Breeding for Green gram and black gram

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Breeding for Green gram and black gram

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Breeding for Green gram and black gram

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Introduction Mung bean ( Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek , In = 2x = 22) also known as green gram is grown primarily in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Nepal and other Southeast Asian countries. The major consumption is as food legume. The states accounting for the major area under cultivation are Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Rajasthan.

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ORIGIN Based on archaeological and linguistic evidence it is established that the centre of origin of mungbean lies in India PROGENITOR Vigna radiata var sublobata is considered to be the putative progenitor of mungbean . Chandel (1984) showed in his study on Vigna that archaeological evidences correspond very well with the distribution and co-occurrence of the putative forms and the cultivated types. The populations of this wild species are well distributed around Sub- Himalyan region, Kalka and Shimla hills upto a height of 2000 m.

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comparison between the cultivated and wild progenitor mungbean as summarized by Singh (1991) Character V. radiata V. radiata var. sublobata Growth habit Erect- suberect Viny Stem pigmentation Green Green Stipules Broad and ovate Broad and ovate Pod length 4-16 cm 4-6.6 cm Orientation of pod Spreading Spreading Pod colour Brown, black, straw colour Brown Pod dehiscence delayed Violet Pod pubescence Smooth/mild hairs Moderate Seeds/pod 8-16 8-14 Seed size Medium Small Seed colour Brown, black, light greenish, mottled Brown tan Hilum Linear, stretched, not raised Linear, stretched, not raised

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TAXONOMY Standard symmetry, with one or two pairs of linear lamelliform appendages near centre inside ; keel-petals not prolonged into beak. Style more or less prolonged beyond stigma sub-genus Vigna . Stipules conspicuously spurred below point of insertion (attachment). Flower purple. Calyx lobes pinnate at apex ; upper two lobes insignificantly joined. Pods cylindrical, glabrous. Stems erect. Leaflets broadly ovate or obovate , acuminate at apex, entire or rarely 2-3 lobed.; terminal leaflet often smaller than lateral ones. Flowers 15-16 mm in diameter ; pods with short hairs, seeds nearly or quite globular. Seed coat cellular structure-long rectangular or wedge shaped cells arranged in parallel rows. Hilum linear, flatish not concave. Bracteoles lanceolate ; plants and pods glabrous or nearly so ; pods constricted between seeds, pod and seed smooth, shiny, hilum not concave.

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BOTANY Mungbean is an herbaceous annual with erect- semierect stem. Roots are strong. The leaves are trifoliate, entire ovate and occasionally lobed with long petiole. The inflorescence is terminal or axillary raceme with about more than 10 flowers/peduncle. The flower is a typical papilionaceous with 5 sepals, 5 petals, 10 diadelphous (9+1) stamens and monocarpellary ovary with hairy style. Pods containing 9-16 seeds, are 4-16 cm long. CYTOLOGY The somatic chromosome number of mungbean is 2n = 2x = 22

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CROSSING Mungbean is essentially a self-pollinated crop. For emasculation the young flower bud is held between thumb and forefinger. The dissecting needle is inserted just under the standard obliquely along the top of the bud. The left side of the standard and the left wing are pushed outward away from the bud and the left keel is removed in pieces. Exposed anthers are removed (Boling et al., 1961). For pollination, the staminal column having stamens and anthers intact is taken out from the freshly opened flowers and rubbed against the stigma of the emasculated bud. Pollination immediately after emasculation (forenoon or afternoon) gives poor pod set as compared to evening emasculation/next morning pollination or morning emasculation/same evening pollination.

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BREEDING OBJECTIVES High grain yield Different maturity durations Resistance to shattering Better plant type Resistance to diseases : Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) Cercospora leaf spot ( Cercospora canescens Ell. L. Mart.) Resistance to insect-pests : Pod borer Aphids and whitefly.

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BREEDING PROCEDURES The breeding procedures applicable to mungbean are the typical breeding procedures applicable to any self-pollinated crop. Accordingly, these include pure line selection, hybridization followed by handling of the segregating generations as per pedigree, bulk, backcross or single seed decent method, depending upon the requirement. To take the advantage of growing two generations/year in India (rainy season and spring—summer crop), it would be desirable to resort to SSD method of advancing the generation.Maturity wise, one should aim at 90-115 days so that the maturing crop does not get caught in rains in September, instead it should mature in first fortnight of October. For rabi and summer crops, the maturity duration should be 60-70 days while for spring crop, it could be around 80-90 days. Mutation breeding could also be utilized to improve mungbean , using 40-50 kR of gamma-rays or 0.2-0.3% EMS or any other mutagen. The important donors for the desirable agronomic traits are as follows (Singh, 1991). Early maturity - Baisakhi Type 1, PS 16 More pods - LM 17, LM 46, LM 310, LM 352, LM 294-1 Long pods - LM 14, LM 35, LM 55, LM 89, LM 189, LM 314, EC 16035 More seeds - LM 7, LM 57, LM 95. LM 128. LM 206. LM 617, LM715, LM 1030 Bold seed : CES 5-1-F 5, Pirn 171, IC 8839

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RESISTANCE TO DISEASES Several diseases reported for mungbean are mungbean yellow mosaic virus, Cercospora leaf spot, powdery mildew, and bacterial leaf spot. Of these yellow mosaic and Cercospora leaf spot are the two major disease problems of this crop (Nene, 1988). Yellow Mosaic: This is the most devastating disease of mungbean in India and other countries in South Asia. It causes yellow specks and spots on the leaves. The leaves emerging from the apex show bright yellow patches interspersed by green areas. Later on these spots enlarge and in severe cases entire foliage becomes yellow. This virus is transmitted by whitefly ( Bemiski tahaci Genn .). The varietal screening for MYMV in a large scale breeding programme under field situations can be easily done by planting susceptible spreader (infector) rows at regular intervals throughout the breeding block. Mungbean variety ' Jalagaon 781' is one of the varieties used for this. The disease intensity is scored on 1-9 rating scale as given in Table

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Rating scale for MYMV (after Singh et al., 1988) Scale Plants/foliage affected Reaction 1 0.1-5% Mottling of leaves on less than 1% plants Resistant 3 5.1-10% Mottling of leaves on 1.1-10% plants Moderately resistant 5 10.1-25% Mottling and yellow discoloration on 10.1- Moderately susceptible25% plants 7 25.1-50% Mottling and yellow discoloration of leaves Susceptible on 25.1-50% plants 9 50.1-100% Severe yellow mottling on over 50% plants, Highly susceptible stunting of plants and failure of flowering and fruit setting. Shukla et al. (1978) however, had suggested the scale as : 1= Completely free (resistant) 3= Traces of necrotic mottle (moderately resistant) 5= Moderate necrotic mottle (tolerance) 7= Restricted yellow mottle (moderately susceptible) 9= Complete yellow mottle (susceptible) Some Resistant sources to MYMV of mungbean ( Verma et al., 1991): ML 266, ML 267, HYb 4-3, ML 337, ML 375, ML 73, ML 315. ML 322, ML 369, MUG 12A, MUG 126, MK 13, Hyb . 12-4, ML 282.

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Resistance to insect-pests White fly, jassids and mites ( kharif season), and thrips ( spring/summer season) have the potential to cause significant damage in mungbean . Split wooden cages are efficient and reliable for accurate screening and classification of genotypes. Resistant sources as compiled by Singh (1991) and Verma era/. (1991) are as follows : Whitefly - ML 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 15, 26, 131, 170, 267, 337, 421, 422, 423, 427, 435, 436, 437, 438, P 231, 290, 292, 325, 364. Jassids - ML 5, 131, 267, 337, 422, 423, 428. Thrips - G 65, SML 32, 100, 134, 137, 141, 143, 148, 154, 165. Aphids - Angul 3-6, NP 1-8, LM 115, MO 10, MG 50-10, Yellow, MG 500-1 OA, EG-MG-12, EG-MG-4, CES 55, CES 44, PHLV 18, 13. Pod Borer Mites - V 2107, 2109, 2135, 4270. TR 1-1093. Root knot nematode : V 1412, 1709, 2010, 2773.

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INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME Mungbean is an important crop at the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Centre (AVRDC) which is the international centre with a mandate for vegetable crops research and development in the humid and subhumid tropics. This is as yet not totally funded by CGIAR and not included in the system. Established in 1971, its activities include germplasm collection storage and enhancement, varietal improvement, production technology improvement, environmental and nutritional studies, technology transfer, and training for national programme personnel. AVRDC has been actively involved in a coordinated, multidisciplinary effort to improve mungbean during the past many years. The world's largest mungbean base collection is maintained at AVRDC. A majority of the collections has been evaluated for agronomic characters, nutritional components, and resistance or tolerance to the major pests and diseases. A modified bulk-pedigree method, with disruptive seasonal selection, is commonly practiced to screen the segregating and advanced generations.

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NATIONAL PROGRAMME The All India Coordinated Pulses Improvement Project commissioned in 1965-66 and subsequently upgraded to 'Project Directorate' in 1977 and to 'Directorate of Pulses Research' in 1984 with headquarters at Kanpur is coordinating the research programme on pulses including mungbean . Under this project, there are about 15 main centres , 10 subcentres of regional testing, three special centres (one each for lathyrus , horsegram and mothbean ) and three off-season nurseries for advancing the breeding material and multiplication of rare genotypes. Besides these, there are several voluntary centres which cooperate in the national testing programme . Most of the centres are located at the state agricultural universities and ICAR institutes.

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Name of the cultivar Year Parentage Remarks Jyoti (HUB 4-3) 1983 L 24-2 x Pusa Baisakhi MYMV(R) Pusa 105 1983 ( Tainan 1 x ML 6 ) x (EC-MG 16 x ML 3) PM(R), MYMV(R) Ratila Sel. 1983 Local selection PM(MR), MYMV(MR) TAP 7 1983 Gamma ray induced CLS(R), PM(R) Pusa 101 1984 S 8 x (EG-MG-16 x VC 2125) x (MG 5010A (Y) x ML 5) CLS(R), MYMV(R) ML 337 1985 ML 1 x AM 987 CLS(MR ), PM(MR), MYMV(MR ) PAIYUR 1 1985 Local Sel. from Kaveripattanam MYMV(R) Pant Moong 3 1985 LM 294-1 XL 80 PM(MR), MYMV(R), other (UPM 79-4-12) Viruses (MR), Leaf Curl, Macrophomina , Anthracnose (MR)

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State Varieties Uttar Pradesh : Type 1*, Type 44*, Type 51*, K 851*, Pusa Baisakhi , PS 16, PS 10, PS 7, Pant Moong 2*, Pant Moong 3*, ML 267, Pusa 105, ML 337, PDM 54, (Summer and Kharif), PDM 11 (Spring), Pant Moong 1*. Bihar : BR 2*, Sunaina*, Amrit*, Pusa Baisakhi, PS 16, PS 7, PS 10, T 51, T 44, PDM 54, (Summer and Kharif ), PDM 11 (Spring) Madhya Pradesh : Khargone 1*, Krishna 11*, Jawahar 45*, Kopergaon*, Mohini (S-8), PS 16, Pant Moong 3, Pusa 105, ML 337, PDM 11 (Spring). Rajasthan : R 288-8*, D 66-26*, RS 4*, Jawahar 45*, Mohini (S-8), T 44, Pusa Baisakhi, PS 16, Pant Moong 3, Pusa 105, ML 337. Maharashtra : Jalgaon 781*, Kopergaon*, Pusa Baisakhi, PS 16, ML 131, Pusa 105, TAP 7, ML 337, PDM 11 (Spring). Andhra Pradesh : Pusa Baisakhi, PDP 71-1*, PS 16, ML 131, T44, Kondaveedu (LGG 127), Kopargaon, Lam M 2, PS 7, PS 10, K 851. Tamil Nadu : COl*, CO 2*, CO 3*, CO 4*, KM 1*, ML 131, KM 2*, ADT 2*, Paiyur 1 *, Pusa Baisakhi, Mohini (S-8). Karnataka : Jawahar 45, Pusa Baisakhi, PS 16, ML 131. West Bengal : B 1*,B 105*, T 10*, T 44*, T 51, Pusa Baisakhi, PDM 11 (Spring). Punjab : ML 1*, ML 5*, G 65*, PS 7, PS 10, Pusa 105, Pant Moong 3, ML 32, ML 267, ML 337, Pant Moong 1. Delhi : Pusa Baisakhi*, Mohini (S-8), PS 7*, PS 10, PS 16*, Pusa 105*, Pant Moong 1, Pant Moon 3, ML 267, ML 337. Haryana : Varsha*, PS 7, PS 10, Pusa 105, Pant Moong 1, Pant Moong 3, ML 5, T 44, PS 16, K 851, G 65, S 9, ML 267, ML 337, Pusa Baisakhi. Himachal Pradesh : Shining Mung No. 1*, PS 16, PS 7, PS 10, K 851, Pusa Baisakhi. Gujarat : Gujarat 1*, Gujarat 2*, Pusa 105, Sabarn.ati*, PS 16, ML 337, PDM 11 (Spring), K851. Assam : T 44, Kopergaon, PS 16, K 851, PS 7, PS 10, Pusa Baisakhi. Jammu & Kashmir : T 44, Pusa Baisakhi, PS 16, PS 7, PS 10, PDM 54. Orissa : Hy 4-3*, Hy 12-4*, ML 131, Pusa Baisakhi, Kopergaon, PS 16, Dhauli, Ratila. North-eastern Hill : Pusa Baisakhi, PS 16, K 851, PS 7, PS 10. Region Kerala : Co 4, Pusa Baisakhi , Mohini (S-8). Recommended varieties of mungbean for different states (DPR, 1988)

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FUTURE PROSPECTS Mungbean or greengram ( Vigna radiata L. Wilczek previously known as Phaseolus aureus Roxb , In = 2x = 22), is an excellent source of high quality vegetable protein in Asian diet. A native to India-Burma area, it is grown in South, Southeast and East Asian countries. In India, the major research input has resulted in the development of widely adapted cultivars, some of which are resistant to mungbean yellow mosaic virus and other diseases. Still the productivity is less than 400 kg/ha. For future yield improvement a few desirable characteristics, namely sympodial and determinate plant habit, genetic dormancy (as opposed to hardseeds ), pod length, seed size, long growth duration, multiple disease resistance and waterlogging resistance are to be combined through conventional breeding procedures and wide hybridization particularly urd x mungbean . The applications of the new tools of biotechnology would be the long term objectives.

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1. Name of Crop : Blackgram , urdbean , urid 2. Botanical Name : Vigna mungo L. Wilczek 3. Family : Fabaceae 4. Chromosome Number : 2n = 22 5. Center of Origin : India 6. Mode of pollination Self pollination 7. Out crossing percentage : 0.5% 8. Related wild species : Vigna angularis Introduction Blackgram is the fourth important pulse crop in India covering an area of about 3 million hectares, but producing only 1.2 million tonnes . It is mostly grown in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan during kharif and in Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal in rabi .

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According to Verdcourt (1971) one wild species Vigna radiata var. sublobata has given rise to two cultigen , namely Vigna mungo ( blackgram ) and Vigna radiata ( greengram ). However, Chandel (1984) reported that V. mungo domesticated from V. mungo var. silvestris instead of V. radiata var. sublobata . Biochemical evidence also indicate similarity between mungbean and its wild progenitor V. radiata var. sublobata and that between urdbean and wild ancestral from V. mungo var. silvestris as demonstrated by the presence of glutamyl -S-methyl- cysteins . PROGENITOR

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Vigna mungo var. mungo . Vigna mungo var. silvestris . leaflets entire, occasionally 2-3 shallow broad lobed or highly dissected with deep lobes, plants and pods hairy, seeds usually globular, dull, green or blackish mottled, seed coat cellular structure hexagonal, cup shaped, hilum deeply concaved, raised with mounds, arilate . Leaflets large, the terminal 7.0 x 5.0 cm, inflorescence 6-8 flowered, pods 4-6 borne horizontally, spreading deflexed, black 10-14 seeded, septate , seeds subbrownish , hilum deeply furrowed concave. TAXONOMY

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BOTANY Blackgram is an erect or sub-erect, diffusely branched herbaceous annul. Inflorescence is an axillary or terminal raceme with 10-20 flowers crowded on long peduncle. Flowering is indeterminate in habit. A flower is hermaphrodite, consists of 5 sepals, 5 petals (one standard, two wings and two keel), 10 stamens which are in diadalphous (9+1) condition and single carpel. Anthers dehiscing during night (9.00 p.m. to 3.00 a.m.) and flowers open from 6.00 to 8.00 a.m., and remain open up to 11.00 a.m. So that self pollination is the rule (pollination occurs in bud stage). The gynoecium is monocarpellary with a superior, unilocular ovary having marginal placentation with 8-12 ovules. The style is twisted below the stigmatic surface and stigma is hairy.

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CYTOLOGY The somatic chromosome number in urdbean is 2n = 2x = 22. The average chromosome length is about 1.70um. Majority of the chromosomes are metacentric i.e , the arm-ratio is 1.00-1.75. There are no subterminal / acrocentric chromosomes and 0-2 chromosomes are reported to have secondary constriction (Gupta and Sharma, 1991). Like Vigna radiata , Vigna mungo has been successfully crossed with V. sublobata , V. trilobata , V. umbellata and V. angularis . Mungbean x urdbean crosses are easily made while the reciprocal cross is possible only through embryo rescue technique ( Gosal and Bajaj, 1983).

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QUALITATIVE GENETICS Standard gene symbols are not available as yet. Therefore, characterwise brief information is given here based on compilation by Singh (1991). Plant type: Erect habit, incompletely dominant over spreading habit, single gene pair. Leaf type: ( i ) Monogenic, ovate dominant over lanceolate ; (ii) Hastate leaf shape dominant over ovate and controlled by duplicate dominant genes. Pod-pubescence : Pubescent pod monogenically dominant over non-pubescent type. Pod colour : Usually monogenic and black colour dominant over straw or brown. Seed coat colour : ( i ), monogenic, Green dominant over brown. (ii) Black seed coat, monogenic and dominant over brown, (iii) Shining seed, monogenic, dominant over dull.

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BREEDING OBJECTIVES Higher yield Different maturity duration Resistance to diseases: Mungbean yellow mosaic virus Leaf crinkle virus Cercospora leaf spot Rhizoctonia blight Macrophomina blight Bacterial leaf spot Powdery mildew Root and stem rot. Resistance to insects: Whitefly Aphid Pod borer.

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BREEDING PROCEDURES Pedigree method of breeding applicable to self-pollinated crops is usually followed in urdbean breeding also. Essentially, this involves the selection of two parents, each having desirable complementary characters which get a chance to recombine in the F2 or later segregating generations and ultimately superior, homozygous genotype is isolated in F5/F6. single seed descent (SSD) method in which single seed from each F2 is carried over to F3 and likewise from F3 to subsequent generations until a satisfactory level of homozygosity is achieved. Bulk method and backcross method (in specific situation) are also applicable.

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Mungbean yellow mosaic virus : UPU-1, UPU 2, Pant U 19, Pant U 26, Pant U 30, UAH 2, UPAH 2B, PLU 227, PLU 340, PLU 476 Mosaic mottle virus : T 65, T 67 Cercospora leaf spot : 3529, 4387, Pant U 19, IC 1008 Powdery mildew : UA 2A, UAH 2B, UG 117, HPU 1, HPU 2, HPU 5, P 47, P 163, P 178, Pant U 19. Root and stem rot : 3115 Bacterial blight : Krishna, 13/10. 13/2, 1369/4, PLU 443 RESISTANCE TO DISEASES The sources of resistance to these diseases have been compiled by Singh (1981, 1991) and Sharma (1996). A selective list of donors from these sources is as follows:

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Effective screening against MYMV of blackgram under field conditions particularly in 'hot spot' areas is possible. The inoculum intensity can be increased by planting susceptible cultivars like No-55, Khargaon 3 or Gwalior 18 at regular intervals. Artificial infection as a supplement to field screening could be done at the preflowering stage by covering the rows with muslin cloth cages of 60 x 90 x 120 cm dimensions and releasing 300 viruliferous white flies in each cage. The scoring for resistance is done on 1-9 scale as 1 = completely free, 3 = traces of necrotic mottle, 5 = moderate necrotic mottle, 7 = restricted yellow mottle, and 9 = complete yellow mottle (Singh, 1980). Infected dried leaves can be used as a source of inoculum for cercospora leaf spot. The inoculum is prepared by soaking and squeezing the infected leaves in water. The suspension is filtered through muslin cloth and used for spray inoculations at a concentration of conidia at 500 to 1000/ml on 45-50 day old plants ( Thakur et al., 1977). Infection by powdery mildew is preferably achieved by shaking conidia from heavily infected leaves over young seedlings of the test material.

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For screening against root and stem rot, preferably a sick plot should be developed by continuous sowing of susceptible genotypes and repeated incorporation of inoculum . For developing resistant varieties against the above mentioned diseases, crosses should be made between one of the donors listed in Table and those identified as resistant sources. The F2 size for MYMV should be large enough to isolate resistant plants in adequate number as only 1/16 F2 plants are expected to be resistant because resistance is due to two recessive genes in most of the cases. For other diseases, there are indications of involvement of one dominant gene and therefore relatively smaller F2 plant population size may be adequate

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RESISTANCE TO INSECT-PEST Whitefly, aphids, leaf eating larvae and pod-borers may cause considerable damage to blackgram . A few sources of resistance have been reported by Chhabra et al. (1984). These are LU 178, LU 190 as resistant to whitefly and LU 126, LU 178 and LU 196 as resistant to jassids . These should be used in the crossing programmes and the segregating materials be exposed and screened against these insects, preferably in field conditions under adequate pressure of the insects.

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NATIONAL PROGRAMME Urdbean is one of the pulses under All India Coordinated Pulses Improvement Project commissioned in 1965-66 and subsequently upgraded to Project Directorate in 1977 and to Directorate of Pulses Research with headquarters at Kanpur in 1984. Now it is known as Indian Institute of Pulses Research (IIPR).

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State Varieties Uttar Pradesh Type 9*, T 27*, T 65*, Pant U-19*, UG 218, Pant U 30*. PS 1, PAU-1 (Spring). Bihar Naveen*, BR 68*, Pant U 19, T 9, PS 1, PDU 1, (Spring) Madhya Pradesh Gwalior-2*, Khargone-3*. No. 55*, T-9, Mash 48, Pant U 30, PS 1, PDU 1 (Spring), JU 2, JU 3. Rajasthan Krishna, Pant U 19, PDU 1 (Spring). Haryana Mash 1-1, Mash 48, T 9, UG 218, PDU 1 (Spring), Pant U 19. Himachal Pradesh Kulu4*. HPU 6*, T9. Delhi UG 218, T9, PDU 1 (Spring). Punjab UG 218*, T9, Mash 1-1, Mash48, PS l, PDU 1 (Spring). Jammu & Kashmir T 9, Mash 1-1, Pant U 19. Gujarat A 46-5*, Zandewal*, T-9, Pant U 30, G 75, PDU 1 (Spring). Maharashtra Sindkhera 1 -1 *, No. 55, D 6-7, T 9, Pant U 30. Karnataka Khargone 3, T 9, LBG 17 (rabi). Tamil Nadu ADT 1 *, CO 1*, CO 2*, CO 3*, CO 4*, CO 5*, KM 1 *, KM 2*,ADT 2*. ADT 3*, TMV 1 *, Pant U 30, LBG 17 ( rabi ) Andhra Pradesh L 35-5, T 9, PDP 71-1*. Pant U 30, LBG 17 ( rabi ), LBG 30, PS 1. Commercially Released Varieties Of Urdbean Are Listed In Table

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CONCLUSION Blackgram originated in India and is grown in considerable area in the States of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. Several high yielding and disease resistant cultivars developed through routine breeding approaches have been released. Inspite of this, production, area and productivity have remained virtually stagnant around 1.2 million tonnes , 3 million hectares and 400 kg/ha, respectively over the last 20 years in India. The situation is unlikely to improve further unless distinctly high yielding varieties devoid of excessive vegetative growth and with higher number of seeds/pod are developed. To some extent, seeds/pod can be improved from mungbean x urdbean hybridization programme on a large scale. Biotechnological approaches as yet have only a limited applicability in urdbean due to faliure of regeneration from protoplast.

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THANKS