Mixed Method, Qualitative, and Sampling

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Lecture for Nursing 702

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Qualitative and Mixed Method Studies Data Collection and Sampling: 

Qualitative and Mixed Method Studies Data Collection and Sampling Angela Orsky, DNP, LNHA, RN

Objectives: 

Objectives Define qualitative and mixed-method study designs. Recognize the pros and cons of qualitative research. Describe the various types of qualitative and mixed method study designs. Differentiate between population and representative sample. Differentiate between random and nonrandom sampling. Describe data collection method types. List required elements of the methods section of a research proposal/report.

Qualitative Research: 

Qualitative Research Primarily descriptive . Fieldwork generally occurs in a natural setting. Compared to quantitative: Builds on framework of phenomenology. Does not focus on cause and effect relationships. Versus focus on interpretation of results, translation of individual influences, practices, behaviors . See Table 6-1, Terry (2012).

Pros and Cons: 

Pros and Cons Subjectivity unique to population being evaluated and allows for expression of feelings and perceptions. Flexible and allows for realistic findings to individual responses. Commonly used in academia to evaluate student responses, particularly to teaching strategies. Not valued as significant as quantitative. More potential for researcher-induced bias (i.e. through interpretation, influence, interview techniques). Emotional effects for the researcher.

Qualitative Research Designs: 

Qualitative Research Designs Case Studies Commonly used when one case can be evaluated and applied to a larger group. Ethnography Learning about a culture from the people who live in the culture: A population A community An organization Grounded Theory Discover the meanings that humans assign to people and objects in which they interact (everyday experiences): Often results in the development of a new theory (research focused). Social interaction is integral part. Constant and ongoing data analysis in efforts to identify a core variable and theory. Phenomenology Gain deeper understanding of the nature or meaning of the everyday “lived” experience of people: Involves in-depth interviews. May require decision to not conduct a lit review prior to field work to reduce bias. Ethnomethodology Focus is on members of a social group. Assumptions that groups have “order” and even in chaos, order develops (acceptance of behaviors and expected attitudes).

Mixed Method Models: 

Mixed Method Models Integrates quantitative and qualitative study designs. Increasing in value for both research and application of evidence-based practice. Capitalizes on the strength of both designs. Using these studies in parallel can often provide insights into findings of the study designs. Quantitative focus on cause and effect, qualitative study may explain and/or give greater insight. Option of performing concurrently or individually. Important to continue to adhere to the rigor, methodologies and validity requirements for each design!

Mixed Method Study Designs: 

Mixed Method Study Designs Triangulation Embedded Explanatory Exploratory See Table 7-1, Terry (2012).

Stages of the Research Process: 

Stages of the Research Process Determine the appropriateness of the design (quantitative, qualitative, mixed-method) Collect the data. Analyze the data. Validate the data – this must be ongoing throughout the process and include both internal (i.e. the study itself) and external validity (does the group evaluated/studied generalize the larger population). Interpret the data (this is the fun part). Write the report. Terry (2012)

Data Sampling: 

Data Sampling Population (full set of people in which a sample is drawn). Representative sample is pulled from population – has same characteristics as population but less people. The larger the sample size, the sample estimates will be more accurate. The population: Who are the patients and/or clients? Individuals, family members, community, organization/group? Age group or sex? Specific health care problem? Two types: random and non-random.

Random Sampling: 

Random Sampling Types in quantitative designs: Simple random sampling. Systematic sampling. Stratified random sampling. Cluster random sampling. See Terry pp. 120-121

Nonrandom Sampling: 

Nonrandom Sampling Types in quantitative models: Convenience sampling. Quota sampling. Purposive sampling (also primarily used in qualitative models). Snowball sampling. See Terry pp. 122-123

Sampling Tips: 

Sampling Tips Recognize difference between random selection and random assignment. Small sample sizes and use of nonrandom sampling can limit ability to generalize results to the population. Parametric statistics do not work well with small sample sizes. Lack of control or comparison conditions in the design can affect the validity and weaken the results. Identify inclusion and exclusion criteria when selecting sample size to ensure accurate reflection of the population of interest. Eligibility, recruitment criteria, and sample size will determine if you can generalize the results to the population (external validity).

Data Collection: 

Data Collection Begins with lit review as a means to identify variables and how they will be measured. Project structure: Population (representative sample). Concept to be measured. Instrument/tool to be used for measuring: Is it valid and appropriate for project outcomes . Potential pilot test. Determining reliability of the measurement instrument.

Data Collection Method Types: 

Data Collection Method Types Physiological measurements Intra-rater reliability. Inter-rater reliability. Criterion-related reliability. Observation. Interviews. Questionnaires. Review of existing data.

Public Databases: 

Public Databases Potential sources for datasets: http://phpartners.org/health_stats.html http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/ http://www.cms.gov/HospitalQualityInits/20_OutcomeMeasures.asp http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/

Methods Format: 

Methods Format Recommended Format Study design (what is planned, clearly stating clinical question). Setting and sample (describe setting, source of the sample, criteria for selecting the sample, planned sample size). Data collection (variables to be described or measured; physiological measures if applicable; questionnaires or interviews if applicable; description of the instrument, method of use, and method of scoring; data on validity and reliability collected by other investigators; any inter- or intra-rater reliability) Procedure for conducting the study (means of gaining access to the sample; measure taken to project rights; data collection process for each participant) Tornquist , E. (1986). From proposal to publication: An informal Guide to writing about nursing research. Menlo Park: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company

Additional Capstone Project Criteria: 

Additional Capstone Project Criteria Validity Reliability Stakeholders and congruence with organizational structure Sustainability Timeline Evaluation