native americans

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1 Indian Peoples of the Great Plain Many Native Americans lived on the Great Plains for hundreds of years. A number of them, such as the Sioux and Cheyenne, had lived on the Plains for hundreds of years. The Plains Indians

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2 Many different Native American nations lived on the Great Plains. Plains Indians had rich and varied cultures.They had well organized religions, made fine and crafts, and created much poetry. The Plains Indians lived in villages.

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3 After the Pueblo Indians revolted against the Spaniards in 1680, they were left with thousands of horses. They traded the horses with neighboring tribes and learned to ride them Agriculture was their main source of food. The Indians captured and tamed wild horses. By the 1700’s, hunting replaced farming as the basis of life for many plains people. Horses changed the Indians’ way of life. The Spanish brought horses in the late 1400’s. At first Indians could not own horses.

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4 The Indians moved very often, following the Buffalo that roamed the plains. The buffalo served as a living grocery store for the Plains Indians. What do we mean when we say the buffalo was a living grocery store for the Native Americans? After acquiring horses, they followed huge herds of buffalo and hunted them by driving them into large corrals, or enclosures. They sent out hunting parties that pursued Buffalo and other animals. corrals

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5 Buffalo meat, rich in protein was the main item in the Indians diet. They usually dried the meat on racks. They dried meat called jerky. Many Americans eat beef jerky today. The Indians lived in tepees made from wooden sticks and Buffalo skins. The Plains Indians were dependent on the Buffalo for food, clothing, and shelter.

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6 In the summer many groups played together, hunted together and staged horse and foot races. The most important event for the Plains Indians was a religious ceremony known as the Sundance. In the Sundance, dancers circled around a tree and asked the Great Spirit to give them good fortune during the coming year.

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7 Plains Indian women tanned Buffalo hides to make leather. Women were skilled in many crafts. They made baskets and blankets. They made clothing, tepees and tools. They made everything but weapons. The Roles of Women and Men The woman’s artistic ability established their rank in society. They took care of the children. Women tanned Buffalo hides to make leather. Women were skilled in many crafts.

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8 They provided military leadership and waged war to fight or extend a territory. The most successful warriors gained great respect from the members of their nation. Plains Indian men protected the women, children and elders. They passed their valuable skills to the boys. They supervised the spiritual life of the community by leading religious ceremonies.

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9 To the Indians, the railroad was a terrifying monster, an “iron horse” letting out black smoke and moving at stunning speeds. The Railroads

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10 Many Americans forced the Indians off their lands by force. In 1876, Sitting Bull, an Indian chief wrote the to the United States Army troops when they drove him off his land. “ I want to know what you are doing to the land. You scare the Buffalo way. I want to hunt in this place. I want you to return back from of this place. If you don’t, I will fight you!” Sitting Bull Indian People in Retreat What did Sitting Bull mean in this statement?

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11 As the settlers moved for the West the United States promised to protect the Indians hunting grounds. The United States Government broke promise after promise. This made the Indians very angry. Indian wars spread across the Great Plains for this reason.

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12 In 1851, the Federal Government met with the Indian nations near Fort Laramie in Wyoming. The Government asked the Indians to stay in a limited area. In return, they promised money, domestic animals, agricultural tools, and other goods. The Native American leaders agreed to the government’s terms in the Fort Laramie Treaty. Yet settlers continued to trespass on Indian lands and break the agreement.

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13 In 1858, gold was struck at Pikes Peak in Colorado. The gold strike brought miners onto the land the government promised to the Indians. In 1860, the Indians were forced to give up the land around Pikes Peak. Native Americans refused to give up their land. They attacked trains, burned, and killed many soldiers and common people. Colonel John Chivington, of the United States Army, attacked the Indians. When the Indians surrendered he ordered his men to destroy the village and take no prisoners. He slaughtered about 150 Indian men, women, and children. This was called the Chivington Massacre.

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14 The Indians in the Northern Plains also signed a treaty. They agreed to live on reservations that included all of South Dakota west of the Missouri River. A reservation is a limited area that has set-aside for Native Americans. In 1867, the Southern Plains Indians signed a new agreement with the United States Government. The Indians were promised the land in the territory called present-day Oklahoma. The Indians were unhappy with the new treaty. They had no choice but to move.

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15 The Plains Indians suffered from for lost battles and broken treaties. The Buffalo were being destroyed. The two reasons Buffalo were being destroyed were: 2. Buffalo hunting became a fashionable sport and commercial hunters shot Buffalo to make hide blankets. End of the Buffalo Hired Hunters killed thousands of buffalo to provide food for the railroad crews laying tracks across the prairie.

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16 With 2 to 3 million Buffalo hides its being taken every year, the number of Buffalo on the plain dropped from 13 million in 1862 to a few hundred the in 1900‘s. Please do not hunt me!

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17 Chief Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse fought back against the Americans invading their lands in 1876. This war between the settlers and Indians was called the Sioux War. Colonel George Custer led his soldiers against the Indians. George Custer attacked the Indians was only 225 men. He lost the battle. This battle was called the Battle of Little Bighorn. Chief Sitting Bull and George Custer The War for the West Even on reservations, the Indians were not left in peace. In 1874 gold was found on a plains Indian Reservation in the Black Hills region.

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18 Apache Indians fiercely resisted the loss of their lands by the settlers setting up ranches. One leader Geronimo continued to fight the longest.

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19 Indians were being forced to live on reservations set up by the United States government. The traditional Indian way of life has ended for the Native American Indians.

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