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INTRODUCTION Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is an integrated computer-based system used to manage internal and external resources including tangible assets, financial resources, materials, and human resources

Origin of the term : 

Origin of the term The initialism ERP was first employed by research and analysis firm Gartner Group in 1990 as an extension of MRP (Material Requirements Planning); later manufacturing resource planning and CIM (Computer Integrated Manufacturing)

ERP Components : 

ERP Components ERP Components Transactional Backbone Financials Distribution Human Resources Product lifecycle management Advanced Applications Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Supply chain management Purchasing Manufacturing Distribution Warehouse Management System

Commercial Applications : 

Commercial Applications Manufacturing  Engineering, bills of material, scheduling, capacity, workflow management, quality control, cost management, manufacturing process, manufacturing projects, manufacturing flow Supply chain management  Order to cash, inventory, order entry, purchasing, product configurator, supply chain planning, supplier scheduling, inspection of goods, claim processing, commission calculation Financials  General ledger, cash management, accounts payable, accounts receivable, fixed assets Project management  Costing, billing, time and expense, performance units, activity management Human resources  Human resources, payroll, training, time and attendance, rostering, benefits Customer relationship management  Sales and marketing, commissions, service, customer contact and call center support

Implementation : 

Implementation To implement ERP systems, companies often seek the help of an ERP vendor or of third-party consulting companies. These firms typically provide three areas of professional services: consulting; customization; and support Data migration is one of the most important activities in determining the success of an ERP implementation The following are steps of a data migration strategy that can help with the success of an ERP implementation: Identifying the data to be migrated Determining the timing of data migration Generating the data templates Freezing the tools for data migration Deciding on migration related setups Deciding on data archiving

Advantages : 

Advantages Eliminates the problem of synchronizing changes between multiple systems - consolidation of finance, marketing and sales, human resource, and manufacturing applications Permits control of business processes that cross functional boundaries Provides top-down view of the enterprise (no "islands of information"), real time information is available to management anywhere, anytime to make proper decisions. Reduces the risk of loss of sensitive data by consolidating multiple permissions and security models into a single structure. Shorten production lead-time and delivery time Facilitating business learning, empowering, and building common visions

Disadvantages : 

Disadvantages Customization of the ERP software is limited. Re-engineering of business processes to fit the "industry standard" prescribed by the ERP system may lead to a loss of competitive advantage. ERP systems can be very expensive (This has led to a new category of "ERP light" solutions) ERPs are often seen as too rigid and too difficult to adapt to the specific workflow and business process of some companies—this is cited as one of the main causes of their failure. Many of the integrated links need high accuracy in other applications to work effectively. A company can achieve minimum standards, then over time "dirty data" will reduce the reliability of some applications. Once a system is established, switching costs are very high for any one of the partners (reducing flexibility and strategic control at the corporate level). The blurring of company boundaries can cause problems in accountability, lines of responsibility, and employee morale. Resistance in sharing sensitive internal information between departments can reduce the effectiveness of the software. Some large organizations may have multiple departments with separate, independent resources, missions, chains-of-command, etc, and consolidation into a single enterprise may yield limited benefits.

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