Climate of Russia

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Climate of Russia:

Climate of Russia

PowerPoint Presentation:

Russia is located in the temperate belt . Russia's climate is predominantly ( преимущественно) continental ( European Russia - maritime-continental ) .

Factors:

Factors Geographic location Ocean currents Cyclones and anticyclones Air masses: monsoons

Ocean currents:

Ocean currents The Northern Atlantic current softens the climate, this is why the water along western Europe (Murmansk) doesn’t freeze. The Kuril-Kamchatskoye current dries out the climate and cools it.

Сlimatic zones:

С limatic zones С limatic zones of Russia vary from arctic to subtropical: steppes, forests, forest-steppes, semi-deserts, subarctic in Siberia, Arctic and forest tundra in the polar north, permafrost in the northern areas of the Far East. Most of European Russia is characterized by a humid-temperate continental climate. This belt stretches from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea. Moscow , which lies in the temperate continental climate zone, has average temperatures of -9.4° C in January and 18.9° C in July. St Petersburg , which is influenced by the Baltic Sea, averages -8.3° C in January and 17.8° C in July.

PowerPoint Presentation:

There are five natural zones in Russia: the tundra zone; the taiga (forest zone); the steppe (plains); the arid zone ; and the mountain zone. Most of Russia consists of two plains (the East European Plain and the West Siberian Plain ), two lowlands (the North Siberian and the Kolyma , in Siberia), two plateaus (the Central Siberian Plateau and the Lena Plateau to the east), and a series of mountainous areas in the northeast and in the southwest.

Average annual temperatures in cities:

Average annual temperatures in cities Archangel = 1°C. Moscow = 4°C. Sochi = 13°C. Irkutsk = 0°C. Yakutsk = -9°C. Vladivostok = 5°C.

Influence of relief and oceans:

Influence of relief and oceans The high mountains in the South stop the tropical air masses from the Indian and Pacific Oceans , but European Russia and northern Siberia lack such topographic protection from the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans . In the north, the Arctic Ocean is frozen up to the coast during the winter, which keeps away warm ocean waters. Russia lies in the northern, this is why warm influences from the Pacific Ocean do not reach far inland.

The Atlantic influence:

The Atlantic influence The primary marine influence thus comes from the Atlantic Ocean in the west. However, by the time Atlantic air reaches Russia it has crossed the entire western part of Europe and undergone considerable modification. this warm, moist Atlantic air may push east well into central Siberia. Because this is the principal moisture-bearing air mass to reach Russia, most of the territory receives summer maximum of precipitation. This is fortunate for agriculture, because in most of the better farming areas the moisture supply is limited. In a number of areas, however, it’s not — the early summer is often subject to drought, while the middle and late summer months may bring considerable rain and clouds that interfere with the harvest. This is true in Far Eastern Russia, where a monsoonal inflow of Pacific air occurs during middle and late summer. In northern regions, it’s very cloudy and cool; the Russians have a special name for the phenomenon: pasmurno , which may be translated as “dull, overcast weather”. Despite the overcast skies, annual precipitation in most of the country is only light to modest. This is because much of the time the air is cool, so its capacity to hold water vapour is low. Across the European Plain, average annual precipitation decreases from more than 800 mm in the west, to less than 400 mm along the Caspian Sea coast. Throughout Siberia and Far Eastern Russia, annual precipitation ranges generally between 508 and 813 mm; in higher elevations annual totals may reach 1,016 mm or more.

Seasons:

Seasons The climate of Russia is continental and it is characterized by temperature extremes. Winters are long and very cold; and summers are short with temperatures ranging from hot to relatively cool. The coldest winter temperatures are in eastern Siberia. Verkhoyansk in north-eastern Siberia is often called the “cold pole of the world”. During January, temperatures average -48.9° C and -67.8° C. During July, temperatures in Verkhoyansk are between 15° C and 35° C. The city has an absolute temperature range of -102.8° C, the greatest on Earth. In Oimyakon , Yakutia , the winter temperature is as low as -71 ° C. Sometimes very strong easterly winds, called Buran can occur, bringing freezing cold temperatures and snowstorms. Precipitation varies from region to region; Western Russia = a lot of rain (750 mm), the southern areas in the Russian Steppes have little rains = 200 mm .

Flora and fauna in Russia:

Flora and fauna in Russia In the northern part of Russia is the Arctic desert zone . This zone includes Taymyr Peninsula and many islands of Arctic Ocean. There is no vegetation here. Lichens (лишайник) and mosses mainly grow in this areas. One can see animals like seal (тюлень) and walrus (морж) in this zone. in the Tundra region the main vegetation diversity includes lichen, willows, birches and mosses. Among the fauna, one will find reindeer ( северный олень) , arctic fox and white hare. Taiga has thick forests. The main trees are spruce (ель) and birches, cedar, pine and fir ( пихта) . Animals like Russian beer, sable ( соболь) , lynx (рысь) , reindeer and squirrel are found here. Woodpecker (дятел) , hazel-grouse (рябчик) and owl are the commonly seen birds here. The Steppe zone in Russia has vegetation like birch, oak and aspen (осина) . Rodents (грызуны) , eagles, skylark (жаворонок) , crane (журавль) and great bustard (дрофа) live here.

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