Organizational Change

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Organizational Dynamics:

Organizational Dynamics Week 6 Organizational Change

Mini-Lecture: Week #6:

Mini-Lecture: Week #6 Purpose: Meet Weekly Learning Objective: To identify the values and dimensions of organizational culture, and how culture is communicated and changed. To explain the principles of organizational development and the role of the OD practitioner. Overview Approaches to Consulting Planned change Role of the consultant The OD Process

Consultant’s To-Do List:

Consultant’s To-Do List Guide the client through planned change Defining roles and relationship with clients Managing ethical considerations around the consulting experience

Approaches to Consulting:

Approaches to Consulting Provides framework for implementation of organizational interventions, tools, and techniques Establishes tone for clients Process vs Expert

OD Perspective:

OD Perspective Equifinality many inputs and throughputs contribute to the end result- success or failure of an intervention Blend of art and science “Science” of OD- demonstration of process improvements and effectiveness of interventions “Art” of OD lies within the navigation and management of an open system

Models of Planned Change:

Models of Planned Change

Lewin’s Model of Change:

Lewin’s Model of Change

Action Research Model:

Action Research Model

Positive Model:

Positive Model

Cummings & Worley General Model of Planned Change:

Cummings & Worley General Model of Planned Change

Role of the Consultant:

Role of the Consultant Level of Involvement Heightened level of self-differentiation (Gilbert, 1992) Process-based (Schein) Client centered, outcome-driven (Schaffer, 1999) Vendor mindset vs expert/knowledge advisors (Church & Waclawski, 1999)

…continued, Role of the Consultant:

…continued, Role of the Consultant -Rothwell, Sullivan, McLean, 1995, p. 190)

…continued, Role of the Consultant:

…continued, Role of the Consultant Ethical Codes and Considerations American Psychological Associaiton Organization Development Network Organizational Development Institute America’s Society for Training and Development Encompassing Value Systems Honesty/Integrity Social Justice Professional Development/ Competence “respect for people’s rights and dignity” ( APA , 2002, p. 3-4). Means to an End Enhance methodology to reduce scientist-practitioner gap ( Alderfer , 1998)

Cummings & Worley General Model of Planned Change:

Cummings & Worley General Model of Planned Change

Stage 1: Entry and Contracting :

Stage 1: Entry and Contracting Establish relationships with key personnel in the organization and identify expectations and roles Requires political savvy Involves requests for proposals Determines match for skill-set and need PROCESS CONSULTANT GOAL: Listen for client’s needs and facilitate discussion on what is occurring in the organization Establish expectations, boundaries and tone for subsequent stages of the client engagement

Stage 2: Diagnosis:

Stage 2: Diagnosis Analyze the organization to determine target areas of intervention and change Utilize tools to assess organization at macro (organizational effectiveness, organizational design, group effectiveness) and micro (job characteristics, individual differences) levels. PROCESS CONSULTANT GOAL: Gather information about the organization beyond that of initial client meetings Assess at three levels (organization, group, and individual)

Stage 3: Planning and Implementing Change:

Stage 3: Planning and Implementing Change Balance knowledge of change management and interventions that facilitate change to guide client through planning and implementing data-driven initiatives. Requires skillful navigation of political system and assessment of the organization Create client-centered, well-timed interventions that include collaboration between consultants and clients PROCESS CONSULTANT GOAL: Celebrate Progress Be ready to adapt. Client needs may extend beyond the general process of change model

…continued, Stage 3: Planning and Implementing Change :

…continued, Stage 3: Planning and Implementing Change Vision Vision Vision Vision Action Plan Resources Skills Action Plan Incentives Skills Incentives Skills Action Plan Resources Incentives Incentives Skills Action Plan Resources Action Plan Resources CHANGE Confusion Frustration Gradual Change Anxiety Managing Complex Change : Ambrose, 1987; Lippett, 1995)

…continued, Stage 3: Planning and Implementing Change:

…continued, Stage 3: Planning and Implementing Change

Stage 4: Evaluating and Institutionalizing Change:

Stage 4: Evaluating and Institutionalizing Change Communicating Change Consistency in message and direction: The desired outcome The way to reach the outcome The rationale for obtaining the outcome Organizational Learning Systems thinking Shared visioning through communication Shift in mental models Double-loop learning to provide evaluation/feedback

…continued, stage 4: Evaluating and Institutionalizing Change :

…continued, stage 4: Evaluating and Institutionalizing Change Methodological constraints Conveying accurate meaning of advanced statistical modeling PROCESS CONSULTANT GOAL: Narrow scientist practitioner gap when evaluating and institutionalizing change in organizations while balance meeting clients’ needs and agenda Incorporate evaluation into part of the consulting process

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