optical fiber application

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use of optical fiber in different fields

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Application of Grandway Optical Power Meter Let's go in the grandway......

Content : 

www.grandway.com.cn Content Introduction Application of Optical Power Meter Using the Power Meter During System Design Using the Power Meter During System Installation Using the Power Meter to Troubleshoot and Maintain a System Conclusion

Introduction : 

www.grandway.com.cn Introduction This application document will briefly demonstrate how a simple fiber optic power meter can be used to properly install and maintain these systems. The power meter, as it is commonly called, measures the optical power of light present on a fiber optic cable. This light can be generated directly from the output of a fiber optic transmitter device or from another common fiber optic testing device: a laser light, such as the FHS series. Your optical power is measured in dBm or in mW.

Using the Power Meter During System Design : 

www.grandway.com.cn Using the Power Meter During System Design The first thing a system designer needs to know about a fiber optic link is how much optical loss will be experienced between the end points of any fiber optic cable. All fiber optic transmitters and receivers will specify a maximum amount of optical attenuation, or loss budget, that can be tolerated before the equipment will no longer work properly. This loss budget is specified in dB and can vary from as little as 5 dB to as high as 30 dB depending on the product’s design.

Using the Power Meter During System Design : 

www.grandway.com.cn Using the Power Meter During System Design Before determining an optical loss measurement, you need to know two things: The type of fiber being used - either single mode or multimode. We strongly recommend the use of single mode fiber whenever possible. The operating wavelength of the transmitter you are using for the light source you are injecting into the fiber. This is usually 850nm, 1310nm,1490 or 1550nm. You will need two devices to determine the optical loss measurement: An optical power meter, such as the FHP A light source, as described above, to launch a beam of light into the fiber. This can be an existing fiber optic transmitter or a light source such as the FHS series.

Using the Power Meter During System Design : 

www.grandway.com.cn Using the Power Meter During System Design The procedure to measure the optical loss in the fiber optic cable is as follows: ① Set the power meter to the wavelength of the light source you are using. ② Connect a short fiber jumper cable between the light source and the power meter. See Figure A. ③ Make note of the power level, in dBm. We will call this “Reading A”. ④ Connect the fiber cable under test to the output of the light source ⑤ Connect the power meter, set at the same wavelength as the power source, to the far end of the fiber cable under test. See Figure B. ⑥ Make note of the power level, in dBm. We will call this “Reading B”. ⑦ The optical loss in the fiber cable is equal to “Reading A” minus “Reading B"

Using the Power Meter During System Design : 

www.grandway.com.cn Using the Power Meter During System Design

Using the Power Meter During System Design : 

www.grandway.com.cn Using the Power Meter During System Design When multimode fiber is used, measurements should be made at 850nm or 1300nm. It is preferred that measurements be made at both wavelengths, if possible, as the optical loss can vary significantly as the wavelength varies when multimode fiber is used. When single mode fiber is used, measurements should be made at 1310nm as this is the most common wavelength used with single mode fiber. These measurement procedures should be repeated for every fiber cable in the system.

Using the Power Meter During System Installation : 

www.grandway.com.cn Using the Power Meter During System Installation During system installation, the use of the power meter will be essential to verifying that the fiber cable you are working with is performing as well as it should. Typical problems include dirty fiber connectors, breaks, kinks and knots in the fiber, poor splices, faulty connector terminations and the use of incorrect patch cables based on the type of fiber used (multimode or single mode).

Using the Power Meter During System Installation : 

www.grandway.com.cn Using the Power Meter During System Installation During the installation, it is assumed you have a working fiber optic transmitter unit that you intend to install. On this transmitter, please note the following: The operating wavelength (850nm, 1310nm, or 1550nm) Whether it is designed to operate with single mode, multimode or both fiber types. Next, determine the type of fiber installed. The jacket of the fiber cable should be marked. For multimode fiber, it may be marked: • multimode • 62.5/125 • 50/125 For single mode fiber, it may be marked: • single mode • 9/125

Using the Power Meter During System Installation : 

www.grandway.com.cn Using the Power Meter During System Installation The procedure to measure the optical loss in the complete fiber optic link is as follows: ① Set the power meter to the wavelength of the fiber optic transmitter you are using ② Connect a short fiber jumper cable between the fiber transmitter and the power meter. See Figure A. ③ Make note of the power level, in dBm. We will call this “Reading A” ④ Connect the fiber cable under test to the output of the light source ⑤ Connect the power meter, set at the same wavelength as the fiber transmitter, to the far end of the fiber cable under test. See Figure B. ⑥ Make sure there are no active components such as amplifiers, repeaters, routers, etc., in line with the fiber cable you are measuring ⑦ Make note of the power level, in dBm. We will call this “Reading B” The optical loss in the fiber cable is equal to “Reading A” minus “Reading B”

Using the Power Meter During System Installation : 

www.grandway.com.cn Using the Power Meter During System Installation

Using the Power Meter During System Installation : 

www.grandway.com.cn Using the Power Meter During System Installation If patch panels are part of the optical link they should be connected and operational so as to be part of the end-to-end measurement. Ensure that the fiber cable used to make the patch is utilizing the same type of fiber (multimode or single mode) as the fiber cable itself. In fact, improper pairing of fiber optic cabling types at the switch and/or router is a common occurrence. Having made these measurements you will be able to determine if your fiber cable is performing properly. That is, does it have too much optical loss. Of course, some optical loss is not only expected, it’s quite normal.

Using the Power Meter During System Installation : 

www.grandway.com.cn Using the Power Meter During System Installation Use the following table to determine the amount of optical loss you should typically expect from your fiber optic link:

Using the Power Meter During System Installation : 

www.grandway.com.cn Using the Power Meter During System Installation Add up all the losses for your system based on the above estimates and compare this total to the loss you measured using the power meter. If your fiber cable link is properly installed, the measured loss on the power meter should be the same or less than the estimated loss using the above numbers. If your measured loss is significantly more (i.e. >30%) you should investigate where the excess loss might be occurring, even if your link is operational, as this is a sign of future trouble. Start with cleaning the tips of all fiber connectors in the optical link from beginning to end and verifying the integrity of all connections and terminations. When you are finished installing the system and all links are operating normally, it is a great idea to measure the optical loss in all of your fiber optic links and record them for future reference. You can use this data to compare it against future measurements.

Using the Power Meter to Troubleshoot and Maintain a System : 

www.grandway.com.cn Using the Power Meter to Troubleshoot and Maintain a System There are several periodic things you can do when you suspect the link loss may be increasing: Over time, small amounts of dirt and film may build up on these connectors. Start by cleaning all optical connectors in the fiber optic link. No exceptions. This can be done with a small alcohol pad applied to the tip of the connector Use your optical power meter, as described in the procedure Using the Power Meter During System Installation to check the optical loss in the fiber links you suspect may be excessive. Compare the loss you measure now to the loss you measured when you first installed the link. Substitute a known good fiber optic transmitter of the same type for the one currently installed to see if performance improves. Measure the output power of the new transmitter and compare it the old transmitter. They should match within 1 to 2 dB.

Conclusions : 

www.grandway.com.cn Conclusions Designing, installing and troubleshooting a fiber optic system is not a difficult task. However, an optical power meter is an indispensable tool for installing, maintaining and troubleshooting fiber optic links. Think of it as the digital voltmeter (DVM) of the fiber optic world. The power meter, together with common troubleshooting techniques, are all you will need in most cases. And remember to keep the connectors clean and the fiber cables free of kinks.