java string class

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ppt notes of string class


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The String Class : 

The String Class

Objectives: : 

Objectives: Learn about literal strings Learn about String constructors Learn about commonly used methods Understand immutability of strings Learn to format numbers into strings

String class facts : 

String class facts An object of the String class represents a string of characters. The String class belongs to the java.lang package, which does not require an import statement. Like other classes, String has constructors and methods. Unlike other classes, String has two operators, + and += (used for concatenation).

Literal Strings : 

Literal Strings are anonymous objects of the String class are defined by enclosing text in double quotes. “This is a literal String” don’t have to be constructed. can be assigned to String variables. can be passed to methods and constructors as parameters. have methods you can call.

Literal String examples : 

Literal String examples //assign a literal to a String variable String name = “Robert”; //calling a method on a literal String char firstInitial = “Robert”.charAt(0); //calling a method on a String variable char firstInitial = name.charAt(0);

Immutability : 

Immutability Once created, a string cannot be changed: none of its methods changes the string. Such objects are called immutable. Immutable objects are convenient because several references can point to the same object safely: there is no danger of changing an object through one reference without the others being aware of the change.

Advantages Of Immutability : 

Advantages Of Immutability Uses less memory. String word1 = "Java"; String word2 = word1; String word1 = “Java"; String word2 = new String(word1); word1 OK Less efficient: wastes memory word2 word1 word2

Disadvantages of Immutability : 

Disadvantages of Immutability Less efficient — you need to create a new string and throw away the old one even for small changes. String word = “Java"; char ch = Character.toUpperCase(word.charAt (0)); word = ch + word.substring (1); word

Empty Strings : 

Empty Strings An empty String has no characters. It’s length is 0. Not the same as an uninitialized String. String word1 = ""; String word2 = new String(); private String errorMsg; errorMsg is null Empty strings

No Argument Constructors : 

No Argument Constructors No-argument constructor creates an empty String. Rarely used. A more common approach is to reassign the variable to an empty literal String. (Often done to reinitialize a variable used to store input.) String empty = “”;//nothing between quotes String empty = new String();

Copy Constructors : 

Copy Constructors Copy constructor creates a copy of an existing String. Also rarely used. Not the same as an assignment. String word = new String(“Java”);String word2 = new String(word); word word2 Copy Constructor: Each variable points to a different copy of the String. String word = “Java”;String word2 = word; word word2 Assignment: Both variables point to the same String.

Other Constructors : 

Other Constructors Most other constructors take an array as a parameter to create a String. char[] letters = {‘J’, ‘a’, ‘v’, ‘a’};String word = new String(letters);//”Java”

Methods — length, charAt : 

Methods — length, charAt int length(); char charAt(i); Returns the number of characters in the string Returns the char at position i. 7 ’n' ”Problem".length(); ”Window".charAt (2); Returns: Character positions in strings are numbered starting from 0 – just like arrays.

Methods — substring : 

Methods — substring “lev" “mutable" "" (empty string) ”television".substring (2,5); “immutable".substring (2); “bob".substring (9); Returns: television i k television i String subs = word.substring (i, k); returns the substring of chars in positions from i to k-1 String subs = word.substring (i); returns the substring from the i-th char to the end Returns a new String by copying characters from an existing String.

Methods — Concatenation : 

Methods — Concatenation String word1 = “re”, word2 = “think”; word3 = “ing”; int num = 2; String result = word1 + word2; //concatenates word1 and word2 “rethink“ String result = word1.concat (word2); //the same as word1 + word2 “rethink“ result += word3; //concatenates word3 to result “rethinking” result += num; //converts num to String//and concatenates it to result “rethinking2”

Methods — Find (indexOf) : 

Methods — Find (indexOf) String name =“President George Washington"; date.indexOf (‘P'); 0 date.indexOf (‘e'); 2 date.indexOf (“George"); 10 date.indexOf (‘e', 3); 6 date.indexOf (“Bob"); -1 date.lastIndexOf (‘e'); 15 Returns: (not found) (starts searching at position 3) 0 2 6 10 15

Methods — Equality : 

Methods — Equality boolean b = word1.equals(word2); returns true if the string word1 is equal to word2 boolean b = word1.equalsIgnoreCase(word2); returns true if the string word1 matches word2, case-blind b = “Raiders”.equals(“Raiders”);//true b = “Raiders”.equals(“raiders”);//falseb = “Raiders”.equalsIgnoreCase(“raiders”);//true if(team.equalsIgnoreCase(“raiders”)) System.out.println(“Go You “ + team);

Methods — Comparisons : 

Methods — Comparisons int diff = word1.compareTo(word2); returns the “difference” word1 - word2 int diff = word1.compareToIgnoreCase(word2); returns the “difference” word1 - word2, case-blind Usually programmers don’t care what the numerical “difference” of word1 - word2 is, just whether the difference is negative (word1 comes before word2), zero (word1 and word2 are equal) or positive (word1 comes after word2). Often used in conditional statements. if(word1.compareTo(word2) > 0){ //word1 comes after word2… }

Comparison Examples : 

Comparison Examples //negative differences diff = “apple”.compareTo(“berry”);//a before b diff = “Zebra”.compareTo(“apple”);//Z before a diff = “dig”.compareTo(“dug”);//i before u diff = “dig”.compareTo(“digs”);//dig is shorter //zero differences diff = “apple”.compareTo(“apple”);//equal diff = “dig”.compareToIgnoreCase(“DIG”);//equal //positive differences diff = “berry”.compareTo(“apple”);//b after a diff = “apple”.compareTo(“Apple”);//a after A diff = “BIT”.compareTo(“BIG”);//T after G diff = “huge”.compareTo(“hug”);//huge is longer

Methods — trim : 

Methods — trim String word2 = word1.trim (); returns a new string formed from word1 by removing white space at both endsdoes not affect whites space in the middle String word1 = “ Hi Bob “; String word2 = word1.trim(); //word2 is “Hi Bob” – no spaces on either end //word1 is still “ Hi Bob “ – with spaces

Methods — replace : 

Methods — replace String word2 = word1.replace(oldCh, newCh); returns a new string formed from word1 by replacing all occurrences of oldCh with newCh String word1 = “rare“; String word2 = “rare“.replace(‘r’, ‘d’); //word2 is “dade”, but word1 is still “rare“

Methods — Changing Case : 

Methods — Changing Case String word2 = word1.toUpperCase(); String word3 = word1.toLowerCase(); returns a new string formed from word1 by converting its characters to upper (lower) case String word1 = “HeLLo“; String word2 = word1.toUpperCase();//”HELLO” String word3 = word1.toLowerCase();//”hello” //word1 is still “HeLLo“

Replacements : 

Replacements Example: to “convert” word1 to upper case, replace the reference with a new reference. A common bug: word1 = word1.toUpperCase(); word1.toUpperCase(); word1 remains unchanged

Numbers to Strings : 

Numbers to Strings Three ways to convert a number into a string: 1. String s = "" + num; 2. String s = Integer.toString (i); String s = Double.toString (d); 3. String s = String.valueOf (num); Integer and Double are “wrapper” classes from java.lang that represent numbers as objects. They also provide useful static methods. s = String.valueOf(123);//”123” s = “” + 123;//”123” s = Integer.toString(123);//”123” s = Double.toString(3.14); //”3.14”

Review Questions: : 

Review Questions: The String class is part of what package? What does the String class have that other classes do not have? “Text enclosed in quotes is called ?” What is the returned value for “Rumplestiltskin”.length()? Define immutable objects.

Review (cont’d): : 

Review (cont’d): How does immutability of Strings make Java more efficient? How does immutability of Strings make Java less efficient? How do you declare an empty string? Why are String constructors not used very often? “Bob” + “ “ + “Smith” is called ____ ?

Review (cont’d): : 

Review (cont’d): String city = "Bloomington“; What is returned by city.charAt (2)? By city.substring(2, 4)? By city.lastIndexOf(‘o’)? By city.indexOf(3)? What does the trim method do?

Review (cont’d): : 

Review (cont’d): “sam”.equals(“Sam”) returns ? What kind of value does “sam”.compareTo(“Sam”) return? What will be stored in s?s = “mint”.replace(‘t’, ‘e’); What does s.toUpperCase() do to s? Name a simple way to convert a number into a string.

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