COUGH AND BRONCHIAL ASTHMA PRESENTATION

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

Calibri:

COUGH AND BRONCHIAL ASTHMA Arijit Chakraborty M.Pharm (Pharmacology) 19/02/2013 1

Aparajita:

COUGH Cough is a protective reflex, its purpose being expulsion Of respiratory secretion or foreign particles from air passages. It occurs due to stimulation of chemoreceptor's in throat, respiratory passage or stretch receptors in the lungs. Cough is two type; useful and useless , useful (productive) Cough serves to drain the airway, its suppression is not desirable, may even be harmful but Useless (Unproductive) cough should be suppressed. 2

Wingdings:

COUGH Cause: Cold and flu. Allergic rhino-sinusitis (inflammation of the nose or sinuses). Asthma. Smoking. Lung infections such as pneumonia or acute bronchitis. 3

Symbol:

DRY COUGH Dry cough is a type of cough that does not produce sputum or phlegm. It can be triggered by, 1. infections and cold (the most common causes of dry cough), 2. allergic reactions, 3. traumas, 4. lung cancer, 5. airway obstruction, and other abnormalities. 4

Futura:

SYMPTOMS OF DRY COUGH Flu-like symptoms (fatigue, fever, sore throat, headache, aches and pain) Nausea Runny nose (nasal congestion) Vomiting Wheezing (whistling sound made with breathing) Loss of appetite 5

Tahoma:

CAUSES OF DRY COUGH Airway irritation (bronchospasm) Asthma and allergies Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis) Congestive heart failure Lung cancer Pleurisy (inflammation of the lining around the lungs and chest) Smoking 6

Times New Roman:

WET COUGH The medical term for a wet cough is productive cough. Wet cough is a common symptom of, 1. respiratory infection,  2. allergies, and heart conditions. 7

Diseño predeterminado:

SYMPTOMS OF WET COUGH Absence of breathing. Chest pain or pressure. Cough that gets more severe over time. Coughing up blood. Coughing up clear, yellow, light brown, or green mucus. Coughing up pink frothy mucus. Rapid breathing (tachypnea). Wheezing (whistling sound made with breathing). 8

CorelDRAW:

CAUSES OF WET COUGH Acute bronchitis. Bronchiectasis (destruction and widening of the airways) Bronchiolitis (inflammation of the smallest airways in the lungs) Common cold (viral respiratory infection) Cystic fibrosis (thick mucus in the lungs or digestive tract) Influenza (flu). Tuberculosis (serious infection affecting the lungs and other organs). 9

Adobe Photoshop Image:

MECHANISM OF COUGH Stimulation of chemoreceptor's (throat, respiratory passages or stretch receptors in lungs) Afferent impulses to cough centre (medulla) Efferent impulses via parasympathetic & motor nerves to diaphragm, intercostals muscles & lung Increased contraction of diagrammatic, abdominal & intercostals (ribs) muscles noisy expiration (cough) 10

COUGH AND BRONCHIAL ASTHMA Arijit Chakraborty M.Pharm (Pharmacology) 19/02/2013:

TREATMENT OF COUGH Primary medication : Cough drops, syrup etc. Expectorants (Mucokinetics) : a) Bronchial secretion enhance : Potassium iodide, balsum of tolu. b) Mucolytics : Bromhexine, Ambroxol, Acetyl cysteine. 11

COUGH:

TREATMENT OF COUGH Antitussives (Cough centre suppressants) : a) Opoids : Codeine, Pholcodeine b) Nonopoids : Dextromethophan, Noscapine c) Antihistamines : Chlorpherinamine, Promethazine Adjuvant antitissuve : Bronchodilators : Salbutamol, Terbutaline 12

COUGH:

BRONCHIAL ASTHMA Asthma is a Chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways. Chronically inflamed airways are hyper responsive. They become obstructed and airflow is limited by bronchoconstriction , mucus plugs, and increased inflammation when airways are exposed to various risk factors. 13

DRY COUGH:

BRONCHIAL ASTHMA ETIOLOGY: Triggers factors tend to participate and/or aggravate asthma exacerbation. 1. Allergens e.g. pollens, air pollution, dust. 2. Irritants e.g. Tobacco smoke, sprays. 3. Exercise. 4. Temperature and weather change. 5. Expose to infection. 14

SYMPTOMS OF DRY COUGH:

CONT…… 6. Animals e.g. cats , dogs, rodents etc. 7. Strong emotion, e.g. fear , laughing. 15

CAUSES OF DRY COUGH:

Characteristic of Asthma Asthmatic patients experience intermittent attacks of wheezing, shortness of breath-with difficulty especially in breathing out, and sometimes cough. As explained above, acute attacks are reversible, but the underlying pathological disorder can progress in older patients to a chronic state superficially resembling COPD. It is characterized by, a) Inflammation of the airways b) Bronchial hyper-reactivity c) Reversible airways obstruction 16

WET COUGH:

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF ASTHMA Asthma trigger Inflammation & edema of the mucous membranes. Accumulation of tenacious secretions from mucous glands. Spasm of the smooth muscle of the bronchi & bronchioles decreases the caliber of the bronchioles. 17

SYMPTOMS OF WET COUGH:

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF ASTHMA 18

CAUSES OF WET COUGH:

19 Relaxation Constriction Normal Asthma Airway narrowing Exaggerated airway narrowing muscle constriction 35 % muscle constriction 35 %

MECHANISM OF COUGH:

Pathological changes of asthma 20 Epithelium Normal airway airway wall remodeling Basement membrane Smooth muscle Mucus glands (hyperplasia)

TREATMENT OF COUGH:

DRUG THERAPY 2 types of drug categories are used : 21 ANTIINFLAMATORY DRUG BRONCHODIALETORS hormone-containing (corticosteroids) nonhormone-containing ( leukotriene receptor antagonists) b 2 -agonists anticholinergic drugs methylxanthines

TREATMENT OF COUGH:

DRUG THERAPY 22 Anti-inflammatory drug Corticosteroids (Hydrocortisone, Beclomethasone) Leukotrienes antagonist (Montelukast) Bronchodilators b 2 -agonists (Salbutamol, Terbutalin) Anticholinargic drug (Ipratropium bromide) Methyxanthine (Theophylline, Aminophylline)

BRONCHIAL ASTHMA:

DRUG THERAPY Anti-inflammatory drug : a) Corticosteroids : (Hydrocortisone, Beclomethasone) i) Cell membrane stabilization. ii) Inhibition of inflammatory mediators. iii) Restoring the sensivity of β 2 - receptors. 23

BRONCHIAL ASTHMA:

DRUG THERAPY Anti-inflammatory drug : a) Leukotrienes receptor antagonist : (e.g. montelukast) are third-line drugs for asthma. They: competitively antagonize cysteinyl leukotrienes at CysLT 1 receptors are used mainly as add-on therapy to inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β 2 agonists 24

PowerPoint Presentation:

DRUG THERAPY 25 BRONCHODIALETORS b 2 -agonists Stimulates b 2-adrenergic receptors of bronchi Smooth muscle relaxation Anticholinergic drugs reduce tones of vagus Methylxanthines inhibit non-selective phosphodiesterase

Characteristic of Asthma:

DRUG THERAPY β 2 -Adrenoceptor agonists (e.g. Salbutamol ) are first-line drugs. It is increase the Heart rate. They act as physiological antagonists of the spasmogenic mediators but have little or no effect on the bronchial hyper-reactivity. Salbutamol is given by inhalation; its effects start immediately and last 3-5 hours, and it can also be given by intravenous infusion in status asthmatics. Salmeterol or formoterol are given regularly by inhalation; their duration of action is 8-12 hours. 26

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF ASTHMA:

DRUG THERAPY Methyxanthine : (Theophylline, Aminophylline) inhibits phosphodiesterase and blocks adenosine receptors has a narrow therapeutic window: unwanted effects include cardiac dysrhythmia, seizures and gastrointestinal disturbances is given intravenously (by slow infusion) for status asthmatics, or orally (as a sustained-release preparation) as add-on therapy to inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β 2 agonists 27

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF ASTHMA:

DRUG THERAPY Anti-cholinergic drug : ( Atropine, ipratropium bromide, troventol) They are used in predominantly in nighttime asthma and in elderly patient because of the least cardiotoxic effect. 28

PowerPoint Presentation:

REFERANCE 1. Essentials of Medical Pharmacology, K.D. Tripathi. 2. Pharmacology, Rang and Dale. 3. Internet Source. 29

Pathological changes of asthma:

30

authorStream Live Help