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Qualitative Research Methods November 4, 2009 Presented by: Maria Baxter-Nuamah :

Qualitative Research Methods November 4, 2009 Presented by: Maria Baxter-Nuamah Critical Theory Review

Critical Theory :

Critical Theory

Critical Theory is a broad tradition based upon the use of the critique as a method of investigation. McCarthy, 1991:

Critical Theory is a broad tradition based upon the use of the critique as a method of investigation. McCarthy, 1991

The primary characteristic of this school of thought is that social theory, whether reflected to educational research, art, philosophy, literature, or business, should play a significant role in changing the world, not just recording information.:

The primary characteristic of this school of thought is that social theory, whether reflected to educational research, art, philosophy, literature, or business, should play a significant role in changing the world, not just recording information.

Kathy Peca Professor of Educational Administration at Eastern New Mexico University says: :

Kathy Peca Professor of Educational Administration at Eastern New Mexico University says: Critical Theory focuses on the oppression of the individual, the group, and society by self-imposed or externally imposed influences.

In order to emancipate people of oppression:

In order to emancipate people of oppression Individuals must engage in a critique of the: Personal, situational and historical forces which cause oppression.

Critical Theory is a personal responsibility and not just the responsibility of researchers who stand above the crowd and inform non researchers about how and what reality is. :

Critical Theory is a personal responsibility and not just the responsibility of researchers who stand above the crowd and inform non researchers about how and what reality is. Professor Peca feels that:

Reality is defined by not only what it is but also by what it is not.:

Reality is defined by not only what it is but also by what it is not.

Critical Theory is a form of rationalism.:

Critical Theory is a form of rationalism.

Critical Theory may be seen as stating that the real ought to be rational.:

Critical Theory may be seen as stating that the real ought to be rational.

A rational society is one which we all participate, in order to create and transform our environment.:

A rational society is one which we all participate, in order to create and transform our environment.

In terms of theoretical argument, Critical Theory works dialectically, not juxtaposing one set of truth claims to another. (This is sometimes referred to an internal critique):

In terms of theoretical argument, Critical Theory works dialectically, not juxtaposing one set of truth claims to another. (This is sometimes referred to an internal critique)

For the Critical Theorist, the goal is not to fully conceptualize all of objective reality.:

For the Critical Theorist , the goal is not to fully conceptualize all of objective reality.

The goal is to increase people’s knowledge of as much of reality as possible and this increase of knowledge is made apparent through human action.:

The goal is to increase people’s knowledge of as much of reality as possible and this increase of knowledge is made apparent through human action.

The goal of Critical Theory according to T.S. Popkewitz (1984), is: To “change the world not describe it”.:

The goal of Critical Theory according to T.S. Popkewitz (1984), is: To “change the world not describe it”.

Founders of Critical Theory:

Founders of Critical Theory

Theodar Adomo Max Horkheimer & Herbert Marcuse:

Theodar Adomo Max Horkheimer & Herbert Marcuse The founders of the classic critical theory school of thought and the Frankfurt School for Social Research (founded in 1923) are:

Frankfurt critical theory has the reputation of being pessimistic and critical of orthodox Marxism.:

Frankfurt critical theory has the reputation of being pessimistic and critical of orthodox Marxism.

Kant’s basic concept was: through the mind’s interaction with the objective world, meaning and order are imposed upon reality.:

Kant’s basic concept was: through the mind’s interaction with the objective world, meaning and order are imposed upon reality.

was the first theoretician to coherently express the assumptions of Critical Theory.:

was the first theoretician to coherently express the assumptions of Critical Theory . Johann Gottieb Fichte (1762-1814) according to Peca

Fichte viewed the individual consciousness as a “continuously creative entity generating a perpetual stream of ideas, concepts and perspectives through which a world external to the mind is created”.:

Fichte viewed the individual consciousness as a “continuously creative entity generating a perpetual stream of ideas, concepts and perspectives through which a world external to the mind is created”.

The following philosophical assumptions incorporate the concepts of Kant, Fichte, Hegel, and Marx and are the bases for Critical Theory.:

The following philosophical assumptions incorporate the concepts of Kant, Fichte, Hegel, and Marx and are the bases for Critical Theory .

1. Reality is both objective and subjective. 2. Reality is based on the dichotomy between human consciousness and its created external reality. 3. Reality is in a state of continuous change. :

1. Reality is both objective and subjective. 2. Reality is based on the dichotomy between human consciousness and its created external reality. 3. Reality is in a state of continuous change.

4. Knowledge is obtained through the interactive relationship between external reality and human consciousness (dialectic). 5. Knowledge would result in action which furthers the evolutionary process. 6. People consistently evolve toward a higher level of knowledge. :

4. Knowledge is obtained through the interactive relationship between external reality and human consciousness (dialectic). 5. Knowledge would result in action which furthers the evolutionary process. 6. People consistently evolve toward a higher level of knowledge.

8. The goal of the search for knowledge is an increased awareness of reality. :

8. The goal of the search for knowledge is an increased awareness of reality. 7. Knowledge moves people toward emancipation.

Critical Theory is presented as the highest level of knowledge acquisition because its focus is on power and social power is the basis for inequality among mankind.:

Critical Theory is presented as the highest level of knowledge acquisition because its focus is on power and social power is the basis for inequality among mankind.

“Critical Theory must rely on both objective and subjective knowledge”.:

“ Critical Theory must rely on both objective and subjective knowledge”. W.P Foster (1980) said :

For Critical Theorist, the attainment of “truth” remains contradictory.:

For Critical Theorist , the attainment of “truth” remains contradictory.

The essence of Critical Theory lies in the person’s exposure of the dichotomy between the real and ideal.:

The essence of Critical Theory lies in the person’s exposure of the dichotomy between the real and ideal.

The “real” is subjected to a critical examination in order to expose its contradictory nature.:

The “real” is subjected to a critical examination in order to expose its contradictory nature.

(i.e. the individual uses both quantitative and qualitative in investigation.) :

(i.e. the individual uses both quantitative and qualitative in investigation.) For the Critical Theorist , each person is capable of engaging in criticism.

Individuals both create and are created by the social world which individuals inhabit. :

Individuals both create and are created by the social world which individuals inhabit. Critical Theories acknowledge the interactive context between individuals and society because:

Critical Theory is practical and motivates people to action.:

Critical Theory is practical and motivates people to action.

Jurgan Habermas is considered by many the most influential thinker in Germany over the past decade (1970-1980).:

Jurgan Habermas is considered by many the most influential thinker in Germany over the past decade (1970-1980).

His roots are in the tradition of German thought from Immanuel Kant to Karl Marx, and he has been associated with the Frankfurt School of critical theorists. (Mezirow, 1981):

His roots are in the tradition of German thought from Immanuel Kant to Karl Marx, and he has been associated with the Frankfurt School of critical theorists . ( Mezirow , 1981)

Jurgen Habermas differers from the first generation of critical theorists in his desire to construct a systematic social theory and his willingness to grant instrumental thought a legitimate place in his scheme.:

Jurgen Habermas differers from the first generation of critical theorists in his desire to construct a systematic social theory and his willingness to grant instrumental thought a legitimate place in his scheme.

Habermas has mastered and creatively articulated an extraordinary range of specialized literature in the social sciences, social theory and the history of ideas in the provocative Critical Theory of knowledge and human interest. :

Habermas has mastered and creatively articulated an extraordinary range of specialized literature in the social sciences, social theory and the history of ideas in the provocative Critical Theory of knowledge and human interest.

Habermas considered Critical Theory to be the domain of the practical.:

Habermas considered Critical Theory to be the domain of the practical.

Habermas has three (3) Generic domains of human interest.:

Habermas has three (3) Generic domains of human interest.

Work Knowledge Practical Knowledge Emancipatory Knowledge:

Work Knowledge Practical Knowledge Emancipatory Knowledge

Work Knowledge:

Work Knowledge Refers to the way one controls and manipulates one’s own environment. The empirical –analytic sciences using hypothetical-deductive theories characterize this domain. (What we consider ‘scientific’ research: Physics, Chemistry and Biology are classified by Habermas as belonging to this domain).

Practical Knowledge:

Practical Knowledge This domain identifies human social interaction or ‘communicative action’. Social knowledge is governed by binding consensual norms, which define reciprocal expectations about behavior between individuals. The validity of this knowledge is grounded ‘ only in the intersubjectivity of the mutual understanding of intentions’ .

Practical Knowledge:

Practical Knowledge Historical-hermeneutic disciplines: descriptice social science, history, aesthetics, legal, and ethnographic literary are put into this domain by Habermas.

Emancipatory Knowledge:

Emancipatory Knowledge The Emancipatory domain identifies ‘self-knowledge’ or self-reflection. Knowledge is gained by self-emancipation through reflection leading to a transformed consciousness or ‘perspective transformation’. Habermas catorizes the critical sciences which include feminist theory, psychoanalysis and the critique of ideology in this domain.

Habermas viewed language as the means by which people hold power over other people.:

Habermas viewed language as the means by which people hold power over other people.

For the Critical Theorist the focus is on the exposition of the power bases in social life so that individuals, groups and society as a whole can understand better such power and become less constrained by this power.:

For the Critical Theorist the focus is on the exposition of the power bases in social life so that individuals, groups and society as a whole can understand better such power and become less constrained by this power.

In Critical Theory the following assumptions are used as the bases for research methodology::

In Critical Theory the following assumptions are used as the bases for research methodology :

2. Criticism involves the discovery of the differences between reality and the appearance of reality.:

2. Criticism involves the discovery of the differences between reality and the appearance of reality. 1. The goal of research is to expose the dichotomous nature of reality through criticism.

3. To discover reality, the researcher uses both quantitative and qualitative methods. 4. Theory is the motivating force for action. 5. Theory is defined as evolving concepts about reality. :

3. To discover reality, the researcher uses both quantitative and qualitative methods. 4. Theory is the motivating force for action. 5. Theory is defined as evolving concepts about reality.

6. The validity of theory is determined by the resulting human action. 7. The individual person engages in the dialectic through self-reflection. 8. The group engages in the dialectic through the study of communication.:

6. The validity of theory is determined by the resulting human action. 7. The individual person engages in the dialectic through self-reflection. 8. The group engages in the dialectic through the study of communication.

Quotes:

Quotes

The means by which we live have outdistanced the ends for which we live. Our scientific power has outrun our spiritual power. We have guided missiles and misguided men. Martin Luther King Junior:

The means by which we live have outdistanced the ends for which we live. Our scientific power has outrun our spiritual power. We have guided missiles and misguided men. Martin Luther King Junior

Any formal attack on ignorance is bound to fall because the masses are always ready to defend their most precious possession-their ignorance. Hendrik Van Loon:

Any formal attack on ignorance is bound to fall because the masses are always ready to defend their most precious possession-their ignorance. Hendrik Van Loon

We are all tolerant enough of those who do not agree with us, provided only they are sufficiently miserable. David Grayson:

We are all tolerant enough of those who do not agree with us, provided only they are sufficiently miserable. David Grayson

Qualitative Research Methods November 4, 2009 :

Qualitative Research Methods November 4, 2009 Critical Theory Review

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