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Edit Comment Close Premium member Presentation Transcript Slide 1: PRESENTATION BY S AJAY KISHORE C RAJESH DEVA SWATHI PRIYA Slide 2: The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill, the Gulf of Mexico oil spill, the BP oil disaster or the Macondo blowout)[ is an oil spill in gulf of mexico. It is the largest marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry. The spill stemmed from a sea-floor oil gusher that resulted from the April 20, 2010 Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explosion. The explosion killed 11 platform workers and injured 17 others.On July 15, the leak was stopped by capping the gushing wellhead after releasing about 4.9 million barrels (780×103 m3) of crude oil. BP OIL SPIL DEEPWATER HORIZON DRILLING RIG : DEEPWATER HORIZON DRILLING RIG The Deepwater Horizon was a 9-year-old semi-submersible mobile offshore drilling unit a massive floating, dynamically positioned drilling rig that could operate in waters up to 8,000 feet (2,400 m) deep and drill down to 30,000 feet (9,100 m). It was owned by Transocean, operated under the Marshallese flag of convenience and was under lease to BP from March 2008 to September 2013. At the time of the explosion, it was drilling an exploratory well at a water depth of approximately 5,000 feet (1,500 m) in the Macondo Prospect, located in the Mississippi Canyon Block 252 of the Gulf of Mexico in US. DEEPWATER HORIZON EXPLOSION : DEEPWATER HORIZON EXPLOSION During March and early April, several platform workers and supervisors expressed concerns with well control. At approximately 9:45 pm on April 20, 2010, methane gas from the well, under high pressure, shot all the way up and out of the drill column, expanded onto the platform, and exploded. Eleven workers were never found despite a three-day Coast Guard search operation, and are presumed to have died in the explosion. Efforts by ships failed &deepwater horizon sank on April 22,2010. VOLUME AND EXTENT OF OIL SPILL : VOLUME AND EXTENT OF OIL SPILL An oil leak was discovered on the afternoon of April 22 when a large oil slick began to spread at the former rig site. According to the Flow Rate Technical Group the leak amounted to about 4.9 million barrels (205.8 million gallons) of oil exceeding the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill as the largest ever to originate in U.S.-controlled waters and the 1979 Ixtoc I oil spill as the largest spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Slide 20: SPILL AREA AND THICKNESS The oil's spread was initially increased by strong southerly winds caused by an impending cold front. By April 25, the oil spill covered 580 square miles (1,500 km2) and was only 31 miles (50 km) from the ecologically sensitive Chandeleur Islands. An April 30 the spill quickly approached the Delta National Wildlife Refuge and Breton National Wildlife Refuge. On May 19 both the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and other scientists monitoring the spill with the European Space Agency Envisat radar satellite stated that oil had reached the Loop Current. Slide 22: OIL SIGHTINGS & UNDERWATER PLUME Oil began washing up on the beaches of Gulf Islands National Seashore on June 1. By June 4, the oil spill had landed on 125 miles (201 km) of Louisiana's coast, had washed up along Mississipi and Alabama barrier islands. On June 9, oil sludge began entering the Intracoastal Waterway through Perdido Pass. On June 23, oil appeared on Pensacola Beach . On June 27, tar balls reached Gulf Park . the first appearance of oil in Mississippi. Early in July, tar balls reached Grand Isle but 800 volunteers were cleaning them up. On August 19, scientists reported conclusive evidence of a deep plume 22 miles (35 km) long. Slide 23: BP INTERNAL INVESTIGATION REPORT Well integrity was not established Hydrocarbons entered the well undetected and the well lost control. Hydrocarbons ignited on Deepwater Horizon Blowout preventer did not seal the well. Slide 25: The British Petroleum followed four strategies to plug the leak BLOW OUT PREVENTER CONTAINMENT DOME TOP KILL PROCEDURE STATIC KILL PROCEDURE EFFORTS TO PLUG THE LEAK Slide 26: The exact cause was gas-kick and blowout resulting in an uncontrolled upward surge of oil and gas flow to the surface. The blowout preventer (BOP) is supposed to stop this happening. The BOP, the size of a five-storey building, consists of a series of high-pressure valves, designed to prevent such a surge or kick from damaging the drilling operation. In this particular BOP, built by US firm to specifications by Transocean, there are five ram-type & annular preventer valves. BLOW OUT PREVENTER(BOP) Slide 27: WHY DID BOP FAIL ? The gas kick was so catastrophic it pushed fragments of cement debris through the BOP so fast that it was damaged and could not activate. The other possibility is that the BOP was faulty in the first place. The leak had been spotted in one of the BOP's control pods. The last line of defence in a BOP is usually the blind shear ram. This device, activated hydraulically, uses piston-driven blades to cut the pipe, thus stopping the flow & it did not work. possibility is that the hydraulic mechanism of the blind shear ram failed. Slide 28: CONTAINMENT DOME The second technique, placing a 125-tonne (280,000 lb) containment dome (which had worked on leaks in shallow water) over the largest leak site. Piping the oil to a storage vessel on the surface. The above procedure failed when gas leaking from the pipe combined with cold water formed methane hydrate crystals that blocked the opening at the top of the dome Slide 30: TOP KILL PROCEDURE In the procedure, special drilling fluid known as mud is pumped into the well, forcing the oil back down. The aim was to pump mud from a ship into the blowout preventer. Drilling the mud pumped from the surface. Goes into blow out preventer If the pressure and density sufficient,oil and gas flow stops. Well then filled with cement. The above procedure failed as the mud in blowout preventer was not able to withstand the pressure of oil. Slide 31: STATIC KILL PROCEDURE This procedure was last attempt to plug the leak. To lower a cap over the blowout preventer to capture the leaking oil and funnel it to a surface vessel. The riser pipe is cut and Lower Marine Package(LMRP) is lowered on to the surface of Blowout preventer. T he LMRP was removed and replaced with a tightly fitting stack With the sealing cap fitted the valves or rams was turned off and flow of oil was stopped,test conducted to ascertain the leak was successful. Transocean Driller II relief well on May 2 and GSF Development Driller II started drilling a second relief on May 16. Next procedure drilling mud through the blowout preventer into the well & reservoir known as ‘’Static kill’’. Process continued with pumping cement into the well through BOP by the relief wall positioned on sea bed. The oil gusher was sealed and BP declared as success. Slide 33: PROTECTING THE COASTLINE AND MARINE ENVIRONMENTS The three fundamental strategies for addressing spilled oil were ; To contain it on the surface, away from the most sensitive areas. o dilute and disperse it in less sensitive areas. to remove it from the water. Slide 34: STRATEGIES TO REMOVE THE OIL Containment boom Skimming Dispersal In-situ burning Branch structure Ella G Slide 36: The response included deploying many miles of containment boom, whose purpose is to either corral the oil, or to block it from a marsh, mangrove, shrimp/crab/oyster ranch or other sensitive area. Booms extend 18–48 inches (0.46–1.2 m) above and below the water surface. More than 100,000 feet (30 km) of containment booms were initially deployed to protect the coast and the Mississippi River Delta. By the next day, that nearly doubled to 180,000 feet (55 km). Boom is a floating barrier made up of tubular links to contain, deflect or hold back oil floating on water . CONTAINMENT BOOM Slide 37: SKIMMING Skimming is one of many processes being used by BP to limit the impact of the oil leaking in the Gulf of Mexico. The skimmer uses a floating boom system to sweep oil across the water surface, concentrating the oil to make the skimming process more effective and efficient. Skimmers use a variety of methods to mechanically separate oil from water. These include the use of belts, rotating discs and ropes. The recovered oil is stored and later will be processed into fuel. Skimmers are highly effective in calm waters, but less efficient in windy conditions or choppy waters. Slide 38: Chemical dispersants accelerate the dispersal process, although they may have significant side-effects. Corexit EC9500A and Corexit EC9527A have been the principle dispersants employed. The dispersants are usually sprayed from airplanes. Dispersants helps in reducing the oil slick on the top surface of water. DISPERSANTS Slide 39: In this method, oil that has been corralled in a u-shaped fireproof boom is safely and carefully set on fire. This technique is applied only when the oil film thickness is adequate to sustain combustion and when the weather and water conditions are good. In-situ burning can be used only with appropriate agency agreement on a case-by-case basis when its use is safe, and feasible for the spill’s location, time, and prevailing conditions n IN SITU BURNING Slide 40: As part of continued enhancement of the response, plans are progressing to further leverage the success of the branch structure in place in Louisiana, which allows the response to be managed more effectively from the front lines. Each branch has a clear purpose—to defend the shoreline, safely and quickly carry out any clean-up activities. To provide the focal point for integration with the local community—in effect, developing and executing an integrated response plan. BRANCH STRUCTURE Slide 41: THE ELLA G The Ella G is a supply vessel that has been reconfigured with the latest skimmer and centrifuge technology into a flexible oil spill response platform. Combining innovation with cutting-edge technology, it is the first step toward a new generation of oil spill response. The Ella G's four centrifuge devices provide the potential to clean up to 800,000 gallons of oily water a day and her deck capacity is 273,000 gallons. The Ella G is 280 feet in length with a beam of 64 feet and can operate in deep water and rough seas Slide 42: CONSEQUENCES ECOLOGY The spill threatens environmental disaster due to factors such as petroleum toxicity, oxygen depletion . Eight U.S. national parks are threatened. More than 400 species that live in the Gulf islands and marshlands were affected, including the endangered Kemp's Ridley turtle, the Green Turtle, the Loggerhead Turtle, the Hawksbill Turtle, and the Leatherback Turtle. In the national refuges most at risk, about 34,000 birds have been counted, including gulls, pelicans, roseate spoonbills, egrets, terns, and blue herons. A comprehensive 2009 inventory of offshore Gulf species counted 15,700. Slide 44: FISHERIES On May 2 the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration closed commercial and recreational fishing in affected federal waters between the mouth of the Mississippi River and Pensacola Bay. The closure initially incorporated 6,814 square miles (17,650 km2).[By June 21 NOAA had increased the area under closure by (225,290 km2), or approximately 36% of Federal waters in the Gulf of Mexico, and extending along the coast from Atchafalaya Bay, Louisiana to Florida. On May 24 the federal government declared a fisheries disaster for the states of Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana. Initial cost estimates loss to the fishing industry were $2.5 billion Slide 46: On May 25 BP gave Florida $25 million to promote its beaches, which the oil had not reached, and the company planned $15 million each for Alabama, Louisiana and Mississippi. The Bay Area Tourist hotels have cut rates and offered deals such as free golf. Also, cancellation policies have changed, and refunds have been promised to those where oil arrives. Revenues remain below 2009 levels due to the special deals. By June many people were cancelling vacations while they could do so, fearing the arrival of oil on the beaches. U.S. Travel Association estimated that the economic impact of the oil spill on tourism across the Gulf Coast over a three-year period could exceed approximately $23 billion, in a region that supports over 400,000 travel industry jobs generating $34 billion in revenue annually TOURISM Slide 47: HEALTH PROBLEMS On June 15, Executive Director for Louisiana Environmental Action Network (LEAN) said on MSNBC's that people along the Gulf Coast were getting very sick, with symptoms of dizziness, vomiting, nausea, headaches, and chest pains, not only from the first responders to the crisis, but residents living along the coast as well. By June 21, 143 oil spill exposure-related cases had been reported to the Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals (DHH). since the crisis began; 108 of those cases involved workers in the oil spill clean-up efforts, while thirty-five were reported by the general public Slide 48: US declared BP OIL SPIL as A Spill of National Significance (SONS) is defined as, "a spill that, due to its severity, size, location, actual or potential impact on the public health and welfare or the environment, or the necessary response effort, is so complex that it requires extraordinary coordination of federal, state, local, and responsible party resources to contain and clean up the discharge" and allows greater federal involvement. Established a website to track and provide the public with information on the Gulf spill. Implemented procedures to track response resources requested and deployed to the Gulf. WASHINGTON’S RESPONSE Slide 49: Implemented procedures to track response resources requested and deployed to the Gulf. Applied methodology to analyze and mitigate the impacts on local readiness and back fill equipment and personnel. Participated in the Emergency Management and Assistance Compact request for resources from state to state. US Congress committee has agreed measures that would ban BP from new offshore drilling for seven years. BP has agreed to pay the compensation amounting to $20Billion. RESPONSE CONTINUES….. Slide 50: MOBILIZATION AND DEPLOYMENT 26,516 people 2,626 vessels 835 skimmers 65 aircrafts 1,781,253 feet of cumulative boom deployed Containment 827,025 barrels of oily liquid skimmed 265,450 barrels in controlled surface burns Claims and Payments Over $8 billion spent to date 154,000 payments made $399 million paid to claimants $20 billion claims escrow fund $100 million unemployed rig workers' fund $500 million establishing Gulf Coast Research Initiative THE SCALE OF RESPONSE PROGRAMME Slide 51: BP have taken a pre-tax charge of $32.2 billion and have plans to sell up to $30 billion of assets, creating a smaller, but higher quality, upstream business. BP is now focused on efficiency, quality and integration in the downstream, while maintaining a disciplined approach to alternative energy. HOW BP WILL CHANGE AFTER GULF OF MEXICO SPILL? You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.