10-Gender

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GENDER:

GENDER I n t e r n a t I o n a l R e c o v e r y P l a t f o r m 1

TODAY`S AGENDA :

TODAY`S AGENDA 1. Introduction 2. Introduction to Key Issues in Gender Issue 1: Mainstreaming gender in disaster recovery institutions          and organizations Issue 2: Identifying gender specific recovery needs Issue 3: Engaging women in recovery initiatives Issue 4: Facilitating a gender-balanced economic recovery 2

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION Why Consider Gender in Disaster Recovery A more effective response to the needs of individuals, families and communities, by recognizing that men and women have different recovery needs and assets; A more timely and targeted provision of assistance to those in greatest need; A more comprehensive , and thus stronger, recovery, by maximizing the   contributions that both men and women can make; and An opportunity to promote gender relationships after disasters that improve the resilience of individuals, families, communities, and societies. Introduction to Key Issues Issue 1: Mainstreaming gender in disaster recovery institutions and organizations Increasing the representation of women in disaster decision-making Putting gender-sensitive disaster recovery policies and programs in place Conducting gender training to raise awareness of policy-maker and planners across sectors Using gender analysis tools to review and develop policies and programs across sectors Sustaining an enabling and positive environment for gender mainstreaming 3

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION Introduction to Key Issues Issue 2: Indentifying gender specific recovery needs The need for gender-specific data Women’s engagement in defining needs Developing gender-sensitive information sharing mechanisms Issue 3: Engaging women in recovery initiatives Rejecting stereotypes: women are not “helpless victims” The increased workloads of women following a disaster Develop women’s capacity to be recovery leaders Engaging with and supporting women’s collectives Rebuilding community spaces Creating gender-specific communication forums Developing the capacity of local women leaders Issue 4: Facilitating a gender-balanced economic recovery Lack of attention to the gendered division of labour Gender bias in paid reconstruction work Strengthen existing and new income-earning activities for women Provide gender equitable financial services 4

MAINSTREAMING GENDER IN DISASTER RECOVERY:

MAINSTREAMING GENDER IN DISASTER RECOVERY 5

MAINSTREAMING GENDER IN DISASTER RECOVERY:

MAINSTREAMING GENDER IN DISASTER RECOVERY Issue 1 : Mainstreaming gender in disaster recovery institutions and organizations Creating a more gender responsive recovery requires analyzing carefully on: How will/how has this affected men and women differently? What are the effects on the most marginalized women and girls? What is changing the quality of life for women/men during recovery   and why? Such analysis should take place in projects across all sectors. Start from smaller scale commitments by governments and other recovery actors, then take on a more system-wide approach 6

Mainstreaming gender in disaster recovery institutions and organizations:

Mainstreaming gender in disaster recovery institutions and organizations Case 1: Mainstreaming gender in local communities of Pakistan Separate men and women forum – cultural constraints Recruited and trained female staff as male staff could not work with women Women did food distribution and households were registered in women’s name to include female headed households. Persuaded communities to register houses constructed with project funds in the names of both wives and husbands . Increased women’s status, home-ownership and participation in decision-making processes. Lessons A sustained approach was adopted but not a confrontational one . Rather than confronting gender norms, which might have alienated the community, NGO chose a more indirect approach Traditional norms that segregate women and men can be respected while mobilizing and empowering women 7

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Sub Issue 1: Increasing the representation of women in disaster decision-making Women in disaster decision-making Gender equity in decision-making is still the exception rather than the norm. Government efforts Global average of women in parliament 18.4% India: amended its constitution, granting a third of local government seats to women. Mainstreaming gender in disaster recovery institutions and organizations 8

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Case 2: Strengthening women’s representation in government-led recovery of Aceh, Indonesia UNIFEM supported 400 women in All Acehnese Women’s Congress . Lack of consultation about relocation and land ownership Lack of gender‐targeted relief reaching women equitably, etc. Provisions for girls and women in temporary accommodation A strong political will on the part of the government is critical to initiate social change. One result was the creation of the Gender and Women’s Empowerment Unit of the BRR Mainstream gender in BRR Gender quota - Local laws 30% of parties field women and in oversight committees The Indonesian government recognized gender as a key crosscutting issue in the Aceh Recovery Framework (ARF) Mainstreaming gender in disaster recovery institutions and organizations 9

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Case 2: Strengthening women’s representation in government-led recovery of Aceh, Indonesia Mainstreaming gender in disaster recovery institutions and organizations Source: UNIFAM, 2009. http://www.unifem-eseasia.org/docs/aceh/gender_breakthrough_final_3Dec.pdf 10

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Sub Issue 2 : Putting gender-sensitive disaster recovery policies and programs in place When policies and programs are not informed by gender-differentiated data, they often exclude women or sub-group of women. In some cases, they even create new and greater obstacles for women. Box 4: Gendered impacts of post disaster land and housing policies Following the 2004 Tsunami, the state government of Tamil Nadu, India implemented a joint ownership policy. Yet without a more careful look into who exactly supported the family, the policy inadvertently excluded single, divorced, and widowed women who were not recognized as “ primary household income-earners ”. Mainstreaming gender in disaster recovery institutions and organizations 11

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Sub Issue 3: Conducting gender training to raise awareness of policy-maker and planners across sectors Gender awareness trainings can equip planners, policy-makers, implementers with the knowledge and tools to analyze and develop more gender-responsive programs. Government entities responsible for gender equality are excellent resources and possess the expertise to develop and conduct gender-awareness trainings. Box 5: Characteristics of effective gender-awareness trainings Training Tips on page 18 Mainstreaming gender in disaster recovery institutions and organizations 12

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Case 3: National Gender Training in Fiji and Nepal Organizer: The Ministry of Women, Social Welfare and Poverty Alleviation in partnership with United Nations Development Program (UNDP) The training target: Government ministries working in DRM, Vulnerable communities, And community outreach officers The objective: to familiarize Government officials and field staff with key concepts associated with gender, disaster risk management and climate change, train community outreach workers as "trainers of trainers" to ensure broad dissemination Mainstreaming gender in disaster recovery institutions and organizations 13

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Gender Awareness training Training of Trainers Manual on Gender Mainstreaming in Disaster Risk Management, UNDP India http://data.undp.org.in/GndrMainstreamingDM.pdf Gender Sensitive Disaster Management: A Toolkit for Practitioners, Pincha, Chaman http://www.eldis.org/vfile/upload/1/document/0812/Gnder%20sensitive%20disaster%20management%20Toolkit.pdf Gender Awareness and Development Manual - Resource Material for Gender Trainers http://www.undp.org.af/whoweare/UNDPinAfghanistan/Projects/dcse/GenderManuals/Gender%20Awareness%20and%20Development%20Manual.pdf Mainstreaming gender in disaster recovery institutions and organizations 14

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Sub Issue 4: Using gender analysis tools to review and develop policies and programs across sectors Gender analysis - to identify different impacts of disaster and disaster responses on men and women Gender analysis - set of questions such as: how are women affected? How are men affected? Who controls what resources? What decisions do women make? What decisions do men make? How do their decisions affect each other? Box 6: Sample set of steps for gender analysis of policies and programs Mainstreaming gender in disaster recovery institutions and organizations Page 21 15

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Case 4: Gender Analysis of Capacity-building program in Sri Lanka, March 2005 To make the training programs more gender- sensitive, IBSL and UNDP integrated specific issues relevant to women entrepreneurs , such as: Accessing credit even with lack of collateral Ability to prepare business plans; Managing prejudices and social acceptability during marketing Reducing risk through livelihoods – capacity/vulnerability Lessons Infusing gender sensitivity into a national capacity building organization creates a cascading impact . women not just 'trainees' or 'beneficiaries ,' but participate , and courses address issues women face. Targeting financial institutions can be a strategic move for better understanding the economic constraints and role of women in livelihoods recovery. Mainstreaming gender in disaster recovery institutions and organizations 16

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Sub Issue 5: Sustaining an enabling and positive environment for gender mainstreaming Organizational workplace cultures must sustain the practices of gender mainstreaming. It may be necessary to develop an incentive structure for recognizing the good work done by an office or an individual. Mainstreaming gender in disaster recovery institutions and organizations 17

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Case 5: Incentives to gender-sensitive programming in Chile Lessons Management Improvement Program (PMG) of the Chilean receives a bonus of up to 4% of their salaries if the institution attains program management targets approved by the Ministry of Economics. In 2002 gender planning became 5 th area of evaluation Permanent day-to-day changes in institutions to respond better to the needs of women and men Gender is integral , not marginal, to overall planning process. Explicit commitment to gender is necessary Financial incentives can prove successful but they may not be powerful motivators alone. Mainstreaming gender in disaster recovery institutions and organizations 18

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Sustaining an enabling and positive environment for gender mainstreaming – Page28 For additional information on creating an enabling environment, please see: Engendering Organizational Change: A Case Study of Strengthening Gender Equity and Organizational Effectiveness in an International Agricultural Research Institute. Merrill-Sands, Deborah; Fletcher, Joyce; Acosta, Ann; Andrews, Nancy; Harvey, Maureen http://www.worldbank.org/html/cgiar/publications/gender/gender21.pdf Gender and Budgets Overview Report. Balmouri, Helena www.eldis.org/vfile/upload/1/document/0708/DOC19156.pdf   For further general information on mainstreaming gender in disasters, please see: Gender Mainstreaming in Disaster Reduction, UNISDR http://www.crid.or.cr/crid/PDF/Docs.%20PDF/ISDR%20CSW%206%20March%2002-vers2.pdf Women, Gender and the Hyogo Platform for Action, Gender and Disaster Network http://www.gdnonline.org/Sourcebook Socio-Economic and Gender Analysis for Emergency and Rehabilitation Programmes. SEAGA ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/008/y5702e/y5702e.pdf The Gendered Terrain of Disaster: Through Women’s Eyes. Enarson, Elaine http://www.gdnonline.org/sourcebook/chapt/doc_view.php?id=7&docid=388 Mainstreaming Gender into Disaster Recovery and Reconstruction. Dimitríjevics, Anna http://www.gender-climate.org/pdfs/Beijing%20-%20Mainstreaming%20Gender%20into%20Disaster%20Recovery%20and%20Recostruct_.pdf Gender Manual. A practical guide for development policy makers and practitioners. Derbyshire, Helen http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http://www.dfid.gov.uk/Documents/publications/gendermanual.pdf Gender Tool Kit - instruments for gender mainstreaming. Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation http://www.ddc.admin.ch/en/Home/Themes/Gender/General_and_thematic_tools/General_tools Gender and Post-Crisis Reconstruction. A Practitioner’s Handbook. UN-HABITAT http://www.unhabitat.org/downloads/docs/5500_35498_Gender%20Update%202.pdf Gender mainstreaming in practice. A handbook. UNDP http://europeandcis.undp.org/gender/show/67D31763-F203-1EE9-B1365C5F0A4ED633     Mainstreaming gender in disaster recovery institutions and organizations 19

Indentifying gender specific recovery needs:

Indentifying gender specific recovery needs 20

INDENTIFYING GENDER SPECIFIC RECOVERY NEEDS:

INDENTIFYING GENDER SPECIFIC RECOVERY NEEDS Issue 2: Indentifying gender specific recovery needs Identifying the different needs of men and women, although seemingly simple, is still one of the greatest obstacles to the sustainable recovery of women, families, and communities. While data alone is not sufficient for gender analysis in planning, it is certainly necessary. Engaging women in defining their own needs and developing information sharing mechanisms that facilitate communication with and between women are two more ways to bring gender specific recovery needs to policy making and planning. Sub Issues The need for gender-specific data Women’s engagement in defining needs Developing gender-sensitive information sharing mechanisms 21

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Sub Issue 1: The need for gender-specific data When assessment data do not capture activities of men and women, policies and decisions are formed on assumptions that fail to consider women’s roles and economic contributions . INDENTIFYING GENDER SPECIFIC RECOVERY NEEDS Case 6: Collecting sex-disaggregated data in Pakistan To disaggregate assessment data based on recipients’ names in order to provide hard evidence to policy makers and decision makers on the differential needs of groups, particularly women and girls. The newly disaggregated data confirmed a considerable presence of women headed households. This data convinced senior level managers to consider gender differences, approve targeted interventions and integrate a gender equity focus throughout the programming of the ERRA. 22

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Case 7: The benefits of a gender-sensitive livelihood assessment in the Caribbean after hurricane Lenny 1990 key ingredients of successful gender integrated assessments The banana industry in the Windward Islands. Gender activity analysis shows- Men harvest and women market – Gender-specific and time-based Hurricane Lenny damaged most of the banana crop Total crop loss meant that entire fields had to be replanted (and harvesting would resume after nine months) This translated to a loss of earnings for women workers for approximately four months (in the case of partially damaged fields) to nine months (in the case of totally destroyed fields) Men would be less adversely affected , since they are able to earn waged work for field preparation, replanting and early crop care Collection of any pre-existing sex disaggregated statistics - understanding Gender sensitive training of assessment teams Inclusion of a gender specialist in assessment team Inclusion of women within assessment teams Interviews with women and men, boys, girls INDENTIFYING GENDER SPECIFIC RECOVERY NEEDS 23

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Further information on the sex-disaggregation of assessment data From Margins to Mainstream - From Gender Statistics to Engendering Statistical Systems. Corner, Lorraine http://www.unifem-ecogov-apas.org/ecogov-apas/EEGKnowledgeBase/EngenderingNSS/Margins2Mainstream.pdf Guide to Gender Aware Post-Disaster Needs Assessment. UNDP http://www.undp.org/cpr/documents/Early_Recovery/er_proposal_final.pdf Promoting Gender Equality in Pakistan’s Response to the 2005 Earthquake. Government of Pakistan Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority http://www.erra.pk/Reports/Publications/Making%20a%20Differenec%20%28Promoting%20Gender%20Equality%20in%20Pakistan%27s%20Response%20to%20the%202005%20Earthquake%29.pdf INDENTIFYING GENDER SPECIFIC RECOVERY NEEDS 24

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Sub Issue 2: Women’s engagement in defining needs Due to urgency , aid providers commonly look to existing political institutions to assist in assessment and planning activities. As women are much less likely to hold formalized community leadership positions the needs of women are generally determined, or overlooked, by men. “Most NGOs and government agencies reported that, due to time and resource constraints, they ‘ shortened ’ the consultative process and relied on formal political leaders to convey municipal or local needs”. In Honduras , most decision-making about housing resettlement took place at meetings between mayors and elected shelter leaders, who were almost exclusively male . In Nicaragua , organizations claimed that they lacked the capacity to reach local communities and relied on mayors as “interlocutors” of their needs. This resulted in an observed decrease in women's participation in particular. INDENTIFYING GENDER SPECIFIC RECOVERY NEEDS 25

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For further information on gender specific recovery needs The Needs of Women in Disasters and Emergencies. Wiest, Raymond; Mocellin, Jane; Motsisi, D. http://www.radixonline.org/resources/women-in-disaster-emergency.pdf Hearing their Voices: The Women and Children in the Earthquake Affected Areas of Pakistan. IUCN http://wwww.reliefweb.int/rw/RWFiles2006.nsf/FilesByRWDocUNIDFileName/KHII-6P73QU-wcmc-southasia-21apr.pdf/$File/wcmc-southasia-21apr.pdf Guidelines for Gender Sensitive Disaster Management. Gomez, Shyamala http://www.apwld.org/pdf/Gender_Sensitive.pdf A Gender Shadow Report of the 2010 Haiti PDNA http://org2.democracyinaction.org/o/5095/images/HaitiGenderShadowReport_preliminary_version.pdf Working with women at risk - Practical guidelines for assessing local disaster risk. Enarson, Elaine; Meyreles, Lourdes; Gonzalez Marta; Morrow, Betty Hearn; Mullings, Audrey; Soares, Judith http://www.ihrc.fiu.edu/lssr/workingwithwomen.pdf The Relevance of Considering a Gender Perspective in Damage Assessment and Recovery Strategies. A Case Study in El Salvador, Central America. Ferriz, Angeles Arena http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/csw/env_manage/documents/EP9-2001Nov26.pdf INDENTIFYING GENDER SPECIFIC RECOVERY NEEDS 26

ENGAGING WOMEN IN RECOVERY INITIATIVES:

ENGAGING WOMEN IN RECOVERY INITIATIVES 27

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Sub Issue 1: Develop women’s capacity to be recovery leaders When recovery planners have recognized the ‘less visible,’ contributions that women make to recovery, and provided the means to more effectively address their recovery concerns, women have expanded their leadership to larger and broader community recovery initiatives Engaging women in recovery initiatives Case 10: Pastoralist women reduce drought risk in Kenya Drought – men leave with cattle in search of water Women walk 10km for water for children and elderly Women started rainwater harvesting and earth pans. Also tree-planting project More independent and settled-now compulsory for every household to have at least 100 trees Lessons Provided the opportunity the women have lightened their workload while simultaneously strengthening the community’s resilience to future droughts . 28

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Sub Issue 3: Rebuilding Community Spaces Another means of engaging women in recovery efforts, applied in Turkey and Indonesia, is by rebuilding women’s community gathering spaces . In many communities, physical spaces exist, where women meet to discuss and address issues pertaining to common responsibilities and concerns. In some instances, these spaces are formally-identified; in many, they are informal locations (e.g. markets, wells, or child care centers ) where women tend to meet while carrying out regular activities. Providing such spaces enables women to collectively identify common recovery issues, potential solutions, and the means to carry them out. Engaging women in recovery initiatives 29

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Case 12: Rebuilding women’s meeting halls in Indonesia Lessons One specific recommendation by the All Acehnese Women Congress was to reconstruct and revitalize the Balai Inong , or women’s houses, at the community level. The construction process was managed and monitored by women. The rehabilitation of such spaces not only rebuilds important social infrastructure but strengthens women’s mechanisms for addressing and resolving community welfare issues . Such spaces can serve as important entry points for assistance providers. Engaging women in recovery initiatives 30

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Sub Issue 4: Creating gender-specific communication forums In addition to physical meeting spaces, other forums exist by which people can gain access to valuable information, exchange ideas, and organize themselves to address key recovery issues which affect their lives - Radio, television, and the internet Engaging women in recovery initiatives Case 13: Women exchanging ideas through community radio in Indonesia The Aceh Nias Reconstruction Radio Network ( ARRNET ) is a community radio network designed to give communities access to information about the post-tsunami reconstruction and rehabilitation efforts. The talk show is developed, managed, and hosted by women headed household groups . The program not only provides valuable information on available assistance, but creates a forum in which listeners share knowledge on issues that concern them Lessons Hiring members of the intended audience to design and manage the programming can ensure the content proves relevant and engaging. The timing of telecast of such programs should be such that women are relatively free from their gendered roles and responsibilities. A prior survey before the telecast can provide valuable insights into this. 31

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Sub Issue 5: Developing the capacity of local women leaders Engaging women in recovery initiatives Case 14: Developing Grassroots Women Trainers on Disaster Recovery, Indonesia Involvement, management and decision making for aid Sharing workshop – women from Turkey and Aceh for capacity building - sharing practical livelihoods examples Yogyakarta groups Offered assistance to other areas Organized for development decisions Peer to peer Disaster - window of opportunity for attitude change 32

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Further information on engaging women in recovery initiatives Tsunami, Gender and Recovery, AIDMI http://www.alnap.org/pool/files/aidmi_tsunami_gender_recovery_oct_2005.pdf Centering Women in Reconstruction and Governance, Sustainable Cities http://sustainablecities.net/docman-resources/doc_download/115-sri-lanka-cwrg-final-report Grassroots Women’s Initiatives in Reconstruction and Governance, GROOTS www.disasterwatch.net/resources/Slankaexchangereport-08-2008.pdf Grassroots Women’s Collectives – Roles in post – disaster effort: potential for sustainable partnership and good governance, Akcar, Sengul http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/csw/env_manage/documents/EP11-2001Nov07.pdf Empowering Grassroots Women to Build Resilient Communities. Huairou Commission http://www.huairou.org/assets/download/FINAL_REPORT_Academy_Cebu_City.pdf Making Risky Environments Safer. UN-DAW http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/public/Feb05.pdf Responding to Earthquakes: People’s Participation in Reconstruction and Rehabilitation. Gopalan, Prema http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/csw/env_manage/documents/OP3-2001Oct.pdf   Engaging women in recovery initiatives 33

Facilitating a gender-balanced economic recovery:

Facilitating a gender-balanced economic recovery 34

Facilitating gender-balanced economic recovery:

Facilitating gender-balanced economic recovery Issue 4: Facilitating a gender-balanced economic recovery Unmarried women, daughters, divorcees, and widows work to support themselves and their families. Married women take on paid work to supplement family incomes . Women may have increased need for income when men migrate for work and cannot or do not send back remittances. ILO labor statistics indicate that as of 2009, between 60 and 66% of women are economically active In spite of this evidence, interventions frequently leave women with little or no assistance to secure or rebuild livelihoods Sub Issues Lack of attention to the gendered division of labor Gender bias in paid reconstruction work Strengthen existing and new income-earning activities for women Provide gender equitable financial services 35

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Sub Issue 1: Lack of attention to the gendered division of labor A substantial focus on formal sector and more visibly impacted livelihoods has dominated much of the livelihood recovery approaches of recent disasters. Poor attention to the informal and small-agricultural sectors, which make up the largest work force in the most disaster prone countries, appears to be a major gap in recovery planning. Box 10: Overlooked livelihoods of women in government assistance Clandestine fish drying business While the government and aid agencies focused on replacing boats , they failed to recognize the critical livelihoods of the women who processed, transported and sold the dried fish . Such small business women received no assistance. Facilitating gender-balanced economic recovery 36

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Sub Issue 2: Gender bias in paid reconstruction work Men tend to dominate the skilled trades , such as carpentry, masonry, and electrical, and unless women are actively recruited, they rarely benefit from the higher wages these positions offer. Women targeted training programs in skills such as masonry are becoming more popular and providing new and better opportunities for women. Women do frequently make up a large percentage of the unskilled labor force in reconstruction projects, yet the low wages paid for such physically demanding work are rarely adequate. Data on women in the labor force can reduce such outcomes Facilitating gender-balanced economic recovery 37

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Sub Issue 3: Strengthen existing and new income-earning activities for women World’s largest supplier of coir . Women make up 75 percent of the workforce . The 2004 tsunami hit the industry hard, wiping out coconut palm trees. The National Institute of Business Management carried out a market chain analysis to learn how the spinners could eventually increase their profits. They determined that if the women could improve the quality and consistency of their yarn, they could take advantage of growing international interest in natural, renewable products. They proposed creating a worker-controlled company that would represent the interests of village-level coir spinners and improve their leverage in the marketplace. The results have been dramatic: the women have doubled or tripled their pre-tsunami incomes. And they report that they are thinking and working like. Case 14: Building upon women’s traditional livelihoods in Sri Lanka Lessons By building on women’s pre-existing productive activities , this initiative has avoided overburdening women with unsustainable demands on their time while still increasing their income-earning potential. Strengthening their technical and business skills has not only enabled economic recovery needs but provided additional assets Facilitating gender-balanced economic recovery 38

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Sub Issue 4: Provide gender equitable financial services Services include loans made to women’s self help groups On average, women have demonstrated extremely high repayment rates, making them ideal MFI clients. In some cases, MFIs and organizations have taken their services one step further, offering micro-insurance packages to reduce women’s economic vulnerability to further disasters. SEWA, the Self Employed Women’s Association Set up village development committees to provide small loans to the poorest village women. SEWA provides an integrated microfinance package that combines savings, credit and insurance. Case 15: Women’s disaster insurance through microfinance Lessons Since the financial service was managed by fellow women within the communities (SEWA members), the beneficiaries could easily access needed information. Linking livelihood of women with insurance can be a vital tool not only mitigation of disasters but also as a cushion for recovery from a disaster. Facilitating gender-balanced economic recovery 39

Gender guidelines:

Gender guidelines Annex 1 Guidelines for planning Annex 2 Comparing gender analysis frameworks 40

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