Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated p-Anisidine

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

The present study aimed was to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of p-anisidine. Study more!

Comments

Presentation Transcript

slide 1:

Open Access Research Article Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry: Open Access Trivedi et al. Pharm Anal Chem Open Access 2015 1:1 http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/paco.1000102 Volume 1 • Issue 1 • 1000102 Pharm Anal Chem Open Access ISSN: PACO an open access journal Abstract The p-anisidine is widely used as chemical intermediate in the production of various dyes pigments and pharmaceuticals. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of biofeld energy treatment on the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of p-anisidine. The study was performed after dividing the sample in two groups one was remained as untreated and another was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofeld energy treatment. Afterward both the control and treated samples of p-anisidine were evaluated using X-ray diffraction XRD surface area analyzer differential scanning calorimetry DSC thermogravimetric analysis-derivative thermogravimetry TGA-DTG Fourier transform infrared FT-IR and ultraviolet-visible UV-Vis spectroscopy. The XRD analysis showed the increase in unit cell volume from 683.81 → 690.18 × 10 -24 cm 3 and crystallite size from 83.84→84.62 nm in the treated sample with respect to the control. The surface area analysis exhibited the signifcant increase 25.44 in the surface area of treated sample as compared to control. The DSC thermogram of control p-anisidine showed the latent heat of fusion and melting temperature and 146.78 J/g and 59.41°C respectively which were slightly increased to 148.89 J/g and 59.49°C respectively after biofeld treatment. The TGA analysis showed the onset temperature of thermal degradation at 134.68°C in the control sample that was increased to 150.02°C after biofeld treatment. The result showed about 11.39 increase in onset temperature of thermal degradation of treated p-anisidine as compared to the control. Moreover the T max temperature at which maximum thermal degradation occurs was also increased slightly from 165.99°C control to 168.10°C treated. This indicated the high thermal stability of treated p-anisidine as compared to the control. However the FT-IR and UV spectroscopic studies did not show any signifcant changes in the spectral properties of treated p-anisidine with respect to the control. All together the XRD surface area and thermal analysis suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s biofeld energy treatment has the impact on physical and thermal properties of the treated p-anisidine. Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated p-Anisidine Mahendra Kumar Trivedi 1 Alice Branton 1 Dahryn Trivedi 1 Gopal Nayak 1 Khemraj Bairwa 2 and Snehasis Jana 2 1 Trivedi Global Inc. 10624 S Eastern Avenue Suite A-969 Henderson NV 89052 USA 2 Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd. Hall-A Chinar Mega Mall Chinar Fortune City Hoshangabad Rd. Bhopal Madhya Pradesh India Corresponding author: Snehasis Jana Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd. Hall-A Chinar Mega Mall Chinar Fortune City Hoshangabad Rd. Bhopal-462 026 Madhya Pradesh India Tel: +91-755-6660006 E-mail: publicationtrivedisrl. com Received September 09 2015 Accepted September 19 2015 Published September 27 2015 Citation: Trivedi MK Branton A Trivedi D Nayak G Bairwa K et al 2015 Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofeld Energy Treated p-Anisidine. Pharm Anal Chem Open Access 6: 102. doi:10.4172/paco.1000102 Copyright: © 2015 Trivedi MK et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the original author and source are credited. Keywords: p-Anisidine X-ray difraction Surface area analysis Diferential scanning calorimetry Fourier transform infrared Biofeld energy Abbreviations NIH: National Institute of Health NCCAM: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine XRD: X-ray difraction DSC: Diferential scanning calorimetry TGA: Termogravimetric analysis DTG: Derivative Termogravimetry FT-IR: Fourier transforms infrared Introduction Anisidine is an aromatic amine methoxyaniline and exists in three isomeric forms i.e. o m and p-anisidine 1. Te p-anisidine is widely used as an intermediate in the production of numerous azo and triphenylmethane dyes and pigments. It is also used in the production of pharmaceuticals including the guaiacol expectorant 2 as an antioxidant for polymercaptan resins and as a corrosion inhibitor for steel 3. Apart from the benefcial use of p-anisidine it is toxic for human beings. Te acute exposure may cause skin irritation whereas the chronic exposure may cause headaches vertigo and blood complications like sulfemoglobin and methemoglobin 34. Te oral exposure to anisidine hydrochloride resulted in cancer of the urinary bladder in male and female rats 5. By considering the importance of p-anisidine as an intermediate for the production of various dyes pharmaceuticals and several other organic products it is advantageous to fnd out an alternate approach that can enhance the physicochemical and thermal properties of p-anisidine in the useful way. Recently healing therapy or therapeutic touch is used as an alternative treatment approach in several felds and known as the biofeld energy treatment. Te National Institute of Health/National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine NIH/NCCAM considered the biofeld energy putative energy felds treatment in the subcategory of energy therapies used to promote health and healing 67. Te biofeld treatment is being applied in the healing process to reduce the anxiety pain and to promote the overall health of human being 89. Previously it was reported that all the electrical processes occurring in the human body have strong correlation with the magnetic feld 10. It is well known that moving charged particles like ions atoms electrons etc. produces the electromagnetic radiation 11. Similarly the moving ions and charged particles in the human body also produced the bioenergetic feld that permeates and surrounding the human body. Tis bioenergetic feld is called as biofeld and energy associated with this feld is known as the biofeld energy 12. Te efect of biofeld has been reported by several researchers on bacterial cultures 13 antibiotics proteins 14 and conformational change in

slide 2:

Page 2 of 8 Volume 1 • Issue 1 • 1000102 Pharm Anal Chem Open Access ISSN: PACO an open access journal Citation: Trivedi MK Branton A Trivedi D Nayak G Bairwa K et al 2015 Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofeld Energy Treated p-Anisidine. Pharm Anal Chem Open Access 6: 102. doi:10.4172/paco.1000102 Here M c and M t are molecular weight of control and treated sample respectively. Percentage change in crystallite size was calculated using following formula: Percentage change in crystallite sizeG t -G c /G c × 100 Here G c and G t are crystallite size of control and treated powder samples respectively. Surface area analysis Te surface area of both the control and treated samples was evaluated using the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller BET surface area analyzer Smart SORB 90. Percent change in surface area was computed using following equation: Treated Control Control S S change in surface area 100 S - ´ Here S Control is the surface area of control sample and S Treated is the surface area of treated sample. DSC study Te control and treated samples of p-anisidine were analyzed using a Pyris-6 Perkin Elmer diferential scanning calorimeter. Te heating rate was set to 10°C/min under air atmosphere with air fow rate of 5 mL/min. An empty pan sealed with cover was used as the reference pan. Te melting temperature T m and latent heat of fusion ΔH were obtained from the DSC thermogram. TGA-DTG analysis Te TGA-DTG analysis was carried out in order to investigate the thermal stability of the control and treated p-anisidine. Te studies were performed on Mettler Toledo simultaneous TGA-DTG system. Both the control and treated samples were heated from room temperature to 400°C with a heating rate of 5°C/min under air atmosphere. Te onset temperature at which thermal degradation started and T max temperature at which maximum weight loss occur in samples were obtained from DTG thermogram. Spectroscopic studies For the FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic characterization the treated sample was divided into two groups i.e. T1 and T2. Tese treated groups were then analyzed using FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy and data were compared with respective data of control sample. FT-IR spectroscopic characterization Te samples for FT-IR spectroscopy were prepared by crushing with spectroscopic grade KBr into fne powder. Finally the mixture was pressed into pellets with a hydraulic press and then used for FT-IR analysis. Te spectrum was recorded on Shimadzu’s Fourier transform infrared spectrometer Japan with the frequency range of 500-4000 cm -1 . Te analysis was done to investigate the impact of biofeld energy treatment at the atomic level like dipole moment force constant and bond strength in chemical structure 26. UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis Te samples were prepared in methanol for UV spectroscopy. Te UV spectra of the control and treated samples of p-anisidine were acquired on Shimadzu UV-2400 PC series spectrophotometer with quartz cuvette having slit widths of 2.0 nm. Te wavelength of UV analysis was set in the range of 200-400 nm. Tis study was performed DNA 15. Tus the human has the ability to harness the energy from the environment or Universe and transmit it to any living or nonliving object on the Globe. Te objects receive the energy and respond into the useful way this process is termed as biofeld treatment. Mr. Trivedi’s unique biofeld energy treatment is also known as Te Trivedi Efect ® . Recently Mr. Trivedi’s biofeld energy treatment has been reported to alter the physicochemical and thermal properties of several metals and ceramics 16-18. It has also been reported to alter the spectroscopic properties of various pharmaceutical drugs like chloramphenicol tetracycline metronidazole and tinidazole 1920. Moreover the biofeld treatment has been studied in several felds like biotechnology research 21 agriculture research 2223 and microbiology research 2425. Based on the signifcant impact of biofeld energy treatment and chemical importance of p-anisidine this study was aimed to evaluate the efect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofeld energy treatment on physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of p-anisidine using several analytical techniques like XRD surface area analysis DSC TGA-DTG analysis FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopy. Materials and Methods Study design Te p-anisidine was purchased from Loba Chemie Pvt. Ltd. India. Te p-anisidine was divided into two groups one was remained untreated control group and another was coded as treated group. Te treated group in sealed pack was handed over to Mr. Trivedi for biofeld energy treatment under laboratory conditions. Mr. Trivedi provided the biofeld energy treatment to the treated group through his unique energy transmission process without touching the sample. Aferward both the control and treated samples of p-anisidine were analyzed using various analytical techniques like X-ray difraction XRD surface area analysis diferential scanning calorimetry DSC thermogravimetric analysis TGA Fourier transform infrared FT- IR and ultraviolet-visible UV-Vis spectroscopy. XRD study Te XRD analysis of the control and treated p-anisidine was carried out on Phillips Holland PW 1710 X-ray difractometer with nickel flter and copper anode. Te wavelength used in XRD system was 1.54056 Å. Percent change in unit cell volume was calculated using following equation Percent change in unit cell volumeV t -V c /V c × 100 Here V c and V t are the unit cell volume of control and treated sample respectively. Te molecular weight of atom was calculated using following equation: Molecular weightnumber of protons × weight of a proton+number of neutrons × weight of a neutron+number of electrons × weight of an electron. Molecular weight in g/Mol was calculated from the weights of all atoms in a molecule multiplied by the Avogadro number 6.023 × 10 23 . Te percent change in molecular weight was calculated using the following equation: Percent change in molecular weightM t -M c /M c × 100

slide 3:

Page 3 of 8 Volume 1 • Issue 1 • 1000102 Pharm Anal Chem Open Access ISSN: PACO an open access journal Citation: Trivedi MK Branton A Trivedi D Nayak G Bairwa K et al 2015 Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofeld Energy Treated p-Anisidine. Pharm Anal Chem Open Access 6: 102. doi:10.4172/paco.1000102 could be a probable cause for increase in surface area. As a result the increase in surface area was observed in treated sample as compared to the control. DSC analysis DSC was used to determine the melting temperature and latent heat of fusion ΔH of the control and treated p-anisidine. DSC thermogram Figure 3 of p-anisidine showed the melting temperature at 59.41°C in the control and 59.49°C in the treated sample Table 2. Te result suggests no change in melting temperature of treated sample as compared to the control. Te melting temperature of control p-anisidine was well supported by literature data 34. DSC thermogram exhibited the ΔH of 146.78 J/g in control sample and 148.89 J/g in the treated sample of p-anisidine. Te result showed about 1.44 increase in latent heat of fusion afer biofeld energy treatment with respect to the control. Te existence of internal strain was evidenced by XRD data. Tus it is assumed that presence of strain might cause to move the molecules toward each other. As a result the intermolecular interaction in the treated sample might increase afer the biofeld treatment and that might be responsible for increase in the latent heat of fusion. Recently our group has reported the biofeld energy induced alteration in the value of latent heat of fusion of some metals like lead and tin 17. to evaluate the impact of biofeld energy treatment on the energy gap of highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital HOMO–LUMO gap 27. Results and Discussion XRD analysis Te XRD difractograms of control and treated p-anisidine are shown in Figure 1. Te control sample exhibited the XRD peaks at 2θ equal to 12.98 º 13.19 º 18.68 º 18.89 º 22.20 º 25.70 º 26.10 º 26.63 º 28.01 º and 28.49 º . Similarly the XRD difractogram of treated p-anisidine showed the XRD peaks at 2θ equal to 13.16 º 13.26 º 18.75 º 18.90 º 19.65 º 22.09 º 22.40 º 24.24 º 24.54 º and 28.31 º . XRD difractogram of both the control and treated p-anisidine showed the intense peaks that suggest the crystalline nature of p -anisidine. Figure 1 clearly showed the significant alteration in the intensity of XRD peaks in treated sample as compared to the control. In addition control showed the most intense peak at 18.68 whereas it was found at 24.24 in treated sample. It was reported that the change in crystal morphology causes the alteration in relative intensities of the peaks 28. Furthermore the alteration in 2θ values of treated sample as compared to the control indicated that an internal strain was probably present in the treated sample 29. It is assumed that the energy which probably transferred through biofield treatment might induce the internal strain in the treated sample. Te unit cell volume molecular weight and crystallite size of control and treated p-anisidine were computed using Powder X sofware and data are depicted in Table 1. Te unit cell volume of control and treated samples were found as 683.81 and 690.18 × 10 -24 cm 3 respectively. Te result showed slight increase in the unit cell volume in biofeld treated sample as compared to control. Similarly the molecular weight of treated sample was also increased slightly 0.93 with respect to the control. It is hypothesized that the biofeld energy possibly acted on treated p-anisidine crystals at nuclear level and altered the number of proton and neutrons as compared to the control which may led to increase the molecular weight. Te crystallite size of the control p-anisidine was observed as 83.84 nm that was increased to 84.62 nm in the treated sample. Te result suggests a small increase in crystallite size of treated sample as compared to the control. It was reported that increase in annealing temperature signifcantly afects the crystallite size of the materials. Te increase in temperature leads to decrease in dislocation density and increase in number of unit cell which ultimately causes an increase in crystallite size 3031. It is postulated that biofeld treatment may provide some thermal energy to p-anisidine molecules. As a result the dislocation density might be reduced and thus the number of unit cell and crystallite size was increased. Surface area analysis Te surface area of control and treated samples of p-anisidine was determined using BET surface area analyzer and data are presented in Figure 2. Te surface area of the control and treated sample was found as 0.4638 m 2 /g and 0.5818 m 2 /g respectively. It showed a signifcant increase in surface area by 25.44 in the treated sample as compared to the control. It is well-reported that surface area is inversely proportional to the particle size 32. Based on this it was assumed that biofeld energy treatment may provid the energy to the p-anisidine molecule that lead to reduction in particle size through energy milling 33. In addition the XRD data also indiacted that surface morpholgy of treated sample might changed afer the biofeld treatment thus it Figure 1: XRD diffractogram of p-anisidine.

slide 4:

Page 4 of 8 Volume 1 • Issue 1 • 1000102 Pharm Anal Chem Open Access ISSN: PACO an open access journal Citation: Trivedi MK Branton A Trivedi D Nayak G Bairwa K et al 2015 Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofeld Energy Treated p-Anisidine. Pharm Anal Chem Open Access 6: 102. doi:10.4172/paco.1000102 TGA-DTG analysis Thermogravimetric analysis is used to evaluate the vaporization sublimation and thermal degradation pattern of the samples. The TGA and DTG thermogram of control and treated samples of p-anisidine are shown in Figure 4 and the data are presented in Table 2. The onset temperature of thermal degradation was observed at 134.68°C and 150.02°C for the control and treated samples respectively. While the end-set temperature of thermal degradation was observed at 198.54°C and 206.21°C in the control and treated sample respectively. This showed about 11.39 and 3.86 increase in the onset and end-set temperature respectively after biofield treatment as compared to the control. Moreover the percent weight loss during thermal decomposition was 70.07 in the control and 66.19 in the treated sample. The result showed decrease in percent weight loss during thermal decomposition after the biofield treatment. Based on this it is presumed that biofield treated p-anisidine may be more thermally stable as compared to the control. The DTG thermogram exhibited the T max the temperature at which the sample lost its maximum weight at 165.99°C in the control sample and at 168.10°C in the treated sample of p -anisidine. The result revealed about 1.27 increase in T max of treated sample Figure 2: Surface area analysis of control and treated p-anisidine. Figure 3: DSC thermogram of control and treated p-anisidine. Parameter Control Treated Unit cell volume 10 -23 cm 3 683.81 690.18 Crystallite size nm 83.84 84.62 Molecular weight g/mol 124.79 125.95 Table 1: XRD data volume of unit cell crystallite size and molecular weight of p-anisidine.

slide 5:

Page 5 of 8 Volume 1 • Issue 1 • 1000102 Pharm Anal Chem Open Access ISSN: PACO an open access journal Citation: Trivedi MK Branton A Trivedi D Nayak G Bairwa K et al 2015 Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofeld Energy Treated p-Anisidine. Pharm Anal Chem Open Access 6: 102. doi:10.4172/paco.1000102 Parameter Control Treated Latent heat of fusion J/g 146.78 148.89 Melting point °C 59.41 59.49 Onset temperature °C 134.68 150.02 End-set temperature °C 198.54 206.21 T max °C 165.99 168.10 Table 2: Thermal analysis of control and treated samples of p-anisidine. T max : Temperature at maximum weight loss occurs. Figure 3: DSC thermogram of control and treated p-anisidine. Figure 4: TGA-DTG thermogram of control and treated p-anisidine.

slide 6:

Page 6 of 8 Volume 1 • Issue 1 • 1000102 Pharm Anal Chem Open Access ISSN: PACO an open access journal Citation: Trivedi MK Branton A Trivedi D Nayak G Bairwa K et al 2015 Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofeld Energy Treated p-Anisidine. Pharm Anal Chem Open Access 6: 102. doi:10.4172/paco.1000102 Figure 5: FT-IR spectra of control and treated T1 and T2 p-anisidine. with respect to the control. This increase in T max in treated sample might be due to the alteration in internal energy through biofield energy treatment that results into enhanced thermal stability of treated sample as compared to the control. Overall the result of this study showed the increase in onset temperature of thermal degradation and T max . This might leads to decrease in the tendency of vaporization of p-anisidine molecule. As a result the environmental contamination due to vapors of p -anisidine which is the major cause of p -anisidine toxicity should be decreased drastically. FT-IR spectroscopic analysis FT-IR spectra of the control and treated samples of p-anisidine Figure 5 were inferred with the help of theoretically predicted wavenumber. Te p-anisidine molecule contains N-H C-H CC

slide 7:

Page 7 of 8 Volume 1 • Issue 1 • 1000102 Pharm Anal Chem Open Access ISSN: PACO an open access journal Citation: Trivedi MK Branton A Trivedi D Nayak G Bairwa K et al 2015 Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofeld Energy Treated p-Anisidine. Pharm Anal Chem Open Access 6: 102. doi:10.4172/paco.1000102 Figure 6: UV-Vis spectra of control and treated T1 and T2 p-anisidine. C-N and C-O bond vibrations. Te N-H stretching was assigned to peaks at 3348-3423 cm -1 in all the three samples i.e. the control and treated T1 and T2. Likewise the C-H aromatic stretching was assigned to peak at 3007 cm -1 in all the three samples i.e. the control and treated T1 and T2. Te C-H stretching methyl was attributed to peaks appeared at 2839-2964 cm -1 in control 2831-2962 cm -1 in T1 and 2839-2964 cm -1 in T2 sample. Te aromatic CC stretching of aromatic ring was appeared in the region of 1506-1631 cm -1 in control 1508-1631 cm -1 in T1 and 1506-1635 cm -1 in T2 sample. Te C-H asymmetrical and symmetrical bending peaks were observed in the region of 1442- 1465 cm -1 in all the samples i.e. control T1 and T2. In addition the C-N stretching peak was observed at 1336 cm -1 in all the three samples. Te C-O stretching for ether linkage was observed at 1031 1298 cm -1 in all the three samples. Te C-H in-plane deformation peaks were appeared at 1130-1178 cm -1 in all the three samples. Whereas the C-H out of plane deformation peaks were appeared at 516-827 cm -1 control 518-827 cm -1 in T1 and 516-825 cm -1 in T2 sample. Te observed FT- IR spectra were well supported with the literature data 35. UV-Vis spectroscopy Te UV spectra of both control and treated T1 and T2 samples are presented in Figure 6. Te UV spectrum of control p-anisidine showed the three diferent absorption maxima λ max at 203.2 234.6 and 299.8 nm. Te UV spectrum of T1 sample showed the similar pattern of λ max i.e. at 202.8 234.6 and 299.8 nm. Whereas the T2 sample exhibited the λ max at 203.5 234.5 and 300.0 nm. Te result suggested the similar pattern of λ max in the treated samples as compared to the control. Overall the UV-vis spectral analysis suggests that biofeld energy treatment may not cause any signifcant change in the λ max of treated p-anisidine samples with respect to the control. Conclusion In brief the XRD difractogram of biofeld treated p-anisidine showed the slight increase in unit cell volume crystallite size and molecular weight as compared to the control. Te intensity of XRD peaks was also increased in treated sample as compared to the control. Te surface area analysis showed a signifcant increase 25.44 in the

slide 8:

Page 8 of 8 Volume 1 • Issue 1 • 1000102 Pharm Anal Chem Open Access ISSN: PACO an open access journal Citation: Trivedi MK Branton A Trivedi D Nayak G Bairwa K et al 2015 Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofeld Energy Treated p-Anisidine. Pharm Anal Chem Open Access 6: 102. doi:10.4172/paco.1000102 surface area of biofeld treated p-anisidine with respect to the control. Te DSC analysis showed the slight increase in latent heat of fusion from 146.78 J/g control to 148.89 J/g in the treated sample. Te TGA/ DTG analysis showed the increase in onset and end set temperature of thermal degradation by 11.39 and 3.86 respectively in treated sample with respect to the control. Moreover the T max was also increased slightly from 165.99 control to 168.10°C in treated sample of p-anisidine. Overall it can be concluded that Mr. Trivedi’s biofeld energy treatment has the impact on physical and thermal properties of p-anisidine with respect to the control. Based on this it is assumed that biofeld treated p-anisidine could be more useful as a chemical intermediate in the organic synthesis of various dyes and pharmaceuticals. Acknowledgements The authors like to acknowledge the Trivedi Science Trivedi Master Wellness and Trivedi Testimonials for their steady support during the work. Authors would also like to thanks the whole team from the MGV pharmacy college Nasik for providing the instrumental facility. References 1. Del Valle MA Gacitua MA Borrego ED Zamora PP Diaz FR et al. 2012 Electro-synthesis and characterization of aniline and o-anisidine oligomers. Int J Electrochem Sci 7: 2552-2565. 2. Elsersawi A 2009 Chemistry biology and cancer: The bond. Xlibris Corporation USA. 3. Harbison RD Bourgeois MM Johnson GT 2015 Hamilton and Hardy’s industrial toxicology. 6th edn. John Wiley Sons New Jersey USA. 4. WHO 1982 IARC Monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans. Some aromatic amines anthraquinones and nitroso compounds and inorganic fuorides use in drinking-water and dental preparations. Cancer 27. 5. Singh BP Nyska A Kissling GE Lieuallen W Johansson SL et al. 2010 Urethral carcinoma and hyperplasia in male and female B 6 C 3 F 1 mice treated with 33’44’-tetrachloroazobenzene TCAB. Toxicol Pathol 38: 372-381. 6. Hok J Tishelman C Ploner A Forss A Falkenberg T 2008 Mapping patterns of complementary and alternative medicine use in cancer: An explorative cross- sectional study of individuals with reported positive “exceptional” experiences. BMC Complement Altern Med 8: 48. 7. Koithan M 2009 Introducing complementary and alternative therapies. J Nurse Pract 5: 18-20. 8. Aldridge D 1991 Spirituality healing and medicine. Br J Gen Pract 41: 425- 427. 9. Cahil M 1998 Nurses handbook of complementary and alternative therapies. Springhouse PA: Springhouse Corporation. 10. Movaffaghi Z Farsi M 2009 Biofeld therapies: Biophysical basis and biological regulations Complement Ther Clin Pract 15: 35-37. 11. Maxwell JC 1865 A dynamical theory of the electromagnetic feld. Phil Trans R Soc Lond 155: 459-512. 12. Rubik B 2002 The biofeld hypothesis: Its biophysical basis and role in medicine. J Altern Complement Med 8: 703-717. 13. Rubik B Brooks AJ Schwartz GE 2006 In vitro effect of Reiki treatment on bacterial cultures: Role of experimental context and practitioner wellbeing. J Altern Complement Med 12: 7-13. 14. Benor DJ 1990 Survey of spiritual healing research. Complement Med Res 4: 9-33. 15. Rein G 1995 The in vitro effect of bioenergy on conformational state of human DNA in aqueous solutions. Acupunct Electrother Res 20: 173-180. 16. Trivedi MK Tallapragada RM Branton A Trivedi D Nayak G et al. 2015 Potential impact of biofeld treatment on atomic and physical characteristics of magnesium. Vitam Miner 3: 129. 17. Trivedi MK Patil S Tallapragada RM 2013 Effect of biofeld treatment on the physical and thermal characteristics of silicon tin and lead powders. J Material Sci Eng 2: 125. 18. Trivedi MK Nayak G Patil S Tallapragada RM Latiyal O 2015 Evaluation of biofeld treatment on physical atomic and structural characteristics of manganese II III oxide. J Material Sci Eng 4: 177. 19. Trivedi MK Patil S Shettigar H Bairwa K Jana S 2015 Spectroscopic characterization of chloramphenicol and tetracycline: An impact of biofeld. Pharm Anal Acta 6: 395. 20. Trivedi MK Patil S Shettigar H Bairwa K Jana S 2015 Spectroscopic characterization of biofeld treated metronidazole and tinidazole. Med Chem 5: 340-344. 21. Nayak G Altekar N 2015 Effect of biofeld treatment on plant growth and adaptation. J Environ Health Sci 1: 1-9. 22. Lenssen AW 2013 Biofeld and fungicide seed treatment infuences on soybean productivity seed quality and weed community. Agricultural Journal 8: 138-143. 23. Shinde V Sances F Patil S Spence A 2012 Impact of biofeld treatment on growth and yield of lettuce and tomato. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 6: 100-105. 24. Trivedi MK Patil S Shettigar H Mondal SC Jana S 2015 Evaluation of biofeld modality on viral load of Hepatitis B and C viruses. J Antivir Antiretrovir 7: 83-88. 25. Trivedi MK Patil S Shettigar H Gangwar M Jana S 2015 Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of Pseudomonas fuorescens after biofeld treatment. J Infect Dis Ther 3: 222. 26. Patterson AL 1939 The Scherrer formula for X-Ray particle size determination. Phys Rev 56: 978-982. 27. Pavia DL Lampman GM Kriz GS 2001 Introduction to spectroscopy. 3rdedn Thomson Learning Singapore. 28. Inoue M Hirasawa I 2013 The relationship between crystal morphology and XRD peak intensity on CaSO 4 .2H 2 O. J Cryst Growth 380: 169-175. 29. Fultz B Howe JM 2002 In Transmission electron microscopy and diffractometry of materials. Diffraction and the X-ray powder diffractometer. 4th edn. Springer-Verlag: Berlin. 30. Gaber A Abdel-Rahim MA Abdel-Latief AY Abdel-Salam MN 2014 Infuence of calcination temperature on the structure and porosity of nanocrystalline SnO 2 synthesized by a conventional precipitation method. Int J Electrochem Sci 9: 81-95. 31. Raj KJA Viswanathan B 2009 Effect of surface area pore volume particle size of P25 titania on the phase transformation of anatase to rutile. Indian J Chem 48A: 1378-1382. 32. Groza JR Shackelford JF 2007 Materials processing handbook. Taylor and Francis group CRC Press. 33. Trivedi MK Nayak G Patil S Tallapragada RM Latiyal O 2015 Studies of the atomic and crystalline characteristics of ceramic oxide nano powders after bio feld treatment. Ind Eng Manage 4: 161. 34. http://www.merckmillipore.com/IN/en/product/p-AnisidineMDA_CHEM- 845003. 35. http://www.chem.ucla.edu/bacher/General/30BL/problems/spectroscopy/ assignmentW14/key.html. Citation: Trivedi MK Branton A Trivedi D Nayak G Bairwa K et al 2015 Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofeld Energy Treated p-Anisidine. Pharm Anal Chem Open Access 6: 102. doi:10.4172/ paco.1000102

authorStream Live Help