NDDS overview

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Novel drug delivery systemS Presented by : Under the guidance of : SHIVA KUMAR Asst. professor Dept. of pharmaceutics T . ARCHANA 081D1R0058 B.pharmacy (IV-I) GANGA PHARMACY COLLEGE 1

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Introduction Definition of NDDS(Novel drug delivery systems) Principles involved in NDDS Types of NDDS Technologies used in NDDS Types of NDDS : Oral controlled drug delivery system Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS ) Mucoadhesive drug delivery system (MADDS ) Targeted drug delivery system Nanoparticles Microspheres Resealed erythrocytes Liposomes CONTENTS 2

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NDDS is capable of controlling the rate of drug delivery , sustaining the duration of action and targeting the diseased tissue , thereby leading to better therapeutic effects with minimum side effects . INTRODUCTION 3

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PRINCIPLES INVOLVED IN NDDS Rate controlling drug delivery system sustained action controlled action 2. Activation – modulated drug delivery system 3. Feed back – regulated drug delivery system 4. Site - targeting drug delivery system 4

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TYPES OF NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS Oral controlled drug delivery system Transdermal drug delivery system Mucoadhesive drug delivery system Targeted drug delivery system 5

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ORAL CONTROLLED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM TYPES: Encapsulation(reservoir) type Matrix (embedded or erosion )type Osmotic based systems p H independent systems Floating systems Mucoadhesive or bioadhesive systems Drug embedded in a polymer matrix : 6

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P H independent systems : Preparation: Acidic and basic drugs + One or more buffers + excipients Granulation Coating with GI fluid permeable film forming polymer 7

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Floating systems 8

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TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM It is an important type of NDDS which involves predetermined delivery of drug through the surface of the skin Mechanism of drug delivery in TDDS : Transepidermal absorption Transfollicular absorption Materials employed in TDDS : Polymers Drug Permeation enhancers 9

TYPES OF TDDS:

TYPES OF TDDS Membrane permeation controlled drug delivery system Adhesive dispersion- type system 10

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Matrix type transdermal patch Microsealed / microreservoir dissolution 11

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Components of TDDS Backing laminate Drug reservoir Rate controlling polymer membrane 12

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Examples of drugs : Clonidine releasing TDDS – to treat hypertension Isosorbide dinitrate – releasing TDDS for angina pectoris Fentanyl – releasing system for cancer patients . 13

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MUCOADHESIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM Bioadhesion is defined as a phenomenon in which the two materials , atleast one of which is of biological origin, are held together by means of interfacial forces. TYPES OF MADDS: Buccal delivery systems . Sublingual delivery systems . Gastrointestinal delivery systems . 14

STAGES OF MUCOADHESION:

STAGES OF MUCOADHESION Contact stage Consolidation stage 15

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MECHANISM OF MUCOADHESION 16

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TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM Nano particles Microspheres Resealed erythrocytes Liposomes 17

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NANOPARTICLES These are defined as the solid particles whose particle size ranges between 10-1000nm. Nano particles are considerable means of site specific targeting of drugs. Since nanoparticles are smaller in size, therefore these can be used for IV, SC and IM administration. 18

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TYPES: NANOSPHERES: They posses a matrix type structure and drug can be entrapped in solid matrix. Due to their large surface area even drugs can be adsorbed on to their surfaces. NANOCAPSULES: They contain a polymer membrane and a central oily care in which the drug is trapped similar to nanospheres, the drug molecules can also be adsorbed on the surface on the surface of the nanocapsules . NANOSOMES : 19

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APPLICATIONS OF NANOPARTICLES In cancer chemotherapy For intracellular drug targeting Per oral absorption To reduce GI irritation caused by drugs Controlled or sustained release of drugs 20

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MICROSPHERES These are the free flowing powders consisting of proteins or synthetic polymers which are biodegradable in nature having size less than 200 micrometres. They not only help in prolonged drug release but also for targeting of anti cancer drugs for tumour. Different polymers employed are: gelatin, carrageenan, dextran , alginate , starch, Albumin (natural protein) . 21

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MICROSPHERE 22

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RESEALED ERYTHROCYTES E rythrocytes are the most abundant cells in the human body which have potential capability of delivery of drugs. Erythrocytes are biocompatible, biodegradable, posses long circulation half lives, and can be loaded with a variety of biologically active compounds using various chemical and physical methods . Examples of drugs that can be given as resealed erythrocytes are Antibiotics Anti neoplastics 23

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General method of loading erythrocytes Immerse erythrocytes in hypotonic solution rupture of cells entry of drug into cells restoration of isotonicity and incubation at 37 0 c cells get resealed & are ready for use 24

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particle size of liposomes ranges from 20 nm to 10 micrometers they may be small unilamellar vesicles or large multilamellar vesicles 25

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Various drug delivery and drug targeting systems are currently under development. Choice of delivery route is driven by patient acceptability, properties of drug, access to a disease location. 26 CONCLUSION

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BIBILIOGRAPHY Novel drug delivery system, second edition, revised & expanded, vol-50 by YieW.Chein. Page no : 2 , 172 , 203 Remington – The science and practice of pharmacy, vol-1, page no :948&953-955 Physical pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences, 5 th addition by Martin. page no: 669 Pharmainfo.net www.ajhp.org www . pharmatext.org www . cadila pharma. com Biopharmaceutics & pharmacokinetics – a Treatise by D. M . Brahmankar & Sunil B . Jaiswal 27

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THANK YOU 28

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