PPT-s,m.-1.1.2.1.1

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Learning Outcomes Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter.:

8.1 Strategic Management Define strategic management , strategy , and business model . Give three reasons why strategic management is important. Describe strategic planning in Arab organizations. 8.2 The Strategic Management Process Describe the six steps in the strategic management process. Define SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats). Learning Outcomes Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. 8- 2 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

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8.3 Corporate Strategies Describe the three major types of corporate strategies. Explain how the BCG matrix is used to manage corporate strategies. 8.4 Competitive Strategies Describe the role of competitive advantage. Explain Porter’s five forces model. Describe Porter’s three competitive strategies. Learning Outcomes 8- 3 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

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8.5 Current Strategic Management Issues Explain why strategic flexibility is important. Describe e-business strategies. Discuss what strategies organizations might use to become more customer oriented and to be more innovative. Learning Outcomes 8- 4 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

Strategic Management:

Strategic Management 1. Define strategic management , strategy , and business model . 2. Give three reasons why strategic management is important. 3. Describe strategic planning in Arab organizations . 8- 5 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

What is Strategic Management?:

What is Strategic Management? Strategic management I s what managers do to develop an organization’s strategies. Strategies The decisions and actions that determine the long-run performance of an organization. Business Model Is a strategic design for how a company intends to profit from its strategies, work processes, and work activities. Focuses on two things: Whether customers will value what the company is providing. Whether the company can make any money doing that. 8- 6 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

Why Is Strategic Management Important?:

Why Is Strategic Management Important? 1. It results in higher organizational performance. 2. It requires that managers examine and adapt to business environment changes. 3. It coordinates diverse organizational units, helping them focus on organizational goals. 8- 7 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

The Strategic Management Process:

The Strategic Management Process 1. Describe the six steps in the strategic management process. 2. Define SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats). 8- 8 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

The Strategic Management Process:

The Strategic Management Process The strategic management process is a six-step process that encompasses: strategy planning implementation evaluation . 8- 9 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

Exhibit 8–1 The Strategic Management Process:

Exhibit 8–1 The Strategic Management Process 8- 10 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

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Step 1: Identifying the Current Mission, Goals, and Strategies Mission : a statement of the purpose of an organization The scope of its products and services Goals : the foundation for further planning Measurable performance targets 8- 11 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

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Step 2: Doing an external analysis The environmental scanning of specific and general environments Focuses on identifying opportunities and threats 8- 12 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

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Step 3: Doing an internal analysis Assessing organizational resources, capabilities, and activities: Strengths create value for the customer and strengthen the competitive position of the firm. Weaknesses can place the firm at a competitive disadvantage. Analyzing financial and physical assets is fairly easy, but assessing intangible assets (employee’s skills, culture, corporate reputation, and so forth) isn’t as easy. 8- 13 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

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Steps 2 and 3 combined and called as SWOT analysis : Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats 8- 14 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

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8- 15 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Opportunities : positive trends in external environmental factors . Threats : negative trends in external environmental factors . Resources: organization's assets that are used to develop manufacture, and deliver products to its customers . Capabilities : An organization's skills and abilities in doing the work activities needed in its business . Core competencies : The organization's major value-creating capabilities that determine its competitive weapons . Strengths : Any activities an organization does well or any unique resources that it has . Weaknesses : Any activities an organization does not do well or resources it needs but does not possess . SWOT analysis : An analysis of an organization's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats .

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Step 4: Formulating strategies Develop and evaluate strategic alternatives. Select appropriate strategies for all levels in the organization that provide relative advantage over competitors. Match organizational strengths to environmental opportunities. Correct weaknesses and guard against threats. 8- 16 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

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Step 5: Implementing strategies Implementation: effectively fitting organizational structure and activities to the environment . The environment dictates the chosen strategy; effective strategy implementation requires an organizational structure matched to its requirements. 8- 17 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

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Step 6: Evaluating results How effective have strategies been? What adjustments, if any, are necessary? 8- 18 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

Corporate Strategies:

Corporate Strategies 1. Describe the three major types of corporate strategies . 2. Explain how the BCG matrix is used to manage corporate strategies. 8- 19 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

Exhibit 8–4 Types of Organizational Strategies:

Exhibit 8–4 Types of Organizational Strategies 8- 20 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

What is a Corporate Strategy?:

What is a Corporate Strategy ? A corporate strategy is one that specifies what businesses a company is in or wants to be in and what it wants to do with those businesses. 8- 21 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

Types of Corporate Strategies:

Types of Corporate Strategies 1. Growth : expansion into new products and markets 2. Stability : maintenance of the status quo 3. Renewal : examination of organizational weaknesses that are leading to performance declines 8- 22 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

1. Growth Strategy :

1. Growth Strategy Seeking to increase the organization’s business by expansion into new products and markets. Types of Growth Strategies Concentration Vertical integration Horizontal integration Diversification 8- 23 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

1. Growth Strategy (cont’d) :

Concentration Focusing on a primary line of business and increasing the number of products offered or markets served. Vertical Integration Backward vertical integration: attempting to gain control of inputs (become a self-supplier ). Forward vertical integration: attempting to gain control of output through control of the distribution channel or provide customer service activities ( eliminating intermediaries ). 8- 24 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education 1. Growth Strategy (cont’d)

1. Growth Strategy (cont’d) :

Horizontal Integration Combining operations with another competitor in the same industry to increase competitive strengths and lower competition among industry rivals. Related Diversification Expanding by combining with firms in different, but related industries that are “ strategic fits ”. Unrelated Diversification Growing by combining with firms in unrelated industries where higher financial returns are possible. 8- 25 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education 1. Growth Strategy (cont’d)

2. Stability Strategy:

2. Stability Strategy This strategy is appropriate if: Managers want to maintain the status quo to deal with the uncertainty of a dynamic environment. The industry is experiencing slow- or no-growth conditions . If the owners of the firm elect not to grow for personal reasons. 8- 26 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

3. Renewal Strategies:

3. Renewal Strategies Developing strategies to counter organization weaknesses that are leading to performance declines. Retrenchment : focusing of eliminating non-critical weaknesses and restoring strengths to overcome current performance problems. Turnaround : addressing critical long-term performance problems through the use of strong cost elimination measures and large-scale organizational restructuring solutions. 8- 27 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

How are Corporate Strategies Managed? :

How are Corporate Strategies Managed ? Managers manage a portfolio (or collection) of businesses using a corporate portfolio matrix such as the BCG Matrix. BCG Matrix Developed by the Boston Consulting Group. Considers market share and industry growth rate. Classifies firms as: Cash cows: low growth rate, high market share Stars: high growth rate, high market share Question marks: high growth rate, low market share Dogs: low growth rate, low market share 8- 28 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

Exhibit 8–5 The BCG Matrix:

Exhibit 8–5 The BCG Matrix 8- 29 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

Competitive Strategies:

Competitive Strategies 1. Describe the role of competitive advantage. 2. Explain Porter’s five forces model. 3. Describe Porter’s three competitive strategies. 8- 30 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

What is a Competitive Strategy?:

What is a Competitive Strategy? A strategy focused on how an organization will compete in its business( es ). For an organization in only one line of business, the competitive strategy describes how it will compete in its primary or main market . For organizations in multiple businesses, however, each business has its own competitive strategy that defines its competitive advantage, the products or services it will offer, the customers it wants to reach, and the like . (SBUs) 8- 31 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

The Role of Competitive Advantage:

The Role of Competitive Advantage 1. Competitive Advantage sets an organization’s distinctive competitive edge. 2. That distinctive edge comes from the organization’s core competencies because the organization does something that others cannot do or does it better than others can do it. 8- 32 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

Quality as a Competitive Advantage:

Quality as a Competitive Advantage Differentiates the firm from its competitors. Can create a sustainable competitive advantage. Represents the company’s focus on quality management to achieve continuous improvement and meet customers’ demand for quality. 8- 33 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

Sustaining Competitive Advantage:

Sustaining Competitive Advantage Continuing over time to effectively exploit resources and develop core competencies that enable an organization to keep its edge over its industry competitors. It is not easy to create a sustainable competitive advantage due to market instabilities, new technology, and other changes. By using strategic management , managers can better position their organizations to get a sustainable competitive advantage. 8- 34 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

Exhibit 8–6 Five Forces Model:

Exhibit 8–6 Five Forces Model Source: Based on M.E. Porter, Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors (New York: The Free Press, 1980). 8- 35 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

Five Competitive Forces:

Five Competitive Forces Threat of New Entrants The ease or difficulty with which new competitors can enter an industry. Threat of Substitutes The extent to which switching costs and brand loyalty affect the likelihood of customers adopting substitute products and services. Bargaining Power of Buyers The degree to which buyers have the market strength to hold sway over and influence competitors in an industry. 8- 36 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

Five Competitive Forces (cont’d):

Bargaining Power of Suppliers The relative number of buyers to suppliers and threats from substitutes and new entrants affect the buyer–supplier relationship. Current Rivalry Intensity among rivals increases when industry growth rates slow, demand falls, and product prices descend. 8- 37 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Five Competitive Forces (cont’d)

Choosing a Competitive Strategy:

Choosing a Competitive Strategy Cost Leadership Strategy Seeking to attain the lowest total overall costs relative to other industry competitors. Differentiation Strategy Attempting to create a unique and distinctive product or service for which customers will pay a premium. Focus Strategy Using a cost or differentiation advantage to exploit a particular market segment rather than a larger market. 8- 38 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

Current Strategic Management Issues:

Current Strategic Management Issues 1. Explain why strategic flexibility is important . 2. Describe e-business strategies . 3. Discuss what strategies organizations might use to become more customer oriented and to be more innovative. 8- 39 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

Strategic Flexibility:

Strategic Flexibility Involves the ability 1. to recognize major external changes 2. to quickly commit resources 3. to recognize when a strategic decision is not working 8- 40 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

Exhibit 8–7 Creating Strategic Flexibility:

Exhibit 8–7 Creating Strategic Flexibility Know what’s happening with strategies currently being used by monitoring and measuring results . Encourage employees to be open about disclosing and sharing negative information. Get new ideas and perspectives from outside the organization. Have multiple alternatives when making strategic decisions. Learn from mistakes . Source: Based on K. Shimizu and M. A. Hitt, “Strategic Flexibility: Organizational Preparedness to Reverse Ineffective Strategic Decisions,” Academy of Management Executive , November 2004, pp. 44–59. 8- 41 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

New Directions: Strategies for Applying e-Business Techniques:

New Directions: Strategies for Applying e-Business Techniques Cost Leadership On-line activities: bidding, order processing, inventory control, recruitment and hiring Differentiation Internet-based knowledge systems, online ordering and customer support Focus Chat rooms and discussion boards, targeted Web sites 8- 42 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

New Directions: Customer Service Strategies:

New Directions: Customer Service Strategies Giving the customers what they want . Communicating effectively with them. Providing employees with customer service training . 8- 43 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

New Directions: Innovation Strategies:

New Directions: Innovation Strategies Possible Events Radical breakthroughs in products. Application of existing technology to new uses. Strategic Decisions about Innovation Basic research Product development Process innovation First Mover An organization that is first to bring a product innovation to market or use a new process innovation. 8- 44 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

Exhibit 8–8 First-Mover Advantages–Disadvantages:

Exhibit 8–8 First-Mover Advantages–Disadvantages Advantages Reputation for being innovative and industry leader Cost and learning benefits Control over scarce resources and keeping competitors from having access to them Opportunity to begin building customer relationships and customer loyalty Disadvantages Uncertainty over exact direction technology and market will go Risk of competitors imitating innovations Financial and strategic risks High development costs 8- 45 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

Terms to Know:

strategic management strategies business model strategic management process mission opportunities threats resources capabilities core competencies strengths weaknesses SWOT analysis corporate strategy growth strategy stability strategy renewal strategy BCG matrix competitive strategy strategic business units competitive advantage functional strategies strategic flexibility first mover Terms to Know 8- 46 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education

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