beta lactum antibiotics

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BETA – LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS:

BETA – LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS Presented by: K.Divya Teegala krishna Reddy College of Pharmacy 1

CONTENTS::

CONTENTS: ANTIBIOTICS INTRODUCTION CLASSIFICATION OF ANTIBIOTICS DOSAGE FORMS PENICILLIN INTRODUCTION HISTORY OF PENICILLIN CLASSIFICATION OF PENICILLINS MECHANISM OF ACTION HYDROLYSIS OF PENICILLIN PENICILLIN USES REFERENCES 2

ANTIBIOTICS:

ANTIBIOTICS Antibiotic is a “Chemical substance produced by a microorganism that kills or inhibits the growth of another microorganism at low concentration.” Example of commonly used Antibiotics Penicillin Cephalosporin's Macrolides Tetracyclines 3

CLASSIFICATION OF ANTIBIOTICS:

CLASSIFICATION OF ANTIBIOTICS Based on : SPECTRUM OF ACTIVITY – BROAD SPECTRUM :ACTS ON WIDE VARIETY OF MICRO ORGANISMS Eg:QUINOLOLES,CEPHALOSPORIN . NARROW SPECTRUM: ACTIVE AGAINST LIMITED GROUP OF MICROORGANISM Eg :GLYCOPEPTIDES[act against gram positive bacteria]. TYPE OF ACTIVITY - BACTERICIDAL: KILLS THE BACTERIA BY DAMAGING SENSITIVE TARGETS IN BACTERIAL CELLS RESULTING IN DEATH Eg:AMINOGLYCOSIDES . BACTERIOSTATIC: STOPS THE GROWTHS OF BACTERIA Eg:TETRACYCILINES 4

DOSAGE FORMS:

DOSAGE FORMS According to dosage forms “Antibiotics are available in LOW DOSAGE MEDIUM DOSAGE HIGH DOSAGE 5

PENICILLIN:

PENICILLIN The first antibiotic was penicillin. Antibiotics are used to treat the infection which is caused by bacteria (such as tuberculosis, bubonic plague, or syphilis) or fungus (such as athlete’s foot). It is bactericidal in mode of action. 6

HISTORY OF PENCILLIN::

HISTORY OF PENCILLIN: Penicillin is among the most powerful and most primitive of antibiotics. Penicillin was discovered by Alexander Fleming and mass-produced by Howard Florey. Without it, most of the population of Europe and America would have succumbed to everyday diseases like typhoid fever, the flu, rheumatic fever, strep throat, and diarrhoea. Penicillin has led to some of the lifesaving medicines we have today. 7

CLASSIFICATION OF PENICILLINS:

CLASSIFICATION OF PENICILLINS Natural Penicillins: (Penicillin V, PenicillinG, Procaine Penicillin) 8

Penicillinase-Resistant Penicillins: :

Penicillinase-Resistant Penicillins: Oxacillin, Dicloxacillin, Cloxacillin,  Methicillin, Nafcillin. Cloxacillin: Oxacillin: 9

Aminopenicillins::

Aminopenicillins: Amoxicillin, Bacampicillin, Ampicillin Ampicillin: Amoxicillin: 10

PENICILLINASE SENSITIVE BROAD SPECTRUM: :

PENICILLINASE SENSITIVE BROAD SPECTRUM: Azlocillin,Carbencillin,Ticarcillin. Carbencillin : Azlocillin: 11

MECHANISM OF ACTION::

MECHANISM OF ACTION: 12

Hydrolysis of penicillin::

Hydrolysis of penicillin: 13

PENICILLIN USES::

PENICILLIN USES: penicillin used to treat: Penicillin V (500 mg) is widely used to treat the following medical conditions: Rheumatic fever Infections within the heart Infections of the respiratory system Scarlet fever Skin infections Dental infections 14

PENICILLIN USED TO CURE::

PENICILLIN USED TO CURE: Penicillin G is used widely to treat these conditions: Penicillin successfully managed inflammation that is caused by bacteria present in the liver, lungs, muscles, bones, and kidneys The drug is used extensively, since it can infiltrate areas where abscesses, pleural, peritoneal infections are present. 15

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REFERENCES::

REFERENCES: JOHN H.BLOCK,JOHN M.BEALE,Jr ,WILSON AND GISVOLD’S TEXT BOOK OF ORGANIC MEDICINAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY,11 th Edition, Page No-299-314. THOMAS L.LEMKE,DAVID A.WILLIAMS,VICTORIA F.ROCHE,S.WILLIAM ZITO ,FOYE’S PRINCIPLES OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY,Page No-1028-1046. P.PARIMOO ,A TEXT BOOK OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY , Page No-274-281 DR.ANEES AHMAD SIDDIQUI,SEEMI SIDDIQUI,Dr.R.RAJESH ,A TEXT BOOK OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY ,Volume-2, Page No-11-22. DR.S.S.KADAM ,DR.K.R.MAHADIK ,DR.K.G.BOTHARA ; PRINCIPLES OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY ,Volume-1 , Page No-65-107. RAMA RAO NADENDLA ,MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY ,Page No-73-90 WWW.WIKIPEDIA.COM . 17

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