A : A Presented By
Unmesh R S & E viation ector nvironment Table of Contents : 2 Table of Contents Aviation: Backdrop.
What is Aviation, Types
Aviation a force to be reckoned - Indian Scenario.
Global Environmental Issues.
Gandhi-giri??? -Case studies
On Indian frontier
Has it helped? Conclusion Aviation…??? : 3 Aviation…??? Aviation encompasses all the activities relating to airborne devices created by human ingenuity, generally known as aircraft.
These activities include the organizations and regulatory bodies as well as the personnel related with the operation of aircraft and the industries involved in airplane manufacture, development, and design. Aviation's Role… : 4 Aviation's Role… Society
Aviation is the safest, most efficient means of public transportation
Over long distances, geographical barriers, no alternative means of transport exist
Key driver of business, travel & tourism exports
It creates employment around the globe Categorizing… : 5 Categorizing… × Civil Aviation includes… : 6 Civil Aviation includes… Personnel Licensing
Regulating the basic training and issuance of licenses and certificates.
Carrying out safety oversight of commercial operators.
Issuing certificates of registration and certificates of airworthiness to civil aircraft, and overseeing the safety of maintenance organizations.
Designing and constructing aerodrome facilities.
Air Traffic Services
Managing the traffic in a country's airspace. Indian Aviation Overview : 7 Indian Aviation Overview AAI- organization working under the Ministry of Civil Aviation that manages all the airports in India.
89 domestic airports
11 international airports
26 civil enclaves
(Source:- Airport Authority of India)
28th Feb 08- Business News says currently, India has
14 scheduled airline operators having 334 aircraft.
Indian carriers likely to buy 250 aircrafts next 5 yrs
Federal Finance Ministry- Approved imports 496 plains Annual Traffic Growth 01-06 : 8 Annual Traffic Growth 01-06 Cont…. : 9 Cont…. Indian Air Traffic Survey 07-08
International traffic grew by 15.6 %
Domestic traffic a record 32.51%
Air Cargo Growth Apr-Oct 07
International air cargo 13 % growth
Domestic air cargo 9.8 % growth
(Source:- The Hindu business line 29th Feb 08)
Passenger traffic would reach 118.5 million by the end of financial year 2008
(Business standard 19th Mar 08)
Profit (after tax) AAI- Rs.67.83 cr. January, 2008. How does it impact??? : 10 How does it impact??? According to the EU greenhouse gas emissions from aviation has by 87% between 1990 & 2006.
Aviation correspond to about 3% of total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
Aviation is responsible for 2% of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions
The large majority of these are from international flights (flights between two Member States or between a Member State and a non-EU country). Global Environmental Issues : 11 Global Environmental Issues Aircraft engines contribute to:
Increase in the avg temperature of the Earth's near-surface air
Causes the cooling effect on earth.
Gases & particulate emissions.
Emit noise pollution. Aviation contributes via… : 12 Aviation contributes via… Atmospheric changes from aircraft result from three types of emission processes
Direct emission of radiatively active substances
e.g. CO2 or water vapor
Emission of chemical species that produce or destroy radiatively active substances
e.g., NOx, which modifies O3 concentration
Emission of substances that trigger generation of aerosol particles or lead to changes in natural clouds
e.g. Contrails In Detail… : 13 In Detail… Subsonic aircraft-in-flight contribute to climate change in 4 ways:
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
IPCC has confirmed that aviation currently contributes 2% of global CO2 emissions & could rise to 3% by 2050. Leads to Ozone depletion & Global warming.
Oxides of nitrogen (NOx)
NOx also reduce ambient levels of methane, another greenhouse gas, resulting in a climate cooling effect. Cont… : 14 Cont… Water vapor (H2O)
Very large aircraft-in-flight at high altitude emit H2O, a greenhouse gas, which under certain atmospheric conditions forms Condensation trails, or contrails
Cirrus clouds have been observed to develop after the persistent formation of contrails and have been found to have a global warming effect over-and-above that of contrail formation alone
The release of soot and sulfate particles. Soot absorbs heat and has a warming effect; sulfate particles reflect radiation and have a small cooling effect. In addition, they can influence the formation and properties of clouds
All aircraft powered by combustion will release some amount of soot. Aircraft emissions impact climate : 15 Aircraft emissions impact climate Climate impact is represented by changes in global mean surface temperature (Ts) and global mean sea level rise. Other Issues… : 16 Other Issues… Noise pollution
Aircraft noise is defined as sound produced by any aircraft on run-up, taxiing, take off, over-flying or landing.
Affects approximately 100 square kilometers.
Contributes to hearing loss, heart diseases, immune deficiencies, neurodermatitis, asthma & other stress related diseases
Most light piston aircraft burn avgas, which contains tetra-ethyl lead (TEL), a highly-toxic substance that cause soil contamination at airports. Hope ? : 17 Hope ? European Commission formally proposed to include civil aviation in the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme, a system designed to help countries and companies comply with greenhouse gas reduction targets.
EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme was started on
1-Jan-2005 How does it work ? : 18 How does it work ? Operators receive emission allowances of CO2 per year.
The total of these allowances creates a ‘cap’ on overall emissions from these installations.
After each year, operators must surrender the number of allowances equal to their actual emissions in that year.
The existence of a market in which these allowances can be traded enables participating companies to manage their emissions cost-effectively.
They can anticipate their emission levels they can
buy additional emission allowances from the market.
sell their surplus allowances to the market
bank them to cove future emissions
installing more efficient technology
take measure to reduce their emissions Global result- by IATA : 19 Global result- by IATA New aircraft are 70% more fuel efficient than 40 years ago and 20% better than 10 years ago.
Airlines are aiming for a further 25% fuel efficiency improvement by 2020.
Modern aircraft achieve fuel efficiencies of 3.5 litres per 100 passenger km.
The A380 and B787 are aiming for 3 litres per 100 passenger km – better than a compact car! Less Fuel = Less Emissions : 20 Less Fuel = Less Emissions Each kilogram of fuel saved reduces carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 3.16 kg.
IATA airlines improved their fuel efficiency by 5% in 2004-2005 alone.
In 2000 IATA airlines adopted a voluntary goal and committed to improving their fuel efficiency by 10% between 2000 and 2010. A stitch in time!!! : 21 A stitch in time!!! Potential Fuel Savings from Air Traffic Management
improve fuel efficiency & CO2 emissions by 12%.
Operational improvements could provide a 6% overall fuel saving.
Hydrogen is being explored and might become an option for aircraft engines from 2050.
Use of synthetic fuel blends and biofuels in the medium term. Airbus and the A380 : 22 Airbus and the A380 Airbus is the world’s number one civil aircraft manufacturer, with record deliveries of 434 aircraft in 2006.
Airbus is committed to build aircraft that are part of the solution to the environmental challenges.
Environmental objectives are part of the top design and manufacturing requirements of the A380.
The Airbus A380 is the most efficient aircraft in its category. What are they doing ? : 23 What are they doing ? Airbus has successfully set up an innovative Environment Management System aimed at continuously improving the environmental performance of the Company, at every stage of the lifetime of an aircraft.
Airbus uses this integrated lifecycle approach to map, better understand, monitor and minimize the environmental impact an aircraft and its production process may have over its lifecycle, from design to dismantling.
This has been recognized, for the first time in the aerospace sector, through an extended ISO14001 certification, which covers all the company’s production sites & products throughout their lifecycle. Today, Airbus is the first & only aerospace company in the world to have such an extended ISO 14001 certification. What is the result? : 24 What is the result? An aircraft with unprecedented levels of efficiency and environmental performance and which is a real-world solution for a cleaner, quieter and smarter way to fly.
Less noise - The Airbus A380 is one of the quietest long-range aircraft in the world, despite its size. With twice as many passengers, it even creates lower noise than the A340 - one of the quietest aircraft in its category.
Less fuel burn and emissions - The Airbus A380 has a very low fuel consumption of less than 3 litres /passenger/100 kilometers. The Airbus A380 generates as little as 75 g of CO2 per passenger kilometer, knowing that the European car industry aims at 140 g of CO2 per km in 2009.
Fewer movements - The Airbus A380 provides a new way to cope with air traffic growth in major markets worldwide, thanks to its unique capacity. Greater numbers of people can be moved in and out of airports with each take-off and landing.
This, along with our extensive research efforts, is a clear sign of Airbus’ commitment to constructive ways towards greener skies.. Major Players : 25 Major Players Continental Airlines
They have plans to conduct a biofuels demonstration flight in the first half of 2009 in an effort to identify sustainable fuel solutions for the aviation industry that can help to further reduce carbon emissions Cont… : 26 Cont… They are working together and with an undisclosed fuel provider to identify sustainable fuel sources that don’t impact
Contribute to deforestation,
Which can be produced in sufficient quantities to support a pre-flight test schedule that includes laboratory and ground-based jet engine performance testing to ensure compliance with stringent aviation fuel performance and safety requirements Boeing : 27 Boeing It is helping to guide the aviation sector toward sustainable biofuels produced through advanced biomass conversion technologies and processes that have the potential to reduce greenhouse gases throughout their lifecycle. Sustainable biofuels for aviation incorporate second-generation methodologies relative to fuel source selection and processing, which are uniquely suited for aerospace use. These biofuels can then be blended with kerosene fuel (Jet-A) to reduce dependency on fossil fuels Continental : 28 Continental It has achieved a 35 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption per mainline revenue passenger mile flown over the past 10 years.
It remains committed to investing in a fuel-efficient fleet and is a launch customer for the Boeing 787 Dreamliner, powered by GE engines. In addition to providing passengers with a better flying experience, the 787 Dreamliner also will provide operators with a more environmentally efficient jetliner, including lower carbon emissions and quieter takeoffs and landings
It has also reduced, by 75 percent, nitrogen oxide emissions from ground equipment at the carrier's largest hub, in Houston, through switching to electric ground service equipment and other new technology. Indian Civil Aviation Policyhttp://civilaviation.nic.in/ : 29 Indian Civil Aviation Policyhttp://civilaviation.nic.in/ Mission
To maintain a competitive civil aviation environment which ensures safety and security in accordance with international standards, promotes efficient, cost-effective and orderly growth of air transport and contributes to social and economic development of the country.
CAA will be required to publish Annual Report on the Air Safety and Security Environment in the country Indian Civil Aviation Policyhttp://civilaviation.nic.in/ : 30 Indian Civil Aviation Policyhttp://civilaviation.nic.in/ Airport Infrastructure
Greenfield airport will be permitted by the Government
Operation of airports would be in accordance with the provisions relating to prevention of air, water and noise pollution
Role in Regional and International Civil Aviation
Continue its efforts to strengthen cooperation in the field of civil aviation in the region
Comply with EU, COSCAP, ICAO norms
Acts and Rules
Aircraft Act, 1934(XXII of 1934)
Aircraft Rules, 1937 Rewards & Recognition : 31 Rewards & Recognition ‘Protocol Public Awareness Award’ 2007
Air India’s efforts in environmental protection, particularly of the ozone layer.
'Golden Peacock Award‘
Corporate innovation for protection of environment 2007.
'Gallileo Express Travel World Award’
Corporate Social responsibility for 2006. Has it helped ? : 32 Has it helped ? Since the 1960s,
levels of carbon monoxide have come down by 50%
Unburned hydrocarbons and smoke by around 90%.
Today’s aircraft are 75% quieter
70% more fuel-efficient
With regard to air quality, technological progress has practically eliminated visible smoke and hydrocarbons, while NOx from aircraft engines has been progressively reduced by 50% over the past 15 years.
Research is targeting a further 80% reduction in nitrogen oxide emissions (NOx) by 2020 Cont.. : 33 Cont.. The number of people exposed to aircraft noise worldwide has gone down – by about 35% between 1998 and 2004.
Research initiatives target a further 50% reduction by 2020.
Airline CO2 efficiency / passenger improved nearly 20% in the last decade. At least 25% further improvement is expected up to 2020.
The aviation industry saved 15 million tonnes of CO2 in 2006 through operational improvements. This includes the elimination of 6 million tonnes of CO2 through the shortening of more than 300 air routes. A balancing act… : 34 A balancing act… Sustainable development seeks to balance social, economic and environmental objectives in order to secure the well-being of present and future generations.
Aviation is a good example of this: it is a consumer of non-renewable resources, a contributor to climate change and local noise problems but at the same time it makes a very valuable and unique contribution to the sustainable development of our global society Thank You : Thank You Glossary : 36 Glossary EU- European Union is a political & economic community of 27 member states, located primarily in Europe.
IPCC- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change which is set up by the UN & the World Meteorological Organization.
ICAO- International Civil Aviation Organisation
COSCAP- Co-operative development of Operational Safety and Continued Airworthiness Programme.
CAA- Civil Aviation Authority Sources : 37 Sources http://www.grida.no/climate/ipcc/aviation/index.htm
http://www.foolonahill.com/mbaaviation.html#_Toc83227606 Condensation trail, contrails : 38 Condensation trail, contrails Back