protection of transmission line using gps by arun thomas

Category: Education

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Presentation Transcript

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OVER VIEW INTRODUCTION TRANSMISSION SYSTEM FAULT LOCATION Travelling wave fault theory Fault location using gps Advantages & disadvantages CONCLUSION

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A new technique for the protection of transmission systems. Relays are installed at each bus bar in a transmission network. Relay contains a fault detection system together with a communication unit. Relay determine the location of the fault. INTRODUCTION

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LOCATION OF FAULT Save time and resources for the electric utility industry. Determine “distance to fault” from a transmission line end. Aid in fast restoration of power. Communication systems can retrieve fault location information.

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WHAT IS TRAVELING WAVE FAULT LOCATION? Faults on the power transmission system cause transients that propagate along the transmission line as waves. These waves have a propagation velocity & characteristic impedance , travel from fault location towards line ends

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The location of faults is accomplished by precisely time-tagging wave fronts as they cross a known point typically in substations at line ends. Fault location can then be obtained by multiplying the wave velocity by the time difference in line ends.

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TRAVELING WAVE FAULT LOCATION THEORY Traveling wave fault locators make use of the transient signals generated by the fault. Unlike other fault location systems, the traveling wave fault locator is unaffected by load conditions. Precisely synchronized clocks are the key element in the implementation of this fault location technique. The required level of clock accuracy has only recently been available at reasonable cost with the introduction of the Global Positioning System.

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BENEFITS OF TRAVELING WAVE FAULT LOCATION Early fault locators used radar. Radar equipment is typically mobile or located at substations and requires manual operation. Traveling wave fault locators are becoming popular where higher accuracy is important. GPS-based sub microsecond timing system has proven reliable in several utility traveling wave projects.

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FAULT LOCATION USING GPS Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system made up of a network of 24 satellites placed into orbit. Originally intended for military applications Allows precise determination of location, velocity, direction and time.

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HOW GPS WORKS? GPS satellites circle the earth twice a day . Transmit signal information to earth. Receivers take this information and calculate the user's exact location.  Accurate 3-D location require four satellites.

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OPERATION OF THE FAULT LOCATION SYSTEM(FLS) USING GPS A fault locator remote is coupled to each end of line via CPT. FL is synchronized to the common timing standard of UTC from GPS. Fault resulting produces travelling waves(transients). The FL remote time tag the transient arrival times.

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By knowing the line length L and the time-of –arrival difference (tb - ta ) distance X can be calculated from the FL equation: X=[L-C(tb - ta )]/2 ta & tb are end A and end B arrival time c-velocity of light

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ADVANTAGES Protection of transmission line using GPS is extremely accurate. Economical. Fast response. Reliability & availability

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DISADVANTAGES GPS SIGNAL ERRORS Ionosphere and troposphere delays. Receiver clock errors. Distortion in travelling wave causes fault location error. Climate depended

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CONCLUSION Uses a dedicated fault detector to extract transient signal and GPS system to time tag these signals. Travelling time of the transient signal from the point of fault to the adjacent substation is used to determine the fault position. Proposed technique is able to offer a high accuracy in fault location. Unlike traditional protection schemes , this technique offers a new concept in network protection.

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REFERENCES Zhiqian Q Bo Weller, Tom Lomas and Miles A, Redfern “Positional Protection of Transmission system Using global Positioning System” IEEE Trans. On Power delivery, vol 15 no 4 oct 2008

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