Crisis of Solid Waste in Panama.ppt


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The Crisis of Solid Waste in Panama Francisco Rivas APRONAD

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11947 transits 2014 5 of world trade 80 GDP is contributed by the tertiary sector 75 Se desarrolla en la Zona de Tránsito Panama Canal Atlantic Side PANAMA: AN ECONOMY OF SERVICES Panama Canal Expansion

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Colon Free Zone 2000 companies 250000 visitors a year 11 MM imports/re-exports International Banking Center 72 banks 36 billion assets Colon Free Zone International Banking Center

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IN THE LAND OF THE ECONOMY OF SERVICES EVERY CAPITA PRODUCE 1 Kgr. GARBAGE DAY ● The country relies entirely on imports. ● Many inexpensive products but low quality pass quickly become useless and obsolete. ● Exaggerated use of products called "disposable" especially plastics manufactured for consumer convenience but without thinking about the environment. ● In this category fall lot of containers utensils dishes and other items. Advertising has also contributed to increasing consumerism.

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Physical composition of solid waste in Panama: less than half are organic Plastics have become a "headache".

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Panama: produce garbage as a developed country but is collected and treated as in the most backward ... There are no reliable statistics. But assuming a national average of 800 grams per cápita the country they would be producing about 3000 tonnes/day. Of which only 50 is collected.

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What do you do with 1500 tons per day if collected Municipal Landfills are carried where it is buried and open burning. In Panama City landfill which burns every so often works.

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And what of 1500 tons per day NO collected About 540000 tons / year are incinerated in the open buried deposited in public roads rivers and beaches.

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The "purifying" fire ... In about 75 of Occupied Private Dwellings how to eliminate waste is burned in the open

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Burning garbage dioxins and furans Burning trash dioxins and furans are released causing ● Immunological abnormalities. ● Cancer. ● Reproductive damage and birth defects. ● Respiratory and lung diseases. ● Liver function problems. ● Problems neurological functioning. ● Impaired kidney function.

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What are the causes of this problem Since 1990 the Panamanian government has spent millions of dollars to fund studies and consultancies which always discover the same causes of the problem: ● Municipalities lack of installed capacity equipment human resources and service planning to provide an efficient service. ● Private companies that received the concession for the provision of services in major cities except the capital operate with large losses entrenched "culture of nonpayment" rate amenities. ● The commercial industrial and even the state itself home users delinquencies remain high because it is considered that this is a responsibility of "other" Government Municipalities which must be serviced. ● Panamanian law on this subject is anachronistic.

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Chaos and anarchy institutional ● Municipalities across the country with the exception of Panama City scavenge but are not authorized to do so. ● Responsible for the collection is a national organization called Urban Household Cleaning Authority AAUD for its acronym in Spanish but only performs in the capital city. ● Harvesting in intermediate cities is a monopoly of foreign companies Colón San Miguelito Arraiján La Chorrera.

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Chaos and anarchy institutional continued ● Recycling is a thriving and profitable business but ethically unacceptable disadvantage socially environmentally unsustainable. No there any type of legal regulation. ● There is an entrenched culture of non- payment of tax collecting garbage.

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Proposal 1 to solve the problem: New National Waste Law Develop and adopt a comprehensive solid waste law with the participation of the private sector civil society municipalities and government related entities. A fundamental concept of the new law would be "shared responsibility" whereby the integrated management of solid waste is a social responsibility and requires joint coordinated and differentiated participation of producers distributors consumers users of products and government or municipalities as appropriate under a scheme of market feasibility and environmental technological economic and social efficiency.

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Proposal 2: National Waste Fund. Create a national fund for proper solid waste management models and bridging the gaps in municipal budgets. To use the fund municipalities should present cash flows in which revenue goals are established to achieve the "break even" in 2015 as well as indicators of efficiency in service delivery. This fund also would fund the construction of landfills with the goal of eliminating the 40 municipal open dumps in major cities too in 2015.

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Proposal 3: Social Privatization Perform the "social privatization" of the collection service in the capital city by creating small collection companies and recycling which would be contracted directly by the municipality to serve in marginal and peri-urban areas where the system conventional toilet faces serious difficulties due to the layout of the streets. Thus expand coverage improve the effectiveness of the municipalities in the areas of competence and employment and income for low-skilled unemployed youth would be generated.

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The problem of garbage in Panama has to do with the willingness of decision makers to solve problems. ● The country has qualified professionals ... ● With sufficient financial resources ... ● With access to technology ... … The ball is in the field of political.

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