Slide 1: Reach out for the Personalised Medicine - Aparna Banerjee Oriental Institute of Science & Technology, Burdwan M.Sc Biotechnology, 1 st Year Generations of Medicine: Generations of Medicine Medicine is the science of healing humans & practiced from a long ago. It is so have different generations according to change in therapeutic process- 1. Blockbluster Medicine 2. Stratified Medicine 3. Personalised Medicine Personalised Medicine: Personalised Medicine “Personalized medicine” refers to the tailoring of medical treatment to the individual characteristics of each patient. It does not mean creation of drugs or medical devices that are unique to a patient, but rather the ability to classify individuals into sub populations that differ in their susceptibility to a particular disease or their response to a specific treatment. Scopes of Personalised Medicine: Scopes of Personalised Medicine 1. Shift Emphasis in Medicine from Reaction to Prevention 2. Enable Selection of Optimal Therapy & Reduce Trial -&-Error Prescribing 3. Make the Use of Drugs Safer by avoiding adverse drug reaction 4. Increase Patient Compliance to Treatment 5. Reduce Time, Cost and Failure Rate of Clinical Trials 6. Reduce the overall Cost of Healthcare Diagonostic work underlying Personalised Medicine: Diagonostic work underlying Personalised Medicine Current Trends in Personalised Medicine’s application : Current Trends in Personalised Medicine’s application The personalised drug that are currently in testing or use, are- 1. GlaxoSmithKline’s Ziagen for HIV & AstraZeneca’s lung drug Iressa 2. US FDA requires patients to be tested for genetic variants for Pfizer’s HIV drug Selzentry , Eli Lilly & Bristol-Myers Squibb’s Erbitux for colorectal cancer & Roche’s Herceptin for breast cancer 3. Cytochrome P450 Test This group of enzymes are responsible for metabolizing more than 30 types of medicines. The test can determine dosing & effect of some anti-depressants, anti-coagulants, Proton pump inhibitors 4. Thiopurine methyltransferase Test This enzyme breaks down chemotherapy drug thiopurine , which is used to treat leukemia & autoimmune disorders. Legalisation & Government initiatives:
Legalisation & Government initiatives Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act (GINA) in 2008 was a landmark for personalized medicine. GINA ensures that all genetic information will be protected against any misuse. HHS launched the Personalized Health Care Initiative to improve the quality of healthcare for every patient in United States. The HHS Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Genetics, Health and Society (SACGHS) released reports recommending actions related to integration of genetics into healthcare; the legal implications of genomics in medicine; the medical education curriculum & impact of patent policy. President’s Council on Science and Technology published its findings in 2008 about Priorities for Personalized Medicine The !st adoption of personalized medicine was introduced by Senator
in 2006. Genomics and Personalized Medicine Act (GPMA) acknowledged personalized medicine to improve quality of healthcare.
Limitations of Personalised medicine: Limitations of Personalised medicine 1. Cost 2. Technology 3. Entrenched Interest Future of Personalised Therapy: Future of Personalised Therapy 1. Affordable Genome Sequencing 2. Legalisation of DNA Transistor , a personal genetic analyzer Refferences: Refferences www.ngpharma.com www.wikipedia.com www.post.com www.gene.com/gene/products/information/pdf/herceptin-prescribing.pdf www.3four50.com www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pme/articles www.parliament.uk/documents/upload/stGMhumanGeneticsCommission.pdf Slide 11: Thank You All