Recent Trends in Nanomedicine

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Nanomedicine has been defined as the monitoring, repair, construction and control of human biological systems at the molecular level using engineered nanodevices and nanostructures.

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1 REcENT TReNDS IN NANOMEDICINE Presented by Miss. Danve A. V. (M. Pharm. –III rd sem. QAT) Roll no. 02 Under the Guidance of Prof. Tarkase K.N. M. Pharm P.D.V.V.P.F’s COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, AHMEDNGAR 2014-2015

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2 Content Introduction Defination How nonamedicine work Application Advantages Current status of nanomedicine Methods of nanomedicine Current Trends in Diabetes Management Current Trends in Cancer Conclusion References

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3 There is no nanomedicine , there is nanotechnology in medicine. “ nanomedicine ” has been widely used for a couple of years, in different sub‐areas of medicine such as diagnostics, therapy or monitoring. Nanomedicine is more an academic concept than an industrial one. Therefore nanomedicine is now sometimes classified under “advanced medical technologies” by industry. Introduction

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Defination Nanomedicine : Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology Nanomedicine , refers to highly specific medical intervention at the molecular level for curing disease or repairing damaged tissues. Nanomedicine has been defined as the monitoring, repair, construction and control of human biological systems at the molecular level using engineered nanodevices and nanostructures. 4

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5 How Nanomedicine Works - Nanomedicine works by injecting nanoparticles into the body Can be used to: - Deliver medicine - Find and treat disease - Repair damaged cells

Application:

Application D rug delivery techniques, D iagnostics , medical devices E nhanced gene therapy and tissue engineering procedures Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment Using Nano- Therm therapy to overheat brain cancer cells helps to destroy Diabetes Diagnosis and Treatment 6

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7 Advantages of nanomedicine

Current status of nanomedicine:

Current status of nanomedicine Nanomedicine is a recent emerging field to improve human health. The creation and rapid expansion of nanomedicine as a new research field in the last decade is the result of nanotechnology's convergence with biology, genetics, biochemistry, chemistry, physics, pharmacology and medicine. 8

Cont….:

Cont …. Nanomedicine construct the artificial cells, enzymes and genes. This will help in the replacement therapy of many disorders which are due to deficiency of enzymes, mutation of genes or any repair in the synthesis of proteins. Currentl , nanomedicine have a greater application in treatment of anaemia and infections by using nanodevices like respirocytes , microbivores . 9

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Nanomedicine is a large industry, Nanomedicine sales reaching 6.8 billion dollars in 2004 with over 200 companies and 38 products worldwide. Nanomedicine research is receiving funding from the United States National Institute of Health. The funding in 2005 of a 5-year plan to set up four nanomedicine centers. invested Nanomedicine minimum of 3.8 billion dollars in R&D every year 10

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Now recently ; Two forms of nanomedicine that have already been tested in mice and are awaiting human trials; are use of gold nanoshells to help diagnose and treat cancer and liposomes as vaccine adjutants and as vehicles for drug transport.. Similarly, drug detoxification is also another application for nanomedicine which has shown promising results in rats 11

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Cont …. More recently, in 2007, the European Foundation for Clinical Nanomedicine was established in Switzerland. This foundation is a non‐profit institution. Aiming at advancing medicine for the benefit of individuals and society through the application of nanosciences . Aiming at prevention, diagnosis, and therapy through nanomedicine 12

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13 Methods Nanofibers as biomaterials Carbon Nanotubes Liposomes Nanospheres

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Nanofibers as biomaterials Fibers <100nm Interfacial polymerization, Electrospinning , Carbon nanofiber are graphitized catalytic synthesis Application Tissue regeneration- carbon nanofibers + neural stem cells Signal for pathogen identity wound healing nanofibers Filter media, etc 14

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15 Carbon Nanotubes :: This rotating picture is actually a model of carbon nanotube, the strongest and stiffest materials discovered till to date . surface functionalization Molecular sensors, electronic nucleic acid sequencing, and nanoneedles Tris-malonic acid C 60 -superoxide dismutase- parkinson’s , neuro ischemia, k + blocker dose dep. carbon nanotube The joining of two carbon nanotubes  

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Liposomes Phospholipid bilayer <100nm (SUVs), >100nm (LUVs), Multilamellar vesicles liposome surface - targeting ligands and polymers Drug carrier 16

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Nanospheres Spherical polymeric matrix 10-100nm Synthetic or natural polymers Good optical, semiconducting Fluorescent and magnetic properties of nanosphere - dignostics like apoptosis and diff. biomedical application 17

Nanomedicine Current Trends in Diabetes Management :

Nanomedicine Current Trends in Diabetes Management In the World around 230 million people have been affected by Diabetes, is a chronic metabolic disorder due to the relative deficiency of insulin secretion and varying degrees of insulin resistance. These problems overcome by advances in nanomedicine like, Glucose nanosensors layer-by-layer (LBL) technique Carbon Nanotubes Quantum Dots(QD's) 18

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cont... The major problem concerning about diabetes control with improper insulin administration routes also achieved by nanomedicine with better insulin delivery technology like oral insulin formulations artificial pancreas microsphere and nanopumps 19

Nanomedicine Current Trends in Cancer :

Nanomedicine Current Trends in Cancer Nanoparticles made of a metal such as magnesium oxide. Coated with antibodies found specifically in cancer cells. Nanoparticles localize around cancer. MRI should done a more detailed image of where the cancer is. 20

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21 Stages of cancer therapy

Cancer Treatment:

22 Cancer Treatment Nanoparticles are directly injected into the body. Localize around tumor Laser emitting infrared waves is inserted into tumor and turned on. Nanoparticles heat up and destroy cells.

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23 The global nanomedicine market was valued at $53 billion in 2009 , and is to increase at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 13.5% to reach more than $100 billion in 2014. Nanomedical products for cancer are one of the largest market segments, nearly $20 billion in 2009 . This sector is expected to increase at CAGR of 11% to reach $33 billion in 2014 . Nanomedicine for central nervous system related indications is another major market sector, valued at nearly $11 billion in 2009 and expected to reach $18 billion in 2014 , an 11.1% compound annual growth rate (CAGR).

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Nanomedicine recently used in; - Flu Testing - Today's flu tests are: - Time consuming - Inaccurate - Nanomedicine gold flu testing provides : - Instant results - Immediate treatment cycle to avoid spreading to others - Nanomedicine can be used to test cell's response to drugs offering new drug testing methods - Provides instant feedback to how cells respond to medicine - Can save years and millions of dollars on testing and clinical trials - Can improve current medications 24

Summary:

Summary Future Status- Nanomedicine Detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms, and for gene diagnosis of pathogens Drug discovery, antigens and antibodies insulin pumps, needle less injectors, medical flow sensors blood pressure, glucose monitoring devices 25 P resent status- Nanomedicine Nanotechnology for treatment, diagnosis, monitoring, and control of biological systems-“ Nanomedicine ” Rational delivery and targeting of pharmaceutical, therapeutic, and diagnostic agents Mononuclear phagocytes, endothelial cells, and cancers (tumor cells ) are key targets Particle design and formulation

Conclusion:

Conclusion The aim of nanomedicine is the monitoring, control, construction , repair, and improvement of all human biological systems, working from the molecular level using engineered devices and nanostructures, ultimately to achieve medical benefits . Nanomedicine still at infancy ; it will need research . Future of Nanomedicine will rationalize to overcome existing biological barriers. Carrier design and targeting strategies must be optimized by using nanomedicine 26

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Referance 1) Subrahmanyam , Biopharmaceutics & pharmacokinetics concept & application, pg.no. 86,143. 2 ) M. Aulton’s , pharmaceutical, design & manufacture of medicine edition Ist , pg.no. 231. 3) Gregoriadis G, Liposomes as carriers of enzymes or drugs: a new approach to the treatment of storage diseases, Biochem J 124(5):58P 4) www.google.com 5 ) www.wikepidea.com 6 ) www.authorstrem.com 27

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Thank you 28

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