non-aligned movement

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A MOVEMENT STARTED BY SOME ASIAN AND AFRICAN COUNTRIES DURING COLD WAR AND THIS MOVEMENT HAS VERY LOW SIGNIFICANCE TODAY.

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Slide 1: 

WELCOME

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The world after Second world war NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT

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Do you know? The first session of NAM was held at ? The 2006 session of NAM was held at ? Now please tell me what is NAM ?

Previous Knowledge : 

Previous Knowledge Who was the first Prime Minister of our country? What do you understand by the policy of Panchsheel? Name the two blocs which were formed after the second world war?

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PREPARED BY = M. ARSHAD KHAN, P.G.T. HISTORY J.N.V. HAMIRPUR

OBJECTIVES : 

OBJECTIVES To make the students enable to understand the need for the establishment of Non-aligned movement. To make the students enable to understand the meaning of Non-aligned movement. To make the students enable to understand the chief characterstics and causes for the spread of Non- aligned movement.

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Formation of Non- alignment movement CAUSES CHARACTERSTICS A C H I E V E M E N T MEANING

Causes for the Spread of the Non-Aligned Movement : 

Causes for the Spread of the Non-Aligned Movement Nationalism. Anti-Imperialist Sentiments. Racial Discrimination. Economic Needs. U.N.O. and Non- aligned Countries. Great leaders of Non- aligned Movement.

Meaning of Non-Alignment : 

Meaning of Non-Alignment After the termination of world war second , two hostile power blocs came into existence in the world. One bloc was led by U.S.A. and the other bloc was led by the Soviet Union. Most of the countries of the world were the member of one bloc or the other. Cold war went on between these countries for many years. Many countries like India did not join any bloc but decided to follow their independent foreign policies. Thus they adopted the policy of NON- ALIGNMENT because they could not solve their international problems without maintaining friendly relations with both the blocs.

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Non-Aligned Nations, loose association of countries that, during the Cold War period, had no formal commitment to either of the two power blocs in the world, led by the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The formation of the group formally known as the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) may be traced to the division of the world into Communist and capitalist blocs after World War II and to the subsequent demise of colonialism. The grouping was initiated at a conference in Belgrade in September 1961 by leaders of countries that had recently freed themselves from foreign domination and rejected renewed ties to any big power. INTRODUCTION

AIMS OF NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT : 

AIMS OF NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT 1.Stabilisation of World peace. 2.Respect of human rights. 3.Peaceful Co-existence between nations. 4.Opposition of military alliance. 5.Preservation of Independence. 6.Condemnation of Racial Discrimination. 7.Disarmament. 8.Establishment of Economic Relations between Nations based on Equality.

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NAM’s initial aims and objectives focused on political and security issues but economic agenda soon began to play an increasingly important role. Prominent among NAM’s founding leaders were Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru of India and Presidents Sukarno of Indonesia, Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Sékou Touré of Guinea, and Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia.

Characteristics of Policy of Non-Alignment : 

Characteristics of Policy of Non-Alignment Opposition to cold war. It opposes to Military or Political Alliances. Non involvement in Power Politics. It is a policy of action and not isolation.

BANDUNG CONFERENCE : 

BANDUNG CONFERENCE Bandung Conference, conference of 29 Asian and African countries held at Bandung on the island of Java in 1955. The conference demonstrated the determination of these new nations to have an independent voice in international affairs, and was an important milestone in the movement of non-aligned nations. In order to underline the point, President Sukarno of Indonesia declared in his opening address to the Conference: “It is a new departure in the history of the world that leaders of Asian and African peoples can meet together in their own countries to discuss and deliberate on matters of common interest.”

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The origins of the conference can be traced to a meeting of the prime ministers of Burma (now Myanmar), Ceylon (Sri Lanka), India, Indonesia, and Pakistan in Colombo in April 1954. As a result of the Colombo discussions, and a further meeting held at Bogor in Java late in 1954, the five countries agreed to sponsor a conference of Asian and African nations. The conference opened in Bandung on April 18, 1955. Beyond discussing general problems, and censuring colonialism by both Western powers and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, little tangible was achieved: no permanent organization was established and no further meetings were held. Indeed, Bandung's importance lay in its symbolism, rather than its material results.

The Bandung Conference (1955) : 

The Bandung Conference (1955)

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The evolution of the non – aligned movement ,N A M is one of the historic acts of our times.The newly independent countries of Asia and Africa,commonly known as the third world countries, liberated themselves from the yoke of imperialism,sought to strengthen their independence and assert their right to share their destinies. EMERGENCE OF THE NON - ALIGNED MOVEMENT

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Some writers have interpreted non-alignment as non- attachment ,which is also not the accurate meaning of the term.Basically,the term was coined and used with the meaning:”non-aligned with the power- block of the world.”The movement thus means that the member nations would not be aligned to any super power or to any of their military alliance.

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The origins of the conference can be traced to a meeting of the prime ministers of Burma (now Myanmar), Ceylon (Sri Lanka), India, Indonesia, and Pakistan in Colombo in April 1954. As a result of the Colombo discussions, and a further meeting held at Bogor in Java late in 1954, the five countries agreed to sponsor a conference of Asian and African nations. The conference opened in Bandung on April 18, 1955. Beyond discussing general problems, and censuring colonialism by both Western powers and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, little tangible was achieved: no permanent organization was established and no further meetings were held. Indeed, Bandung's importance lay in its symbolism, rather than its material results..

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1. Coordination 2. Coordinating Bureau 3. Coordination of the Coordinating Bureau and role of the Chair 4. Working Groups, Contact Groups, Task Forces and Committees 5. Non-Aligned Security Council Caucus 6. Joint Coordinating Committee 7. Coordination of Non-Aligned countries in other UN centres The Troika 8. Group of past, present and future Chairs (Group of Ten) 9. Panel of Economists 10. Documentation 11. Decision making by consensus NAM Structure &Organisation

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First Conference - Belgrade, September 1-6, 1961 Second Conference - Cairo, October 5-10, 1964 Third Conference - Lusaka, September 8-10, 1970 Fourth Conference - Algiers, September 5-9, 1973 Fifth Conference - Colombo, August 16-19, 1976 Sixth Conference - Havana, September 3-9, 1979 Seventh Conference - New Delhi, march 7-12, 1983 Eighth Conference - Harare, September 1-6, 1986 Ninth Conference - Belgrade, September 4-7, 1989 Tenth Conference - Jakarta, September 1-7, 1992 XI Con. Cartagena de Indias, October 18-20, 1995 Twevelth conference- Durban 2-3,September,1998 Thirteenth conference-Cartagena,8-9 April,2000 Fourteenth conference-Durban ,17-19,August,2004

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First Session of N.A.M. at Belgrade- 1961

BELGRADE CONFERENCE : 

BELGRADE CONFERENCE The very first session of Non- aligned countries was held at BELGRADE,the capital of Yogoslavia in which 25 countries participated. After this, its sessions were held at the different places LIKE >

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N.A.M. Session at Cairo (1964)

N.A.M. Session in Lusaka-1970 : 

N.A.M. Session in Lusaka-1970

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N.A.M. Session at Algeria (1973)

N.A.M. Session at Colombo (1976) : 

N.A.M. Session at Colombo (1976)

N.A.M. Session at New Delhi(1984) : 

N.A.M. Session at New Delhi(1984)

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LEADERS OF NON- ALIGNED MOVEMENT

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Colonel Nasser of Egypt

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Marshall Tito Of Yugoslavia

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President Ahmed Sukarno of Indonesia

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Kwame Nkrumah served as the first prime minister of Ghana from 1957 to 1960 after helping his country gain independence from Great Britain. He then served as Ghana’s president until 1966, when he was overthrown by the military. Nkrumah fled to Romania where he died in exile in 1972. In this photo, children play around a toppled statue of Nkrumah. Nkrumah of Ghana

Achievements of the Non- aligned Movement : 

Achievements of the Non- aligned Movement Support to freedom struggle. Opposition to Imperialism. Opposition to Racial Discrimination. Support to Disarmament. Efforts to end cold war. Voice of the third world. Strengthening the U.N.O.

References- : 

References- Contemporary World History, Text Book, Class-XII, N.C.E.R.T. World Book, Encyclopedia of History. Encyclopedia Encarta.