil and exposed along its length. e.g. Wisteria, Clematis, Campsis etc. Mould layering: It consist of heading back of the stem close to the ground during non-growing seasons and covering with a mount of soil in which stem produce roots below the soil e.g. Hyssop, Rosemary, Soge etc. Grafting: It is the union of cambiums of two separate stems or root, which are compatible and similar in physiological maturity. : Grafting: It is the union of cambiums of two separate stems or root, which are compatible and similar in physiological maturity. Types of grafting : Side Veneer Grafting : A short and downward cut is given through the cambium of the stock by sloping cut down towards the base of the first cut. The chip is removed and replaced by the scion which is similar in shape of the root stock e.g. Magnolia, Camellia etc. Side Grafting : Both the side of root stock and the base of slender scion are cuts and fastened together e.g. Aporocactus, flagelliformis, Cryptocereus, Discocactus etc . Splice Grafting : Making a long slanting cut at the base of the scion wood and a similar cut at the top of the stock. The both are unitted and tied with the help of polythene tapes eg. Cactus. PowerPoint Presentation: Saddle Grafting : The top of the stock is made into a saddle shape with upward sloping sides. The same process is repeated on the side of the scion to fit closely over to point of the rootstock e.g. Rhododendron ponticum . Flat Grafting: Both the top of the rootstock and base of the scion are given slanting cuts and fastened together, e.g. Aporocactus, Notocactus, Mammilaria, Discocactus, Austrocactus etc. Cleft Grafting: Mainly used to graft cacti, particularly those having finger-like stems. First a clean horizontal cut is made across the stock. Then a cleft of about 3-6 cm is opened across the center inside which the scion, tapered to a point from both sides, is inserted. PowerPoint Presentation: Other Methods of Propagation Runners: The shoot arise from the crown and grown horizontally in the ground are called runner, e.g. Chlorophytum, Nephrolepsis , etc. Offsets : Offsets are the lateral shoots of branches arising from the base of the main stem e.g. Palm, Agave, Sansevieria Orchids etc. Rhizomes: Rhizome is a subterranean stem that arises from lateral bud from the main stem at ground level and extends underground near the surface horizontally e.g. Canna . Suckers: Suckers are the shoots or branches which develop either from the stem or root below the ground e.g. Millingtonia , Clerodendron, Quisqualis etc. PowerPoint Presentation: Stolons: A Slender branch which normally produces roots and bears a bud at this extreme, this farming a new plant e.g. Chlorophytum. Tubers: They are short, thickened part of subterranean branches which store large quantities of plant food, mainly starch. Tubers contain buds in the axil of reduced leaves e.g. Dahlia, Begonia etc. Corms: These are under ground stem with a short, fleshy, vertical axis covered with dried leaf base e.g. Gladiolus, Iris etc. Bulbs: In bulbs the stem reduced drastically to a disc around which fleshy leaf scales remain attach e.g. Tuberose, Amaryllis, Lilies, Zephyranthes etc. PowerPoint Presentation: Types of Tissue Culture : Plant culture: It includes culture of seedlings . Embryo Culture : It denotes the culture of an embryo. Organ Culture : It defines the culture of plant parts like short tips, root tips, leaf, flower or immature fruits. Callus culture: It includes the culture of unorganized tissues developed from proliferating segments of organs. Cell Suspension: It includes the culture of small aggregate, or single cell under suspension. Tissue Culture: Tissue culture is an umbrella terms which defined as the aseptically culture of tissues, organs and cells on synthetic medium under controlled conditions. e.g. Orchids, Anthurium etc. PowerPoint Presentation: Green House : Maintaining temperature by heating and cooling equipment. Hot Beds: Artificial heat by electric heating cable, hot water, steam pipes, hot air blows. It control light and humidity. It is used for germination of seeds and rooting of cuttings. Cold Frames: It is used for hardening of rooted cutting and young seedlings. Heat is tapped from the solar energy. Propagation Structure PowerPoint Presentation: Lath House: To providing shade to protect seedlings and rooted cuttings from acorching sunlight and high temperature. Net House : Protection from direct sun light and provide desire Percentage of shade Maintain fresh and UV rays stabilized. Mist-Propagation Chamber : Temperature and humidity control. Automated, series of intermittent spray by pipes It is used for rooting of cutting which are difficult to root Bottom Heat Technique : With the advancement of temperature, the rate of biological process increases with which seeds germinate and rooting cutting. Cables or heating mats are generally used. The temperature is controlled by a thermostat. CONCLUTION: CONCLUTION Mass multiplication of plants. Propagation of plants comes as a industries. To save the plants species. To salve the problem of quality planting materials.