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Premium member Presentation Transcript Poverty: Presentation by: Adrienna Perales, Beth Roitz , Gabriella Masini , Griselda Maria Palma and Julie Reed PovertyPoverty: Poverty is multidimensional, and includes food insecurity, poor housing, unemployment, psychological distress, powerlessness, hopelessness, vulnerability, and lack of access to health care, education, and transportaion PovertyKey Terms: Key Terms Absolute poverty- the lack of resources necessary for well-being Food, water, housing, sanitation, health care Relative poverty- the lack of material and economic resources compared with some other population Human poverty index- Deprivation of a long, healthy life Deprivation of knowledge Deprivation in decent living standardsThe Rich and The Poor: There are two ways of measuring the extent of economic inequality: Income- refers to the amount of money a person makes in a given period Wealth- refers to a person’s total assets Real estate holdings, cash, stocks, bonds, ect . The United States is characterized by social stratification It has social classes The upper class has the greatest access to the pleasures that money can buy This disparities between the very rich and the very poor are constantly on the increase The Rich and The PoorThe Rich and The Poor cont. : In the United States, the wealthiest 1% of all households hold more than 1/3 of all personal wealth. Personal wealth can also be defined by someone’s net worth. Net worth- the value of all assets minus debts The wealthiest 20% of households in the United States receive almost 50% of all income. The poorest 20% receive less than 5% of all income. The Rich and The Poor cont.The Problem: Poverty Line The level of income that the federal government considers sufficient to meet basic requirements of food, shelter, and clothing In 2011, the Census Bureau reported that 46.2 million people lived below poverty line which is 2.6 million more than the year before. The ProblemThe Problem cont.: What the poor face Poor diets and nutrition The cheapest foods are the least healthy, such as canned beans, macaroni and cheese, ramon noodles, boxed dinners Destitute living conditions Rodent infestations, lack of running water and heating, hazardous housing Appearance Ragged, poor quality, unfitting clothing Lack of opportunity for advancement socially, economically, or educationally Poor health Little access to health care and lower-quality health care when accessible The Problem cont.Who Are the Poor?: Poverty is concentrated among certain population categories, including one-parent families, children, older adults, large-size families, people of color, and the homeless. The poor are a marginalized group Marginalized group- relatively powerless people who, because they belong to a certain socioeconomic class, age cohort, labor organization, political affiliation, gender, racial or ethnic group, or religious group, are seen as being of little importance by the dominant culture group Who Are the Poor?Who Are the Poor? Census Bureau survey from 2010 Difference from 2009-2010 : Who Are the Poor? Census Bureau survey from 2010 Difference from 2009-2010 Race Whites The smallest group in poverty but the largest increase in numbers as it increased by 1.1 million people Blacks & Hispanics Number in poverty increased by .8 million people Asians Consistent from previous years Age Under 18 Numbers increased .9 million 18-64 years Numbers increased 1.6 million 65 years and older Consistent from previous years Nativity Native-born populations Increased 2.2 million Foreign-born populations Increased .4 millionWho are the Poor? : Who are the Poor? Region The South had the highest regional poverty rate Populations increased 1.5 million Residence The Urban poor Received 2.6 million increase The Rural poor No significant difference Family Dynamics Married Couples .2 increase in populations Female Householder .3 increase in populations Male Householder No significant increaseWhat Causes Poverty?: What Causes Poverty? A few causes Unemployment Poor physical health Low education level Emotional problems Drug addiction Racial and sexual discrimination Budgeting problems Mismanagement of resources Mental retardation Many more… From this list we can see: Poverty has many causes Eliminating the causes of poverty would require a wide range of social problems Poverty interacts with almost all other social problemsCulture of Poverty: The culture of poverty arises after extended periods of economic deprivation in highly stratified capitalistic societies Deprivation is caused by high rates of unemployment and low wages for those who are employed. Leads to attitudes and values of helplessness and despair The culture continues to exist because Attitudes, norms, and expectations of the poor limit opportunities They are socially isolated with little contact with groups outside of their own culture They become hostile to institutions (social & educational) that maybe able to help them escape poverty Culture of PovertyPoverty is Functional: They are available to do the unpleasant jobs that no one else wants to do By their activities, they subsidize the more affluent Jobs are established for those people, such as social workers, who provide services to the poor The poor purchase goods, such as those of poor quality, that otherwise could not be sold. They serve as examples of deviance that are frowned on by the majority and that thereby support dominant norms Poverty is FunctionalPowerPoint Presentation: They provide an opportunity for others to practice their “Christian duty” of helping the less fortunate They make mobility for likely for others because they are removed from the competition for a good education and good jobs. They contribute to culture activities by providing, for example, cheap labor for the construction of monuments and works of art. They create cultural forms that are often adopted by the affluent. They serve as symbolic opponents for some political groups and as constituents for others. They often absorb the costs of change (for example, by being the victims of unemployment that results from technological advances).Application of Theory to Poverty: Conflict Theory Assumes that because there is such an enormous wealth in modern societies, no one in such societies should go without their needs being met The working poor are being exploited, being paid poverty level wages so that their employers can reap higher profit. Asserts that poverty does not exist because it is essential of functional but because some groups benefit from the poverty of others. Believe that poverty can best be dealt with by the poor becoming politically aware and organizing to reduce inequality through government action. Poverty is viewed as being relative, because it depends on what you compare it to. Asserts that poverty is not a matter of economic deprivation, but involves the person’s self-concept. Believe that poverty can be resolved by eliminating the stigma associated with poverty. Poverty can be eliminated by improved public assistance programs that bring poor up to an adequate standard of living, combine with programs that provide opportunities to move up the socioeconomic ladder and programs that encourage the poor to redefine their social environment. Application of Theory to Poverty Internationist TheoryReferences: Cuthrell , K., Stapleton, J., & Ledford, C. (2010). Examining the culture of poverty: Promising practices. Preventing School Failure , 54 (2), 104-110. Gans , Herbert, J. (1971). The uses of poverty: The poor pay all. Social Policy , 20-24 . Levernier , W., Partridge, M. D., & Rickman, D. S. (2000). THE CAUSES OF REGIONAL VARIATIONS IN U.S. POVERTY: A CROSS-COUNTRY ANALYSIS*. Journal Of Regional Science , 40 (3), 473. Mooney, L. A., Knox, D. & Schacht, C. (Eds.). (2011). Understanding social problems. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Narayan, Deepa . (2000). Voices of the poor: Can anyone hear us? New York: Oxford University Press. Noguera , P. A. (2011). A broader and bolder approach uses education to break the cycle of poverty. Phi Delta Kappan , 93 (3), 8. Peet , R. (1975). INEQUALITY AND POVERTY: A MARXIST-GEOGRAPHIC THEORY. Annals Of The Association Of American Geographers, 65(4), 564-571. http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=3&hid=9&sid=fc7d687f-74b6-4a08-84a6-1fe997ad3adf%40sessionmgr13&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN= 14535406 PIMPARE, S. (2009). The Failures of American Poverty Measures. Journal Of Sociology & Social Welfare , 36 (1), 103-122 UNDP. (1997). Human Development Report 1997 . New York: Oxford University Press. U.S. Census Bureau. (2010). Income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in the United States: 2010. Retrieved from www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/p60-239. pdf Zastrow , H., & Kirst -Ashman, K. K. (2010). Understanding human behavior and the social environment . (8th ed. ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Pub Co. References You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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