GLASS

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By: jhon75 (44 month(s) ago)

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THE FIFTH ELEMENT OF THE FUTURE… : 

THE FIFTH ELEMENT OF THE FUTURE… GLASS Group Members- Prince Kumar Yadav Yaqub Husain Abhinav Srivastava Ashwani Rawat Vijay Kumar Yadav Ashish Chandra Srivastava Majeev Kumar Ankit Verma Ankur mishra Sandip Kumar

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INTRODUCTION TO GLASS : IT IS A MIXTURE OF NUMBER OF METTALIC SILICATE, ONE OF WHICH IS USUALLY THAT OF AN ALKALI METAL. MOST IMPORTANT FACT ABOUT GLASS IS IT IS AMORPHOUS, TRANSPARENT OR TRANSLUCENT. THE GLASS HAS BEEN USED AS AN ENGINEERING MATERIAL SINCE ANCIENT TIMES. BUT BECAUSE OF THE RAPID PROGRESS MADE IN THE GLASS INDUSTRY IN RECENT TIMES, THE GLASS HAS COME OUT AS THE MOST VERSATILE ENGINEERING MATERIAL OF THE MODERN TIMES. WITH THE HELP OF TECHNIQUES DEVELOPED IN THE GLASS INDUSTRY, THE GLASS OF ANY TYPE AND QUALITY CAN BE PRODUCED TO SUIT THE REQUIREMENTS OF DIFFERENT INDUSTRIES

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FACT FILE : THE FIBRE GLASS REINFORCED WITH PLASTICS CAN BE USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF FURNITURE, LAMPSHADES, BATHROOM FITTINGS, NAVY BOATS, AEROPLANES, CARS, TRUCKS, ETC. THE GLASS IS THE ONLY TRANSPARENT MATERIAL STRONG ENOUGH TO GO UPTO THE BOTTOM OF OCEAN. IT IS THEREFORE USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF NOSES OF DEEP-DIVING VEHICLES. THE GLASS LININGS ARE APPLIED ON EQUIPMENTS LIKELY TO BE AFFECTED BY THE CHEMICAL CORROSION SUCH AS VALVES, PUMPS, PIPES, ETC. IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF MODERN HOMES, THE WALLS AND CEILINGS OF HOLLOW GLASS BLOCKS CAN BE MADE WHICH CONTROLS THE GLARE AND HEAT CONSIDERABLY WHILE ADMITTING THE LIGHT.

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CHARACTERSTICS OF GLASS : IT ABSORBS, REFLECTS OR TRANSMITS LIGHT. IT HAS NO SHARP MELTING POINT. IT IS AN EXCELLENT ELECTRICAL INSULATOR AT HIGH TEMPERATURES DUE TO THE FACT THAT GLASS CAN BE CONSIDERED AS AN IONIC LIQUID. IT IS EXTREMELY BRITTLE. IT IS NOT USUALLY AFFECTED BY AIR OR WATER. IT IS NOT EASILY ATTACKED BY ORDINARY CHEMICAL REAGENTS. IT IS POSSIBLE TO OBTAIN GLASSES WITH DIVERSIFIED PROPERTIES AS THE GLASSES MAY BE CLEAR, COLOURLESS, DIFFUSED AND STAINED.

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IT IS POSSIBLE TO WELD PIECES OF GLASS BY FUSION. IT IS TRANSPARENT WHICH IS THE MOST USED CHARACTERISTIC OF GLASS. WHEN IT IS HEATED, IT BECOMES SOFT AND ULTIMATELY TRANSFORMS INTO A MOBILE LIQUID AND THIS PROPERTY OF GLASS HAS MADE IT TO BE TRANSFORMED INTO ARTICLES OF DESIRED SHAPE.

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CLASSIFICATION OF GLASS:BASED ON THE MATERIAL USED DURING THE MANUFACTURE OF GLASS, THE GLASS CAN MAINLY BE CLASSIFIED INTO FOUR CATEGORIES: SODA-LIME GLASS POTASH-LIME GLASS POTASH-LEAD GLASS COMMON GLASS THE COMPOSITION OF THE GLASS OF ABOVE TYPE IS AS FOLLOWS:

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SODA-LIME GLASS: IT IS COMMONLY KNOWN AS SODA GLASS OR SOFT GLASS. PROPERTIES: IT IS AVAILABLE IN CLEAN AND CLEAR STATE. IT IS CHEAP. IT IS EASILY FUSIBLE AT COMPARATIVELY LOW TEMPERATURES. IT IS POSSIBLE TO WELD ARTICLES MADE FROM THIS GLASS WITH THE HELP OF SIMPLE SOURCES OF HEAT. USES: IT IS USED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF GLASS TUBES AND OTHER LABORATORY APPARATUS, PLATE GLASS, WINDOW GLASS, ETC.

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POTASH-LEAD GLASS: THIS IS ALSO KNOWN AS THE FLINT GLASS. IT IS MAINLY A MIXTURE OF POTASSIUM SILICATE AND LEAD SILICATE. PROPERTIES: IT FUSES VERY EASILY. IT IS EASILY ATTACKED BY AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS. IT POSSESSES BRIGHT LUSTRE AND GREAT REFLECTIVE POWER. USES: IT IS USED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF ARTIFICIAL GEMS, ELECTRIC BULBS, LENSES, PRISMS, ETC

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COMMON GLASS: THIS IS ALSO KNOWN AS THE BOTTLE GLASS. IT IS PREPARED FROM CHEAP RAW MATERIALS. IT IS MAINLY A MIXTURE OF SODIUM SILICATE, CALCIUM SILICATE AND IRON SILICATE. PROPERTIES: IT FUSES WITH DIFFICULTY. IT IS BROWN, GREEN OR YELLOW IN COLOUR. IT IS EASILY ATTACKED BY ACIDS. USES: IT IS MAINLY USED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF MEDICINE BOTTLES. MANUFACTURE OF GLASS:

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COLOURED GLASS:

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Manufacture of glass: Collection of raw material Preparation of batch Melting in furnace Fabrication Annealing

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Collection of raw material: The material of glass defers according to the requirement and the use of glass. Broadly the materials according to the type can be listed as:

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In addition to the raw materials, the cullet and decolorize are also added for each type of glass. The cullet indicates waste glass or pieces of broken glass. They increase the fusibility of glass and prevent loss of alkali by valorization during the reaction in forming new glass. They also reduce the cost.

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The raw materials generally contain traces of the iron compounds. The ferrous oxide imparts a green color to glass and ferric oxide imparts a very light yellow tint. To avoid such effects, the decolorizes are added. The usual substances used as decolorizes are antimony oxide (Sb2O3), arsenic oxide (As2O3), cobalt oxide (CaO), manganese dioxide (MnO2) and nickel oxide (Nio).

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Fabrication: The molten glass is given suitable shape or form in this stage. It can either be done by hand or by machine, the hand fabrication is adopted for small scale production and machine fabrication is adopted for large scale production. Various methods of fabrication are: Blowing Pressing Rolling Casting Spinning Drawing

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Blowing: In this process the molten glass is blowed from one end with the help of a pipe in order to form and cylinder. Then the cylinder shape when obtained of desired length, is allowed to cool down and while cooling it is cut from diameter in order to form a plain sheet.

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Casting: The molten glass is poured in moulds and it is allowed to cool down slowly The large pieces of glass of simple design can be prepared by this method. It is also adopted to prepare mirrors. lenses, etc.

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Pressing: In this process, the molten glass is pressed into moulds The pressure may either be applied by hand or by mechanical means This process is adopted for ornamental articles, hollow glass articles. etc. Annealing: The glass articles are then allowed to cool down slowly and gradually. This process of slow and homogeneous cooling of glass articles is known as the annealing of glass. Following are the two methods of annealing: Flue treatment Oven treatment.

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Treatment of Glass: Bending: The glass may be bent into desired shape by placing it in ovens in which the temperature can be regulated. The glass in the form of rods, sheets or tubes is placed in such ovens and heated. It is then bent when it is suitably heated. Cutting: The glass is cut in required sizes with the help diamond or rough glasses or small wheels of hardened steel.

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Silvering: This process consists in applying a very thin coat of tin on the surface of glass. The silver is deposited on this layer of tin. A suitable paint is then applied to give protection against the atmospheric effects.

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SPECIAL VARITIES OF GLASS: BULLET PROOF GLASS FIBRE GLASS FLOAT GLASS FOAM GLASS GLASS BLOCKS HEAT EXCLUDING GLASS OBSCURED GLASS SAFETY GLASS PERFORATED GLASS SHIELDING GLASS SOLUBLE GLASS STRUCTURAL GLASS ULTRA VOILET RAY GLASS WIRED GLASS

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BULLET-PROOF GLASS: THIS GLASS IS MADE OF SEVERAL LAYERS OF GLASS AND ALTERNATE LAYERS CONSIST OF VINYL-RESIN PLASTIC. THE OUTER LAYERS OF PLATE GLASS ARE MADE THINNER THAN THE INNER LAYERS. THE SPECIAL CARE IS TO BE TAKEN FOR HEATING AND COOLING OF LAYERS DURING MANUFACTURE. THE THICKNESS OF THIS TYPE OF GLASS MAY VARY FROM 15 MM TO 75 MM OR MORE. IT WILL NOT ALLOW BULLET TO PIERCE THROUGH IT MORE OVER IT DOES NOT SCATTERS.

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FIBRE GLASS: THE FIBRE GLASS IS COMPOSED OF MINUTE GLASS RODS AND EACH GLASS ROD RESEMBLES THE PARENT MATERIAL IN ALL RESPECTS. IT IS PROOF AGAINST FIRE, VERMIN'S, WATER AND ACIDS. IT CAN BE PREPARED EITHER IN THE FORM OF CONTINUOUS STRANDS JUST LIKE SILK OR IN THE STAPLE FORM JUST LIKE WOOL. THIS IS A SPECIAL TYPE OF GLASS AND IT IS USED FOR THERMAL INSULATIONS, SHEETS, FIBRE GLASS REINFORCED PLASTICS, ETC.

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FLOAT GLASS: THE MOLTEN GLASS COMING OUT OF THE FURNACE IS ALLOWED TO FLOAT ON THE MOLTEN TIN. THE GLASS THUS FORMED IS KNOWN AS THE FLOAT GLASS IT IS THEN FURTHER ANNEALED TO REMOVE ALL THE STRESSES. IT IS WIDELY USED FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS, COMMERCIAL COMPLEXES, FURNITURE ARTICLES, ETC. IT IS SUPERIOR TO ORDINARY SHEET GLASS

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ADVANTAGES: IT IS AESTHETIC IN APPEARANCE AND ITS USE HAS OPENED UNLIMITED POSSIBILITIES OF INNOVATION IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN. IT IS AVAILABLE IN LARGER SIZES AND VARIOUS THICKNESSES. IT IS IDEALLY SUITABLE FOR SOLAR APPLICATIONS DUE TO HIGH LIGHT TRANSMISSION AND IT RESULTS IN HIGHER EFFICIENCY. IT IS TOUGHER AND MORE SCRATCH-RESISTANT. IT MAKES THE WINDOWS TO TRANSMIT MORE NATURAL LIGHT AND THE MIRRORS TO GIVE TRUE IMAGES. IT POSSESSES HIGH OPTICAL CLARITY AND SUPERIOR SAFETY PROPERTIES. THERE IS NO REFRACTION DEFECT DUE TO UNIFORM THICKNESS AND SUPERIOR OPTICAL CLARITY AND THUS THERE IS LESS EYE STRAIN.

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FOAM GLASS: THE FOAM GLASS IS PREPARED IN THE FORM OF RECTANGULAR BLOCKS. THE FINELY GROUND GLASS AND CARBON ARE THOROUGHLY MIXED AND THE MIXTURE IS THEN MELTED IN A FURNACE. AT THE TIME OF MELTING, THE MIXTURE EXPANDS AND CHANGES THE FORM TO THE BLACK FOAM. THE RESULTING GLASS MATERIAL FLOATS IN WATER AND IT CAN BE CUT LIKE WOOD AS IT CONTAINS MILLIONS OF INERT AIR CELLS. IT IS FIRE-PROOF, RIGID AND AN EXCELLENT HEAT INSULATOR. IT CAN BE USED AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR CORK FOR USE IN AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION INDUSTRIES.

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GLASS BLOCKS: THESE ARE PARTIALLY EVACUATED AND COMPLETELY SEALED HOLLOW UNITS WHICH ARE FORMED BY FUSING TOGETHER TWO-HALVES OF PRESSED GLASS. THE EDGES ARE COATED WITH A GRIT BEARING PLASTIC MATERIAL SO THAT PERMANENT AND EFFECTIVE BOND WITH THE MORTAR IS ENSURED. THE GLASS BLOCK ARE AVAILABLE IN SQUARE SIZES WITH DIMENSIONS OF 150 MM, 200 MM AND 300 MM WITH THE APPROXIMATE THICKNESS OF 100 MM. ONE OR BOTH THE FACES OF THE BLOCKS ARE SUITABLY TREATED TO DIFFUSE LIGHT. THESE BLOCKS POSSESS HIGH INSULATING VALUE AND THEY ARE SET IN CEMENT MORTAR.

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ADVANTAGES: THEY ARE EASY TO CLEAN AND HENCE THEY CAN BE WELL MAINTAINED. THEY ARE EXCELLENT IN LIGHT TRANSMISSION. THEY PROVIDE VERY GOOD INSULATION AGAINST COLD, HEAT AND NOISE. THE GLASS BLOCKS ARE NOT INTENDED TO CARRY SUPERIMPOSED LOADS. BUT THEY POSSESS ADEQUATE STRENGTH TO CARRY THEIR OWN WEIGHT UP TO A MAXIMUM HEIGHT OF 6 M.

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HEAT-EXCLUDING GLASS: THIS GLASS ALLOWS LIGHT TO PASS THROUGH IT, BUT IT ELIMINATES HEAT. IT IS USED FOR WINDOWS OF COACHES OF HIGHER CLASS IN RAILWAYS, IN WINDOW PANELS OF IMPORTANT BUILDINGS, ETC. PERFORATED GLASS: IN THIS TYPE OF GLASS, THE PERFORATIONS ARE MADE IN SHEET GLASS WITH THE HELP OF ROLLERS. THE PERFORATIONS MAY BE MADE DURING THE MANUFACTURE OR AFTER THE MANUFACTURE. IT IS USED FOR PANELS IN VENTILATORS.

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OBSCURED GLASS: THIS GLASS IS USED AT PLACES WHERE LIGHT IS TO BE TRANSMITTED BUT VISION IS TO BE OBSCURED. IT HAS ONE SURFACE MADE OPAQUE BY MELTING POWDERED GLASS UPON THE SURFACE. IT CAN ALSO BE PREPARED BY THE ABRAIDING OR RUBBING ACTION OF THE SAND BLAST. THUS THIS TYPE OF GLASS WILL BE USEFUL FOR PUBLIC TOILETS, OFFICE DOORS, PARTITIONS, ETC.

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SAFETY GLASS: THIS GLASS IS FORMED BY PLACING CELLULOID BETWEEN 4O SHEETS OF THE PLATE GLASS AND THEN APPLYING GLUE TO MAKE A SINGLE OF IT. IF GLASS BREAKS, IT DOES NOT SCATTERS. IT IS ALSO KNOWN AS THE SHATTER-PROOF GLASS. SHIELDING GLASS: THIS IS A SPECIAL VARIETY OF GLASS AND IT CONTAINS HEAVY ELEMENTS LIKE LEAD OXIDE (PbO), ETC. IT IS USED FOR WINDOWS THROUGH WHICH HIGH RADIATION IS OBSERVED. DEPENDING UPON THE TYPE OF RADIATION, THE QUALITY OF SHIELDING GLASS IS DETERMINED.

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WIRED GLASS: IN THIS TYPE OF GLASS, THE STEEL WIRE MESH IS PLACED IN GLASS DURING ROLLING OPERATION THE MESH MAY HAVE HEXAGONAL OR SQUARE UNITS IF THIS GLASS BREAKS, THE PIECES OF GLASS ARE HELD IN POSITION BY THE MESH. THIS GLASS IS ALSO FIRE RESISTANT. THE WIRED GLASS IS USED FOR ROOFS, SKY LIGHTS, FIRE RESISTANT DOORS AND WINDOWS.

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STRUCTURAL GLASS: THESE ARE IN THE FORM OF GLASS CRETES WHICH ARE SET IN CEMENT CONCRETE AND REINFORCERD WITH STEEL FRAMES. THESE BRICKS CAN BE USED AS LIGHT STRUCTURAL MEMBER ALSO. THEY ARE WIDELY USED FOR PAVEMENT LIGHTS, PARTITIONS, LANTERN LIGHTS ETC.

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GLASS INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA: WITH THE PROCESS OF INDUSTRIALISATION THE GLASS INDUSTRY STARTED FLOURISHING IN INDIA AFTER THE INDEPENDENCE. THE CENTRAL GLASS AND CERAMIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE WAS SET UP BY THE GOVERNMENT TO IMPART KNOWLEDGE REGARDING THE VARIOUS VARITIES OF GLASS. THE PLANTS FOR MANUFACTURE OF VARIOUS TYPES OF GLASS WAS SET UP IN DIFFERENT AREAS TO BOAST THE GLASS INDUSTRY. THE USE OF GLASS BECAME MORE AND MORE GIVING HIGH PROFIT TO THE INDIAN GOVERNMENT.

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NEARLY ALL COMMON TYPES OF GLASS USED WITHIN INDIA ARE PRODUCED IN INDIA ITSELF. DUE TO THE ADVANCEMENT IN TECHNOLOGY AND THE INSTITUTES, THERE IS A SOUND CO-ORDINATION BETWEEN RESEARCH AND THE GLASS INDUSTRY OF INDIA. THE USE OF GLASS STARTED EVERYWHERE, IN EVERY PROJECT AND IN EVERY FIELD.

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MARKET SURVEY

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PACKING: THE GLASS ARE FIRST COVERED WITH THE SHOCK ABSORBING MATERIALS LIKE FOAM ETC AND THEN IT IS KEPT INSIDE THE WOODEN FRAME. THIS IS TO AVOID THE BREAKAGE AND THE CRACKS DURING TRANSPORTATION. THE GLASS TO BE TRANSPORTED IS INSURED BEFORE DEPARTURING AS INSTEAD OF ALL MEASURES SOME BREAKAGE STILL TAKES PLACE.

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CUTTING: FOR CUTTING, THE TOOL USED IS CALLED DIAMOND CUTTER. THIS DIAMOND CUTTER HAS A DIAMOND LINING ON A METAL HANDLE. THIS TOOL IS USED FIRSTLY TO MAKE THE LINE ALONG WHICH THE GLASS IS TO BE CUT THEN IT IS THEN HIT FROM THE BOTTOM GENTLY OR IF IT IS THIN THEN ONLY HANDS ARE ENOUGH TO BREAK THE GLASS IN TWO PIECES.

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THE MAXIMUM THICKNESS OF GLASS READILY AVAILABLE IN MARKET IS 12 MM BUT FURTHER IT COULD BE MADE MORE THICK ON ORDER. THE MINIMUM THICKNESS AVAILABLE IS 3 MM. IN MARKET THE GLASS CAN BE HAD IN THE THICKNESS OF 3, 4, 5, 6, 6.5, 8, 10, 12 MM. THE GLASS COMES IN SHEETS OF SIZE 4 FT X 8 FT, 6 FT X 8 FT, 7 FT X 10 FT.

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Painted glass: In order to make the glass attractive by using colors, glass is painted by a special process. In this the first thing is that the pattern is printed in a block and then a white sticker is pasted on it. With the help of knife or any cutting tool. The desired pattern is obtained by taking out the cut out pieces. Then the desired color is then applied.

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THANK YOU FOR YOUR PRECIOUS TIME