Vampires Beware!Growing Garlic in Wisconsin : Vampires Beware!Growing Garlic in Wisconsin Karen Delahaut
Fresh Market Vegetable
Outreach Specialist History of Garlic : History of Garlic Egyptian & Indian cultures referred to garlic 5000 years ago.
Chinese writings suggest garlic was grown 4000 years ago.
Only a few thousand original garlic varieties. Garlic Crescent : Garlic Crescent Extends from the Black Sea through the Caucasus Mountains and beyond the Caspian Sea through Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Krygyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, & Uzbekistan. Botany : Botany Garlic cloves are actually swollen leaves called “fleshy scales”.
Effects on leaf & clove number & size:
Clove size, and
Doesn’t affect leaf & clove number & size:
Air & soil temperature
Bulb storage time & temperature Taxonomy : Taxonomy Allium sativum
Hardneck – subspecies ophioscorodon
Softneck – subspecies sativum
Silverskin Rocambole : Rocambole Off-white bulb skin
Easy to peel
2-2½ inches dia.
2 clove layers
Cloves are brownish & dull
Perform well in cold climates
Mature slightly later than artichoke types
Storage – 3-4 months
Best flavor of all garlic
Spanish Roja & Killarney Red Rocambole Cultivars : Rocambole Cultivars Belgian Red
Yugoslavian Continental: Porcelain & Purple Stripe : Continental: Porcelain & Purple Stripe 1½-2½ inch dia.
2 clove layers
Buff brown cloves with purple streaks
Matures after artichoke & rocambole
Performs well in cold climates
Storage – 4-8 months
Best baked garlic
Porcelain is less common Porcelain Cultivars : Porcelain Cultivars Armenian
German Extra Hardy
Music Music Pink
Zemo Purple Stripe Cultivars : Purple Stripe Cultivars Brown Rose
Korean Red Persian Star
Siberian Artichoke : Artichoke Off-white to yellow-white bulb skin
2½-3 inches dia.
4 clove layers
Milky white cloves with pink tinge
Most widely adapted to climate of all garlic
First to mature
Storage – 6-9 months
Mild to hot flavor
Inchellium Red & Polish White Artichoke : Artichoke California Early
Early Red Italian
Italian Late Lorz Italian
Transylvanian Silverskin : Silverskin White with copper veined bulb skin
Difficult to remove
1½-2¼ inch dia.
5 clove layers
White or blush pink cloves
Matures after all other varieties
Storage – 6-12 months
Mild to hot flavor
Silver Rose Silverskin : Silverskin Idaho Silver
Mexican Red Silver
Nootka Rose Sicilian Silver
St. Helens Elephant Garlic : Elephant Garlic Allium ampeloprasum
Type of leek.
Bulb consists of 2-6 large cloves & several smaller cloves.
Milder flavor than true garlic.
May develop a bitter taste in cold climates. Planting Stock : Planting Stock Large seed bulbs (2-2½” dia.) have the greatest number of desirable-sized cloves.
Seed cloves from bulbs >2½” have a lower survivability.
Weight & size of bulb is more important than weight & size of individual cloves.
Choose cloves that weight 6-9 gm. (0.2-0.3 oz) Planting : Planting Planting cloves derived from a different regions may take time to adapt to your soil – some may never adapt at all. “Biological elasticity”.
Plant in fall, 6 weeks before ground freezes.
Promote root growth but not top growth in fall.
Generally 50 cloves per pound & you’ll need 100 lbs/1000 ft2
“Pop” cloves within 2 days of planting.
Plant 1-2” deep and 6” apart within the row with rows 1 foot apart.
Mulch with 6 inches chopped straw once ground is frozen. Culture : Culture Full sun, well-drained soils with high organic matter.
Prepare the soil before planting by tilling well.
Best to begin preparing the soil at least 1 year prior to planting.
Remove mulch in spring when top growth appears. Culture - Fertilization : Culture - Fertilization Apply nitrogen at planting and again in spring when plants are 4-6 inches tall.
Yellowing of leaf tips indicates insufficient N.
Won’t affect yield if occurs early in the season.
Soils high in sulfur produce the best-tasting garlic.
Soils with pH between 6.5 – 7.2 have the most sulfur. Bulb Initiation : Bulb Initiation Stimulated by long days and warm temperatures. Typically around the summer solstice.
Must have suitable weather to promote maximum top growth before bulb initiation begins.
Once the plants begin to bulb, no new leaves are produced. Popping the Tops : Popping the Tops Garlic seed stalks develop from the tip of the main stem.
No further leaves are produced. Remove flower stalks 7-10 days after they coil for best size and storage life.
Most important for Porcelain and Purple Stripe varieties.
Up to 30% yield reduction if tops not removed.
Remove just above the topmost leaf.
Rocambole types will lose ¼” diameter for every week popping is delayed.
BUT…Rocambole varieties may store better if not topped despite the reduced bulb size. Harvest : Harvest Leaf dry down signifies the outer bulb wrappers are beginning to decay.
Want to retain 3-5 wrapper leaves.
Harvest when 25% of leaves dry down.
Artichokes harvested 1st – 5 green leaves remain.
Ophios harvested when 6th leaf is starting to turn brown.
Silverskins harvested next.
Harvest planting stock last.
Over-mature garlic bulbs emit a sulfur odor. Harvest cont. : Harvest cont. Dig bulbs with shoots attached.
Remove excess soil and 1-2 wrapper leaves.
Prevent sunburn by getting bulbs into warehouse ASAP
Cure at 75°F for 3-4 weeks. Roots & shoots will become dry.
Remove tops at ½-1” above the bulb.
Cut roots close to the bulb.
Use a toothbrush to remove excess soil. Storage : Storage Store in a cool, dry place.
Rocambole stores only 3 months.
32° will increase storage life of rocamboles.
Purple Stripe & Porcelain store 4-8 months.
Artichoke stores 6-9 months.
Silverskin stores 6-12 months. Resources : Resources Growing Great Garlic by Ron Engeland
Organic Garlic Production by ATTRA at www.attra.ncat.org
Garlic Seed Foundation at www.garlicseedfoundation.info