WAN ( Wide Area Networks)

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Slide 1: 

PowerPoint for Computer Service and Repair by JoAnne Keltner Goodheart-Willcox Publisher 18604 West Creek Drive Tinley Park, IL 60477 www.g-w.com Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.

Chapter 18WAN : 

Chapter 18WAN

Wide Area Network (WAN) : 

Wide Area Network (WAN) A Wide Area Network (WAN) covers a wide geographical area, whereas a LAN is contained in a small area, such as an office building. A WAN requires additional equipment and protocols than a LAN. The Internet is a WAN.

Importance to the PC Technician : 

Importance to the PC Technician Many corporations include thousands of computers in their networked system. Many of these systems span the country and across continents. Nearly every company and household uses the Internet and e-mail to communicate. It is important that you are familiar with the types of equipment and protocols used in a WAN. This will enable you to troubleshoot WAN communications.

Objectives : 

Objectives Explain the difference between a LAN and a WAN. Explain how IP addresses are used. Explain DNS, WINS, and DHCP services. Explain the use of common diagnostic utilities associated with networks. Describe the physical structure and evolution of the Internet.

Objectives : 

Objectives Identify equipment associated with a WAN. Describe the function of several common network troubleshooting software commands. Explain how to set up an e-mail account. Describe the common features associated with e-mail.

Presentation Outline : 

Presentation Outline TCP/IP Addressing Troubleshooting Networks 1 2 3 4 Internet Structure WAN Equipment

TCP/IP Addressing : 

TCP/IP Addressing 1

TCP/IP Addressing : 

TCP/IP Addressing Each node, or host, requires a unique IP address. IP addresses are assigned and regulated by InterNIC. Private sectors, called registrars, handle applications for IP addresses.

IPv4 Address Formats : 

IPv4 Address Formats Binary format: Decimal format: 00111101.00111100.00010111.10011010 61.60.23.154 Four octets One octet

IPv6 Address Formats : 

IPv6 Address Formats ef12:c21d:bc23:acf4:0:34da:f0b2:dc56 Eight sets of hexadecimal numbers ranging from 0 to FFFF ef12:c21d:bc23:acf4::34da:f0b2:dc56 Double colon represents an all zeros entry

TCP/IP Network Classes : 

TCP/IP Network Classes

IP Addresses Examples : 

IP Addresses Examples Class C: 193.75.102.65 Network Host

Verifying TCP/IP Properties—Windows 95, 98, and Me : 

Verifying TCP/IP Properties—Windows 95, 98, and Me Start | Run | winipcfg.exe.

Verifying TCP/IP Properties—Windows XP and Vista : 

Verifying TCP/IP Properties—Windows XP and Vista Run ipconfig from the command prompt.

Verifying TCP/IP Properties— Windows XP Show All : 

Verifying TCP/IP Properties— Windows XP Show All Run ipconfig /all from the command prompt.

DHCP : 

DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is used to automatically assign IP addresses. Automatically assigning IP addresses is called dynamic addressing.

TCP/IP Properties : 

TCP/IP Properties Obtain an IP address from a DHCP server Manually configure IP settings Obtain DNS server addresses from a DHCP server Manually configure DNS settings

Naming Services : 

Naming Services Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) resolves computer name to computer’s IP address. Domain Name Service (DNS) resolves IP addresses to domain names.

Review : 

Review A (LAN, WAN) is typically contained in a small area, such as an office building. LAN

Review : 

Review A (LAN, WAN) covers a wide geographic area. WAN

Review : 

Review With TCP/IP addressing, each host requires a unique _____. IP address

Review : 

Review An IP address with the first octet in the range of 192 to 233 belongs to a Class _____ network. C

Review : 

Review An IP address with the first octet in the range of 1 to 127 belongs to a Class _____ network. A

Review : 

Review An IP address with the first octet in the range of 128 to 191 belongs to a Class _____ network. B

Review : 

Review The _____ service is used to automatically assign IP addresses. DNS DHCP WAN WINS 

Review : 

Review The _____ service resolves IP addresses to domain names.  DNS DHCP WAN WINS

Review : 

Review The _____ service resolves a computer name to a computer’s IP address. DNS DHCP WAN WINS 

WAN Equipment : 

WAN Equipment 2

WAN Equipment : 

WAN Equipment Repeater. Bridge. Router. Brouter. Switch. Gateway. Proxy server. Firewall. Click each link for details.

Repeater : 

Repeater A repeater regenerates a weak digital signal.

Bridge : 

Bridge A bridge joins two dissimilar network segments, such as a wireless and an Ethernet 100BaseT network.

Router : 

Router A router controls the flow of data to different networks based on IP addresses.

Brouter : 

Brouter A brouter is a combination of a router and a bridge.

Switch : 

Switch A switch filters and forwards packets of data between network segments based on MAC addresses. Can determine on which side of the switch a packet’s destination is located. An IP switch passes ATM protocol packets.

Gateway : 

Gateway A gateway translates information between two LANs using different protocols. Can be hardware or software.

Proxy Server : 

Proxy Server A proxy server is designed to hide all the PCs in the LAN from direct connection from PCs outside of the LAN.

Firewall : 

Firewall A firewall is a barrier that prevents direct contact between computers outside the organization with computers inside the organization.

Review : 

Review A _____ translates information between two LANs using different protocols. Bridge Gateway Router Switch 

Review : 

Review A _____ joins two dissimilar network segments, such as a wireless and an Ethernet 100BaseT network. Bridge Gateway Router Switch 

Review : 

Review A _____ filters and forwards packets of data between network segments based on MAC addresses.  Bridge Gateway Router Switch

Review : 

Review A _____ controls the flow of data to different networks based on IP addresses. Bridge Gateway Router Switch 

Internet Structure : 

Internet Structure 3

Uniform Resource Locator (URL) : 

Uniform Resource Locator (URL) A Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is a global address for sites all over the Internet. First part of the URL identifies the protocol used, and the second part identifies the domain name. ftp://www.download.com/freestuff.exe Protocol Domain name File and directory structure

Common Domain Suffixes : 

Common Domain Suffixes

Domain Name System Operation : 

Domain Name System Operation

Internet Protocols : 

Internet Protocols Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). File Transfer Protocol (FTP). Telnet. Gopher. Archie. Click each link for details.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) : 

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) transports Web pages across the Internet. Secure Socket Layer protocol is used to make Internet business transactions secure. When SSL is used with the HTTP protocol, HTTPS appears in the Web browser’s address bar.

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) : 

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is a programming language used to create Web pages. Not a secure protocol. Contents can be easily viewed with a protocol analyzer.

HTML Example : 

HTML Example

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) : 

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is used to transmit files across the Internet. Many sites accept anonymous FTP, which means a user name and password are not required for access.

Commonly Used FTP Commands : 

Commonly Used FTP Commands

Telnet : 

Telnet Telnet can be used to allow a user to do the following: Log on to a remote computer and download or upload files. Program remote routers on a WAN. Control other computer functions remotely. Often referred to as a terminal emulation program. Part of the TCP/IP suite of protocols.

Telnet Operation : 

Telnet Operation

Gopher and Archie : 

Gopher and Archie Gopher is an early Internet protocol designed to search and retrieve documents from distant computers. Archie is similar to Gopher and is maintained by McGill University in Montreal.

E-Mail Protocols : 

E-Mail Protocols Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP). POP and IMAP. MIME and S/MIME. Click each link for details.

SMTP : 

SMTP Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) transfers mail from a mail client to a mail server and from a mail server to mail server.

POP3 and IMAP : 

POP3 and IMAP When an e-mail client connects to a POP server, e-mail is automatically downloaded to the client. When an e-mail client connects to a IMAP server, e-mail can be downloaded to the client or it can be read and left on the IMAP server. POP Server IMAP Server

Needed Items for E-Mail Client : 

Needed Items for E-Mail Client ISP account User name and password Outgoing mail server name Incoming mail server name

MIME and S/MIME : 

MIME and S/MIME Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) is a specification for formatting non-text-based files for transmission over the Internet. Newer version of MIME is S/MIME. The S in S/MIME stands for secure. S/MIME allows messages to be encrypted and signed with a digital signature.

Review : 

Review Identify the parts of this URL. ftp://www.download.com/freestuff.exe Protocol Domain name File and directory structure

Review : 

Review The _____ protocol can be used to program remote routers on a WAN. FTP HTML HTTP Telnet 

Review : 

Review The _____ protocol can accept an anonymous log in and is used to transmit files across the Internet. FTP HTML HTTP Telnet 

Review : 

Review The _____ protocol is a programming language used to create Web pages. FTP HTML HTTP Telnet 

Review : 

Review The _____ protocol is used to transport Web pages across the Internet. FTP HTML HTTP Telnet 

Review : 

Review The _____ protocol is a specification for formatting non-text-based files for transmission over the Internet. IMAP MIME POP SMTP 

Review : 

Review The _____ protocol allows e-mail to be downloaded from or left on a mail server. IMAP MIME POP SMTP 

Review : 

Review The _____ protocol transfers mail from a mail client to a mail server and from mail server to mail server. IMAP MIME POP SMTP 

Review : 

Review When setting up an e-mail client, you must enter the incoming, or _____, server name and the outgoing or, _____, server name. POP, SMTP

Troubleshooting Networks : 

Troubleshooting Networks 4

Network Diagnostic Utilities : 

Network Diagnostic Utilities Packet Internet Groper (PING). Tracert. NeoTrace. Pathping. Nslookup. Network Diagnostics. Click each link for details.

PING : 

PING Packet Internet Groper (PING) is used to verify network connections. To test a connection, type ping followed by the IP or URL address of the site with which you want to test the connection. If connected, the site will echo back four replies. Replies contain round trip time and time to live (TTL) length.

PING Example : 

PING Example

Tracert : 

Tracert Tracert is used to trace a network path. It is short for “trace route.” Sends out a packet and waits for a reply. Displays information about the route that was taken to the destination.

Tracert Example : 

Tracert Example

NeoTrace Utility : 

NeoTrace Utility A third-party utility developed by NeoWorx, Inc. that enhances the functions of tracert. Returns information on the host along the route taken, such as address, telephone number, e-mail address, and IP address. Provides four different display types: list, map, nodes, and graph.

NeoTrace List Display : 

NeoTrace List Display

NeoTrace Map Display : 

NeoTrace Map Display

NeoTrace Nodes Display : 

NeoTrace Nodes Display

NeoTrace Graph Display : 

NeoTrace Graph Display

Pathping : 

Pathping An enhanced combination of the ping and tracert commands.

Nslookup : 

Nslookup Used to diagnose DNS server problems. In the command line, you can use either the IP address or the IRL of the domain being tested.

Network Diagnostics Utility : 

Network Diagnostics Utility Introduced with Windows XP. Tests critical items and displays information such as MAC address, IP address, and DNS host name. Combines the PING, tracert, and other utilities into one tool. Accessed through Windows Help and Support or through Start | Run | msinfo32.exe.

Accessing Network Diagnostics : 

Accessing Network Diagnostics

Accessing Network Diagnostics (Cont.) : 

Accessing Network Diagnostics (Cont.)

Network Diagnostics Example : 

Network Diagnostics Example

Typical WAN Problems : 

Typical WAN Problems Loose connections on the LAN. Network configuration settings have changed. User name and/or password entered incorrectly when logging on to the network. Web site the user is trying to access may be unavailable. Company gateway is down. DHCP server is down. There is a problem at the ISP site.

APIPA : 

APIPA Windows automatically assigns an Automatic Private IP Address (APIPA) when the computer cannot connect to the DHCP server. APIPA addresses range from 169.254.0.0 to 169.254.255.254.

Review : 

Review The _____ utility is used to trace a network path. PING tracert Network Diagnostics nslookup 

Review : 

Review The _____ utility is typically used to test a network connection. PING tracert Network Diagnostics nslookup 

Review : 

Review The _____ utility combines the PING, tracert, and other utilities into one tool. PING tracert Network Diagnostics nslookup 

Glossary : 

Glossary

Archie : 

Archie An Internet protocol, maintained by McGill University in Montreal, that allows you to search for information on the Internet by filename.

Automatic Private IP Address (APIPA) : 

Automatic Private IP Address (APIPA) An IP address that is automatically issued to a computer when a DHCP address cannot issue an IP address.

Bridge : 

Bridge A network device that joins two dissimilar network segments together, such as a wireless and an Ethernet 100BaseT network.

Brouter : 

Brouter A combination router and bridge.

Class A Network : 

Class A Network Large networks that can support up to 16 million hosts on each of 127 networks.

Class B Network : 

Class B Network Medium-size networks that can support up to 65,000 hosts on each of 16,000 networks.

Class C Network : 

Class C Network Small networks that can support up to 254 hosts on each of 2 million networks.

Domain Name Service (DNS) : 

Domain Name Service (DNS) Translates domain names to IP addresses used on the Internet.

Dynamic Addressing : 

Dynamic Addressing The act of automatically assigning IP addresses.

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) : 

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) A protocol written to replace the manual setup of IP addresses on a network by assigning IP addresses dynamically (automatically) to the host PCs.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) : 

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) A protocol used for transmitting files across the Internet.

Firewall : 

Firewall A barrier that prevents direct contact between computers outside the organization with computers inside the organization.

Gateway : 

Gateway Translates information between two LANs using different protocols.

Gopher : 

Gopher An early Internet protocol designed to search and retrieve documents from distant computers.

Host : 

Host A computer or other piece of equipment connected to a TCP/IP network that requires an address; used interchangeably with the term node.

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) : 

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) Programming language used to create Web pages.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) : 

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Protocol that transports Web pages across the Internet.

InterNIC : 

InterNIC A branch of the United States government under the direction of the Department of Commerce. It is responsible for regulating the Internet, overseeing the issue of domain names, and assigning IP addresses to them.

Internet : 

Internet A very large, global, decentralized network.

IP Address : 

IP Address Identifying address used for a PC or other equipment on a TCP/IP network.

IP Switch : 

IP Switch Designed to pass ATM protocol packets.

Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) : 

Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) A specification for formatting non-text-based files for transmission over the Internet.

Octet : 

Octet An 8-bit series of numbers.

Packet Internet Groper (PING) : 

Packet Internet Groper (PING) A utility program that is often used as a troubleshooting tool to verify network connections to Web sites.

Proxy Server : 

Proxy Server Designed to hide all the PCs in the LAN from direct connection from PCs outside of the LAN. It relays the requested information for the client, leaving the client anonymous outside the network.

Registrar : 

Registrar Private sector company, regulated by InterNIC, to whom users apply for an IP address or domain name.

Repeater : 

Repeater A piece of equipment that regenerates a weak digital signal.

Router : 

Router Used to control the flow of data to different networks based on IP addresses.

Subnet Mask : 

Subnet Mask A mask that is used to determine what subnet a particular IP address refers to.

Switch : 

Switch Filters and forwards packets of data between network segments based on MAC addresses.

Telnet : 

Telnet A protocol that allows you to log on to a remote computer and download or upload files.

Time to Live (TTL) : 

Time to Live (TTL) The length of time the data in the packet is valid.

Tracert : 

Tracert Utility program that sends a packet out and waits for a reply. It also displays information about the route that was taken to the destination.

Uniform Resource Locator (URL) : 

Uniform Resource Locator (URL) The global address for sites all over the Internet. The first part of the URL identifies the protocol used and the second part identifies the domain name.

Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) : 

Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) Resolves the computer name to the equivalent IP address on the network.

Discussion Questions : 

Discussion Questions When your client opens her Web browser, it reads, “Unable to locate host.” What might be some possible causes? What would be your troubleshooting method, and what utilities might you use to troubleshoot the problem?

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