In vitro - In vivo Correlation


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In vitro - In vivo Correlation


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In vitro - In vivo Correlation: 

In vitro - In vivo Correlation Presented by: Arifmohammad.Shaik Department of Pharmacology Hindu college of pharmacy, Guntur

In vitro - In vivo Correlation: 

In vitro - In vivo Correlation In recent years, the concept and application of the in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) for pharmaceutical dosage forms have been a main focus of attention of pharmaceutical industry, academia, and regulatory sectors. The main objective of an IVIVC is to serve as a surrogate for in vivo bioavailability and to support biowaivers . IVIVCs could also be employed to establish dissolution specifications and to support and/or validate the use of dissolution methods


DEFINITIONS United State Pharmacopoeia (USP) definition The establishment of a rational relationship between a biological property, or a parameter derived from a biological property produced by a dosage form, and a physicochemical property or characteristic of the same dosage form. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) definition IVIVC is a predictive mathematical model describing the relationship between an in vitro property of a dosage form and a relevant in vivo response. Generally, the in vitro property is the rate or extent of drug dissolution or release while the in vivo response is the plasma drug concentration or amount of drug absorbed.


CORRELATION LEVELS Five correlation levels have been defined in the IVIVC FDA guidance . The concept of correlation level is based upon the ability of the correlation to reflect the complete plasma drug level-time profile which will result from administration of the given dosage form .

Level A Correlation: 

Level A Correlation This level of correlation is the highest category of correlation and represents a point-to-point relationship between in vitro dissolution rate and in vivo input rate of the drug from the dosage form. Generally, percent of drug absorbed may be calculated by means of model dependent techniques such as Wagner-Nelson procedure or Loo-Riegelman method or by model-independent numerical deconvolution . These techniques represent a major advance over the single-point approach in that these methodologies utilize all of the dissolution and plasma level data available to develop the correlations

Level B Correlation: 

Level B Correlation A level B IVIVC utilizes the principles of statistical moment analysis. In this level of correlation, the mean in vitro dissolution time ( MDTvitro ) of the product is compared to either mean in vivo residence time (MRT) or the mean in vivo dissolution time ( MDTvivo ).

Level C Correlation: 

Level C Correlation In this level of correlation, one dissolution time point (t50%, t90%, etc.) is compared to one mean pharmacokinetic parameter such as AUC, tmax or Cmax This is the weakest level of correlation as partial relationship between absorption and dissolution is established. Level C correlations can be useful in the early stages of formulation development when pilot formulations are being selected.

Multiple-level C correlation: 

Multiple-level C correlation A multiple level C correlation relates one or several pharmacokinetic parameters of interest ( Cmax , AUC, or any other suitable parameters) to the amount of drug dissolved at several time points of the dissolution profile. A multiple Level C correlation should be based on at least three dissolution time points covering the early, middle, and late stages of the dissolution profile.

Level D correlation: 

Level D correlation Level D correlation is a rank order and qualitative analysis and is not considered useful for regulatory purposes. It is not a formal correlation but serves as an aid in the development of a formulation or processing procedure


IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS IN DEVELOPING A CORRELATION When the dissolution is not influenced by factors such as pH, surfactants, osmotic pressure, mixing intensity, enzyme, ionic strength, a set of dissolution data obtained from one formulation is correlated with a deconvoluted plasma concentration-time data set . If one or more of the formulations (highest or lowest release rate formulations) may not illustrate the same relationship between in vitro performance and in vivo profiles compared with the other formulations, the correlation is still valid within the range of release rates covered by the remaining formulations


BIOPHARMACEUTICS CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM (BCS) The (BCS) is a drug development tool that allows estimation of the contribution of three fundamental factors including dissolution, solubility and intestinal permeability, which govern the rate and extent of drug absorption from solid oral dosage forms BCS is also a fundamental guideline for determining the conditions under which IVIVCs are expected. It is also used as a tool for developing the in-vitro dissolution specification


BIOAVAILABILITY STUDIES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF IVIVC A bioavailability study should be performed to characterize the plasma concentration versus time profile for each of the formulation. Bioavailability studies for IVIVC development should be performed with sufficient number of subjects to characterize adequately the performance of the drug product under study


EVALUATION OF PREDICTABILITY OF IVIVC An IVIVC should be evaluated to demonstrate that predictability of in vivo performance of a drug product from its in vitro dissolution characteristics is maintained over a range of in vitro dissolution release rates and manufacturing changes Depending on the intended application of an IVIVC and the therapeutic index of the drug, evaluation of prediction error internally and/or externally may be appropriate.

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External predictability evaluation is not necessary unless the drug is a narrow therapeutic index, or only two release rates were used to develop the IVIVC, or, if the internal predictability criteria are not met i.e. prediction error internally is inconclusive

Internal predictability: 

Internal predictability All IVIVCs should be studied regarding internal predictability. One recommended approach involves the use of the IVIVC model to predict each formulation’s plasma concentration profile (or Cmax and/or AUC for a multiple Level C IVIVC) from each respective formulation’s dissolution data.

External predictability: 

External predictability Most important when using an IVIVC as a surrogate for bioequivalence is confidence that the IVIVC can predict in vivo performance of subsequent lots of the drug product. Therefore, it may be important to establish the external predictability of the IVIVC. This involves using the IVIVC to predict the in vivo performance for a formulation with known bioavailability that was not used in developing the IVIVC model.


CONCLUSION IVIVC includes in vivo relevance to in vitro dissolution specifications and can serve as surrogate for in vivo bioavailability and to support biowaivers . Furthermore, IVIVC can also allow setting and validating of more meaningful dissolution methods and specifications. It can also assist in quality control for certain scale-up and post-approval changes



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