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Submitted To: Submitted By: Dr.(Mrs.)Vimla Dunkwal. Neha Shekhawat CANCER

Cancer definition : 

Cancer (medical term :malignant neoplasm) is a class of disease in which a group of cells displays uncontrolled growth, division beyond the normal limits) , invasion(instrusion on and destruction of adjacent tissues) and sometimes metastasis spread of other locations in the body via lymph or blood) cont… Cancer definition

Cont…. : 

Cancer is the term used to define the disease with which abnormal cell divide uncontrolably.These abnormal cells have ability to invade tissue within the body and are spread through the blood stream and lymph system. www.medicine Cont….

Prevalence (Global) : 

(WHO)Global cancer rates could increase by 50% to 15 million by 2020 Lung cancer is the most common accounting for 1.2 million new cases annually Cancer of the breast just over 1 million Stomach 8,70,000 Liver 5,60,000 Cervical 4,70,00 Esophageal 4,10,000 cont… Prevalence (Global)

Cont… : 

Head and neck 3,90,000 Bladder cancer 3,30,000 Leukemia 2,50,000 Pancreatic 2,16000 Kidney,1,90,000 Thyroid ,1,23,000 Pharynx,65,000 Cont…


Word cancer comes from the Latin word crab. It refers to any malignant growth to tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division. Chronic disease of body’s cells. Its development damage to the DNA of cells. CANCER:

Carcinogenesis : 

Involves a transformation of cell produced by the interaction of chemicals ,radiation or viruses with cellular DNA. : is the stage in which initiated cells are activated by a promoting agent to multiply and form a discrete tumor. cont.. Carcinogenesis Promotion Initiation

Cont.. : 

: is the phase in which tumor cells aggregate grow autonomously and form benign tumors that eventually lead to a malignant phenotype with the capacity for tissue invasion and metastasis Cont.. Progression

Carcinogenic process : 

Scheme-1 Healthy cells Initiated cells initiation promotion progression Invasive Carcinoma Dysphasia Carcinoma Metastasis (not treatable) Carcinogenic process

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Scheme-2 genetics cancer

Signs of cancer:- : 

Unusual bleeding or discharge. Lump or thickening in the breast or elsewhere. Change in bowl or bladder habits. Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing ,harshness or cough. Continue pain in the specific organ. Signs of cancer:-

Forms of cancer : 

Benign Malignant Tumor Forms of cancer

Nutritional implications of cancer : 

1.Cancer cachexia:- A common secondary diagnosis in patient with advanced neoplastic disease in a variant of protein –energy malnutrition is termed as Cancer cachexia. Includes:- progressive weight loss , anorexia, generalized wasting , immuno suppression altered basic metabolic rate, a abnormalities in fluid and energy balance. cont… Nutritional implications of cancer

Cont… : 

2. Metabolic abnormalities:- Hypocalcaemia Diarrhea Vomiting 3. Sensory changes:- Heightened sense of smell and taste Cont…

Factors affecting appetite : 

Factors affecting appetite APPETITE Psychological Neurological Nutritional abnormalities Intermediately metabolites Endocrine abnormalities Infections Cytokines Medication

Etiological risk factors in cancer : 

Carcinogenic: Dietary factors Cured and smoked food Coffee Type and amount of fat. cont…. Etiological risk factors in cancer

Cont… : 

Carcinogenic: Non Dietary Factors Oncogenic viruses DNA Viruses Epstein Barr Virus(EBV) Hepatitis B Virus(HBV) Human Papilloma Virus(HPV) Cont…

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Mode of cancer treatment Chemotherapy Immunotherapy Radiation Surgery

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Nutrition impact of Surgery

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Nutrition impact of radiation

Cont.. : 


Nutritional impact of chemotherapy : 

Nutritional impact of chemotherapy

Cont… : 


Nutritional requirements of cancer patients : 

To prevent further tissue catabolism. To meet the increased metabolic demands of the body To provide relief from the symptoms. To prevent progression and prevent recovery from cancer cachexia Nutritional requirements of cancer patients OBJECTIVES

Cont… : 

Increased demand due to hyper metabolic state of the disease process. Also necessary to spare protein from tissue healing and promote weight gain. 3000-4000 K cal/day. A high energy diet is helpful in initiating the side-effects of chemotherapy and cancer cachexia. Cont… Energy

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In cancer enhanced mobilization of free fatty acids from adipose tissue. Around 15-20% of the modified energy requirements should be provided from fat. Emphasis should be laid on the incorporation of emulsified fats and vegetable oils particularly rich in medium chain triglycerides. Visible sources of fats and flesh food should be avoided. FAT

Meal pattern and feeding consideration : 

Meal timing Flavoring and seasoning Meat aversions Consistency of diet High energy nutrient dense food Route of feeding Meal pattern and feeding consideration

Cancer prevention : 

Include plant base diet Limiting fat consumption Avoiding/limiting alcohol Include more vegetable and cereal in diet Increase fiber intake Minimize the consumption of salt-cured, salt-pickled and smoked food Control body weight Cancer prevention

Foods related to cancer prevention : 

Foods related to cancer prevention

Cont… : 


antioxidants : 

antioxidants are substances that seize the free radicals present in the human body and protect from various types of cancer. Some important antioxidants are vit. E , vit. C, tea etc. antioxidants

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conclusion CANCER Initiation Promotion Progression Cancer Proliferation of normal cells Increased mass of cell Interference with normal tissue function Possible metastasis Chemicals Excess energy Viruses Radiation

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Cancer Medical Management Nutritional Management Surgery Radiation Chemotherapy immunotherapy Prevent nutritional deficiency Minimize weight loss Enernal tube feeding Oral feeding

References : 

Mahan L.Kathleen,stump.S.Escatt,Krause’s Food,Nutrition and Diet Therapy,11th addition 2000. Singh M.,Jain S.,Nutritional Profile of cancer patients,1996,MPUAT,Udaipur. Textbook of Clinical and Therapeutic diets,IGNOU,New Delhi www.medicine References

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