comparative religion

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MY DEAR FATHER AND MY DEAR FRIENDS:

MY DEAR FATHER AND MY DEAR FRIENDS GOOD MORNING TO YOU ALL WELCOME TO THE POWERPOINT PRESENTATION ON “ COMPARATIVE RELIGION” HAVE A NICE TIME

britto raj (M.A PHILOSOPHY,SUVIDYA COLLEGE):

britto raj (M.A PHILOSOPHY,SUVIDYA COLLEGE)

WHAT IS RELIGION:

WHAT IS RELIGION Religion is a MULTIFACETED, PLURALISTIC and COMPLEX PHENOMENON . As a multifaceted phenomenon it can be seen and studied from different perspectives such as theologically, philosophically, sociologically, anthropologically, historically, phenomenologically and psychologically . All these things are different aspects of man’s life. As a pluralistic phenomenon , religions are to be studied as a whole without leaving out any of the religions. Since we live in pluralistic society , it is good to study about other religions and learn about their strength and weakness and merging ourselves in a dialogical manner. As it is known for its complexity we mayn’t understand in a reductionist or simplistic manner . As there are many definitions and theories of religion exist there are as many authors on the subject.

Etymological aspect of religion :

Etymological aspect of religion Etymologically speaking, the word “Religion ” comes from Latin word “ religio ” “ relegere ” (or) “ religare ”. The word “ religio ” used by the Romans which means respect for worship and tradition. The Word " relegere " (to read again, to re-examine carefully, to gather ) in the meaning "to carefully consider the things related to the worship of gods" . The word “ religare ” means to bind or to take up together. Religion refers to that which brings or binds together peoples or people and God.

What Does the Religion Bind?:

What Does the Religion Bind? Binding Factors of Religion The here and now The beyond The human The superhuman The natural The supernatural The immanent The transcendental The secular and the profane The holy, the sacred The finite The infinite The temporal The eternal The mutable, the transient The immutable, permanent The contingent The necessary

What Does the Religion Bind?:

What Does the Religion Bind? The vertical relationship: Relationship with Ultimate Reality/"God " - source and origin, something bigger than the immediate, present self. The Horizontal relationship: relationship with other selves, other people (moral and social aspects of religion), sometimes extended to include other aspects of our environment, a relationship with the non-human aspects of nature (e.g., Native American and other earth traditions) Ultimate Reality /\ | | | Other<-------Self------->Other | | | V Environment

CLASSIFICATION OF RELIGIONS:

CLASSIFICATION OF RELIGIONS Religions Semitic Religions Non-Semitic religion Judaism Islam Christianity Aryan Non-Aryan religion Vedic religion Non-Vedic religions Hinduism Buddhism Jainism Sikhism Zoroastrianism Taoism Shintoism Confucianism

SEMITIC RELIGIONS:

SEMITIC RELIGIONS

SEMITIC RELIGIONS:

SEMITIC RELIGIONS Semitic religions those religions originated from Semites . According to the Bible prophet Noah had a son called Shem . The descendents of the Shem are known as Semites . Therefore, Semitic religion originated among Jews, Arabs, Assyrians, and Phoenicians . Major Semitic religions are Judaism, Islam and Christianity . All these religions believe that God send guidance through his prophets.

DIFFERENT APPELLATIONS OF THE SEMITIC RELIGION:

DIFFERENT APPELLATIONS OF THE SEMITIC RELIGION Prophetic religion Vs Non-prophetic Religion Abrahamic religion Vs NonAbrahamicReligion Semitic Religion Vs Oriental Religion Ancient Religion Vs Modern Religion Revealed Religion Vs Non-Revealed Religion

COMMON FEATURES OF SEMITIC RELIGION:

COMMON FEATURES OF SEMITIC RELIGION propounded by Prophets Based on Indirect Revelation Belief in one God (Monotheism) Soul is the Creation of God Belief in one and a Single Life (no belief in the concept of Rebirth) Emphasis on Prayer Equality of All Emphasis on Ethical Virtues Belief in the day of judgment

NINIAN SMART’S SEVEN APPROACHES TO THE STUDY RELIGIONS:

NINIAN SMART’S SEVEN APPROACHES TO THE STUDY RELIGIONS THE NARRATIVE OR MYTHIC DIMENSION THE DOCTRINAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL DIMENSION THE ETHICAL AND LEGAL DIMENSION THE PRACTICAL AND RITUAL DIMENSION THE SOCIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL DIMENSION THE EXPERIENTIAL AND EMOTIONAL DIMENSION THE MATERIAL DIMENSION

Basic features of Judaism as a religion :

Basic features of Judaism as a religion Revealed Religion Monotheistic religion ,. God has a personality,He is a Person in the sense that he has got consciousness and will and he listens to and answers to the peoples' prayer etc. Besides having the metaphysical attributes of omnipotence, omniscience etc., God is pre-eminently imbued with such moral qualities as justice, mercy, kindness, love, holiness etc. Judaism is primarily an ethical Religion The world is created by God and is dependent upon him, but then it is real . Judaism believes in many prophets of whom Moses is treated as the greatest and the most favoured messiah of God. Belief in angels and spirits, both good and bad. Belief in the immortality of soul and conse­quently in a life after death . Although the idea about the life after death does not seem to be very clear in Judaism, its chief ingredients may be taken as the resurrection of the dead and the assignment of heaven or hell to them in accordance with their earthly deeds In spite of its emphasis on the primary value of the moral conduct of man, Judaism abounds in ceremonies, religious festivals, ritualistic ways of prayer and worship etc

Basic features of Christianity as a religion :

Basic features of Christianity as a religion It is a monotheistic religion believing in one and only one God . God is of the nature of a Person, although not in the ordinary sense of the term `Personality'. He has conscious­ness and will and is of the nature of Pure Spirit. Although God is one, he is an internal trinity, the trinity being-God the Father, God the Son, and the Holy Spirit. He is three in one. Jesus, regarded as the son or, is the founder of the religion. He represents the true image of God on earth . sometimes the messiah of God God has many metaphysical and ethical attributes, but essentially he is of the nature of a loving father. God is the Creator, sustainer and destroyer of the world. He has created the world out of nothing and may destroy it any time according to his sweet will. Man is created by God in the latter's own image and so potentially man is great . Christianity believes in the immortality of soul and there­fore it believes in a life after death also. The final day of judgment, resurrection of the dead on the final day and also allotment of heaven and hell in accordance with the earthly deeds of men are the chief ingredients of Christian eschatology. Hell is eternal damnation and heaven is the symbol of eternal immortal life in constant fellowship with God.

Basic features of Islam as a religion:

Basic features of Islam as a religion Islam believes in one and only God, called “Allah ”. It is, therefore, out and out a monotheistic religion. It believes in the reality and authenticity of prophets who are regarded as carrying the message of god to people . It admits that there have been prophets like Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus and even before Mohammad, but Mohammad is the last, the greatest and the highest among prophets and his message is to be respected by all. The main sacred book of Islam is the Holy Quran . It believes in the sacredness and authoritativeness of many scriptures such as Torah of the Jews, the gospel of Jesus. But it takes Quran as the greatest and the most sacred . It believes in the existence of angels and spirits, both of good and evil dispositions. Angels of good disposition always stand at God’s call in heaven to carry out his orders . There is no distinction of sex among the angels as they are all spiritual. They maintain a record of man’s conduct for the last judgment. On the Day of Judgment the angels bring people from their graves to God for final judgment. Besides good angels, Islam also believes in one fallen angels Iblis and his companions. Iblis is the ruler of the hell. Islam believes in a life after death comprising of the resurrection of reward and punishment by God in the form of membership of heaven and hell . Muslims believe in the five pillars of Islam The testimony of the faith Prayer Alms giving Fasting Pilgrimage Jihad

THE NARRATIVE OR MYTHIC DIMENSION :

THE NARRATIVE OR MYTHIC DIMENSION Judaism Christianity Islam

THE DOCTRINAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL DIMENSION :

THE DOCTRINAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL DIMENSION Judaism Christianity Islam

THE ETHICAL AND LEGAL DIMENSION :

THE ETHICAL AND LEGAL DIMENSION Judaism Christianity Islam

THE PRACTICAL AND RITUAL DIMENSION :

THE PRACTICAL AND RITUAL DIMENSION Judaism Christianity Islam

THE SOCIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL DIMENSION :

THE SOCIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL DIMENSION Judaism Christianity Islam

THE MATERIAL DIMENSION :

THE MATERIAL DIMENSION Judaism Christianity Islam

THE END :

THE END