Cultivation

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CULTIVATION ,COLLECTION AND PROCESSING OF MEDICINAL PLANTS 8/31/2013 Mr. A.R.Surana Assistant professor S.M.B.T. College of Pharmacy, Nashik-422403

Wingdings:

CULTIVATION Cultivation  - The act of raising or growing  plants  (especially on a large scale) Involves convergence of various factors from cultural and pharmaceutical sphere such as soil, climate, rainfall, irrigation, altitude, temperature, use of fertilizers and pesticides, genetic manipulation and biochemical aspects of natural drugs.

Calibri:

ADVANTAGES OF CULTIVATION Quality and Purity Better yield and therapeutic quality Cultivation ensures regular supply Industrialization Permits application modern technology

Trebuchet MS:

DISADVANTAGES High cost Losses due to ecological imbalance

Times New Roman:

METHODS OF CULTIVATION SEXUAL Merits Seedlings are long live (perennial) Cheapness and easy to raise Only method of choice where asexual method is not possible Demerits Not uniform in growth and yield More time to bear High cost Not possible to avail modifying

CG Times:

Seeds must be of good quality Capable of high germination rate, Free from diseases ,insects, other seeds, used seeds and extraneous material

Comic Sans MS:

Pretreatment of seeds Chemical treatment with stimulants Soaking in water or sulphuric acid Testa is partially removed by grind stone or pound seeds with coarse sand

Flow:

ASEXUAL Merits No variation in quality Seedless varieties Early bearing Grafting encourages disease resistance varieties Inferior can be neglected Demerits Limited longevity No new varieties can be evolved

CULTIVATION ,COLLECTION AND PROCESSING OF MEDICINAL PLANTS:

SUCKERS- PINEAPPLE OFFSETS- ALOE, VALERIAN STOLONS- LIQUORICE

CULTIVATION:

FACTORS INFLUENCING CULTIVATION ALTITUDE, TEMPERATURE, HUMIDITY RAINFALL AND IRRIGATION SOILS AND SOIL FERTILITY FERTILIZERS AND MANURES PEST AND PEST CONTROL

PowerPoint Presentation:

ALTITUDE CHINCHONA - 1000-2000 M SAFFRON - 1000-1200 M CARDAMOM - 600-1600 M CLOVE - Upto 900 M TEMPERATURE TEA - 70-90 ( ° F) COFFEA - 55-70 ( ° F) CARDAMOM - 50-100 ( ° F)

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RAINFALL AND IRRIGATION

METHODS OF CULTIVATION:

SOILS AND SOIL FERTILITY TYPES OF SOIL Soil is made up of mineral matter, air, water, organic matter and living organisms. Types of soil Clay more than 50% clay Loamy 30-50% clay Silt loam 20-30% clay Sandy loam 10-20% clay Sandy soil more than 70% sand Calcarious soil more than 20% clay Poor , intermediate and rich Porosity pH

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SOIL FERTILITY Maintained by addition of animal manure, nitrogen-fixing bacteria or by application of chemical fertilizers

Pretreatment of seeds:

FERTILIZERS AND MANURES CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS Primary nutrients Secondary nutrients Micronutrients MANURES Compost Oil seeds cake Bone meal BIOFERTILIZERS Nitrogen fixing microorganism Azotobactor Rhizobium

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Pests and pest control Pest is an undesired animal or plant species and pesticiedes are chemicals derived from synthetic and natural sources effective in small concentration .

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Types of pests Fungi and viruses Insects Weeds Non-insect pests

FACTORS INFLUENCING CULTIVATION:

Fungi and viruses Ascochyta atropae- leaf necrosis Cercospora atropae- leaf spot Phytophthora nicotianae- Phytophthora root-rot.

ALTITUDE:

Insects Agrotis species Heliothis armigera Caterpillar, cutworms, termites, grass-hoppers, spiders, mites, Lepidopterus larvae.

RAINFALL AND IRRIGATION:

Weeds Undesired plant Allergies Hay fever-ragweed Dermatitis-western poison oak.

SOILS AND SOIL FERTILITY:

Non-insect pests Vertebrates like rats, monkeys, birds, rabbits, squirrels, pigs. Invertebrates like nematods, snails.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Methods of pest control Mechanical method Agricultural method Biological method Chemical method

FERTILIZERS AND MANURES:

Mechanical method Hand-picking Burning Trapping Destruction of eggs, larvae. Construction of concrete warehouses.

Pests and pest control:

Agricultural method Plant breeding techniques Systemic insecticides Deep ploughing Crop rotation

Types of pests:

Biological control Australian lady beetle “lady bug” to feed on damaging insect called cottony cushion scale insect on citrus crop.

Fungi and viruses:

Chemical control Rodenticides- Warfarin, strychnine, Arsenic trioxide, red squill Insecticides-DDT, parathion, malathion Fungicides- Bordeaux mixture, chlorophenol. Herbicides- Calcium arsenate, 2,4-dicholorophenoxy acetic acid. Miticides

Insects:

Ideal insecticide Non-toxic and non-injurious to medicinal plants Selective in action, toxic in low concentration Stable under ordinary conditions of storage, non-inflammable, noncorrosive

Weeds:

Plant growth regulators Organic compounds which affect the morphological and physiological processes of plants in low concentration. Serve a role in regulating cell enlargement, cell division, cell differentiation, organogenesis, senescence and dormancy. Employed in seed treatment Tissue culture technique

Non-insect pests:

Auxins: Indole acetic acid (IAA) Indole butyric acid (IBA) Napthyl acetic acid (NAA) Internode elongation, leaf growth, initiation of vascular tissues, cambial activity, fruit setting and growth, apical dominance. Interaction with one or more components of biochemical systems involved in the synthesis of proteins.

Methods of pest control:

Gibberellins Over 50 are known. Promotion of rapid expansion of plant cells, stimulation of seed germination, breaking dormancy, induction of flowering, stem elongation , increase in the size of leaves Induction of activity of gluconeogenic enzymes during early stages of seed germination.

Mechanical method :

Cytokinins Zeatin (natural) e.g., N6 dimethyl aminopurine, Kinetin (synthetic) e.g., adenine, 6-benzyl adenine benzimidazole Zeatin has effect on cell division and leaf senescence. Kinetin is useful in promoting lateral bud development and inhibition of senescence. Play the role in nucleic acid metabolism and protein synthesis.

Agricultural method :

Ethylene Fruit ripening, leaf abscission, stem swelling, leaf bending, flower petal discoloration and inhibition of stem and root growth. Produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon rich substances like natural gas, coal and petroleum.

Biological control:

Abscisic acid (ABA) Natural growth inhibitor Responsible for the shedding off of unnecessary parts. Concentrations are enhanced in stress conditions. It interacts with other plant growth substances and inhibits the GA induced synthesis of α -amylase . Synthetic ones include maleic hydrazide, daminozide, glyphosine etc

Chemical control:

COLLECTION Barks: Spring or early summer Coppicing Felling Up-rooting Fruits: depending on the part of the fruit being used. Roots: before their vegetative process stops Rhizomes: when they store ample of reserve food material. Flowers: before pollination Leaves: they are sufficiently thick Flowering top: before the flowering stage. Unorganised drugs`

Ideal insecticide:

Harvesting: it is the process of gathering crude drugs from the fields. Should be done by skilled workers. Underground drugs are harvested by diggers or lifters Aerial parts by binders Flowers, seeds and small fruits by seed stripper. Other methods include beating, brushing, using long handled forks, winnowing, uprooting.

Plant growth regulators :

Drying Natural drying Shed drying Sun drying Artificial Tray drying Vacuum drying Spray drying

PowerPoint Presentation:

Garbling Desired when sand, dirt and foreign organic parts of the same plant are required to be removed

PowerPoint Presentation:

Packing Morphological, chemical nature, their use and effects of climatic conditions should be taken into consideration. Colophony and balsam of tolu packed in kerosene tins Cod liver oil Squill, digitalis, ergot Cinnamon bark. Packed in gunny bags with polythene internally.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Storage Stored in premises which are water proof, fire proof and rodent proof, light proof Air-tight, moisture proof and light proof containers Wooden boxes and paper bags should not be used.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Drying Fumigation Special treatment Temperature Colophony Ergot Lard Lipids- Antioxidants (BHA, BHT,Vit.-E) Preservation against insect or mould attack Coleoptera Lepidoptera Mites Preservation

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