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Presented by- Anupriya Singh M.pharm-1st year:

Presented by- Anupriya Singh M.pharm-1 st year HPTLC (High performance thin layer chromatography) 1


Content- Content- introduction Principle Instrumentation Difference between TLC and HPTLC Steps involving in HPTLC Factors influencing separation and resolution of spots Applications of HPTLC 2


. Introduction - . HPTLC (High performance thin layer chromatography) is the automated, sophisticated form and improved method of TLC. It is a powerful analytical method equally suitable for qualitative and quantitative analytical tasks. It is also known as planer or flat bed chromatography . HPTLC is very popular for many reasons such as- Visual chromatogram, Multiple sample handling, Enables the most complicated separation, 3


. Detection limit in nanogram range with UV-absorption detection and in picogram range with fluorimetric detection. Large no of theoretical plates in minimum area of plates . Analysis time is greatly redused in HPTLC due to shorter migration distant. Higher efficiency due to smaller particle size(5 μ m ). 4


. Principle- Same theoretical principle of TLC (Adsorption chromatography ) i.e. the principle of separation is adsorption. Mobile phase flow by capillary action effect . A nd component move according to their affinities towards the adsorbent. T he component with higher affinity toward adsorbent travels slowly. And the component with lesser affinity towards the stationary phase travels faster . Thus the components are separated on a chromatographic plate according to their affinity and seperation also based on their solubility in mobile phase. 5

Instrumentation of HPTLC-:

Instrumentation of HPTLC- 6 Scanner Applicator Digital camera for photo documentation Autometic developing chamber

Difference between TLC and HPTLC-:

Difference between TLC and HPTLC- parameters TLC HPTLC Chromatographic plate used Hand made Pre-coated Sorbent layer thickness 250 μ m 100-200 μ m Pre-washing of plates Not followed must Application of sample Manual automatic Shape spot Spot/band Sample volume 1-10 μ l 0.2-5 μ l Efficiency Low High Analysis time Slow Greatly reduced Development chamber More amount of solvent Less amount of solvent Spots size 2-4mm 0.5-1mm Scanning Not possible Use of UV/ Visible/ Fluorescence scanner (densitometer) 7

Steps involving in HPTLC- :

Steps involving in HPTLC- 8 Activation of pre-coated plates Selection of chromatographic plates Layer pre-washing Sample preparation and application Selection of mobile phase Pre-conditioning Chromatographic development and drying Detection and visulization Documentation

Selection of chromatographic plates-:

Selection of chromatographic plates- Hand made plates which are made up of cellulose and other materials which are not used much now a day. Pre-coated plates- The plates with different support materials and sorbent layers with different format and thickness are used for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Support materials used in plates- Glass Polyester/polyethylyne Aluminium Sorbents used in plates- Silica gel 60F, Aluminium oxide, Cellulose, silica gel chemically modified –a)amino group(NH2), b) CN group Smaller particle size of silica helps in greater resolution and sensitivity. 9

2. Layer pre-washing-:

2 . Layer pre-washing- It is purification step. The main purpose of the pre-washing is to remove impurities which include water vapours and other volatile substances from the atmosphere when they get exposed in the lab environment . In case of silica 60F( most widely used sorbent) t he major disadvantage of this sorbent is that it contain iron as impurity. This iron is removed by using Methanol : water (9:1), this is the major advantage of the step of pre-washing. Some common methods are- Asending Dipping Continuous Solvents used for pre-washing- Methanol Chloroform:Methanol ( 1:1) Choloroform: Methanol: Ammonia (90:10:1 ) 10

3.Activation of pre coated plates-:

3.Activation of pre coated plates- Freshly opened box of HPTLC plates doesn’t need activation . If plates exposed to high humidity or kept in hand for longer time then activation is required and it’s activation results by removing moisture. The plates are activated by placing in an oven at 110­120 0 C for 30 min, this step will removes water that has been physically absorbed on surface at solvent layer. Activation at higher temp and for longer time is avoided which leads to very active layer and there is risk of sample being decomposed. 11

4.Sample preparation and application- Sample preparation-:

4.Sample preparation and application- Sample preparation- It’s important to prepare proper sample for successful separation. Sample and reference substances should be dissolved in the same solvent to ensure comparable distribution at starting zones. It needs a high concentrated solution,as very less amount of sample need to be applied. After that dry the plates and store in dust free atmosphere. Solvents used are- Methanol, Chloroform: Methanol (1:1), Ethyl acetate: Methanol (1:1), Chloroform: Methanol: Ammonia (90:!0:1), 12

Sample application-:

Sample application- Usual concentration range is 0.1-1µg / µl,above this causes poor separation and volume recommended for HPTLC-0.5-5 μ l . The size of sample spot applied must not exceed 1mm in diameter. Problem from overloading can be overcome by applying the sample as band. Some applicators used for application of sample- Selection of applicator to be used depends on- -Sample volume -No. of sample to be applied a) Capillary tubes b) Micro bulb pipettes. c) Micro syringes. d)Automatic sample applicator. 13


. 14 Autometic sample applicator Capillary tube Micro syringes


. The major criteria is that they shouldn’t damage the surface while applying sample. The sample are completely transfer to the layer. Advantage of application of sample as bands are- Better seperation due to rectengular shape. Response of densitometer is higher in case of band because of uniform distribution of sample in band. 15

5.Selection of mobile phase-:

5.Selection of mobile phase- Chemical properties of analytes and sorbent layer factors should be considered while selection of mobile phase. Various components of Mobile Phase should be measured separately and then placed in mixing vessel. The less amount of mobile phase is required then TLC . This prevents contamination of solvents and also error arising from volumes expansion or contraction on mixing. Multi component mobile phase once used not recommonded for further use due to diffirent evaporation and adsorption by layer. 16

6.Pre-conditioning (chamber saturation)-:

6.Pre-conditioning (chamber saturation)- Un- saturated chamber causes high Rf values. Saturated chamber by lining with filter paper for 30min prior to development-uniform distribution of solvent vapours-less solvent for the sample to travel-lower RF values For low polarity mobile phase there is no need of saturation.However saturation is needed for highly polar mobile phase. Chamber saturation influence separation profile. 17

7.Chromatographic development and drying-:

7.Chromatographic development and drying- Plates are spotted with sample and air dried and placed in the developing chambers. The different methods used for development of chambers are like- Ascending Descending Horizontal Autometic multiple development,Circular, anti-circular device and multiple developments are some other methods. After development, remove the plate and mobile phase is removed from the plate to avoid contamination of lab atmosphere. Dry in vacuum desiccators with protection from heat and light. 18


. 19 Autometic multiple development Horizontal development Autometic multiple development Twin trough chamber

8.Detection and visulization-:

8.Detection and visulization- Detection under UV light is first choice. Non destructive and spots of fluorescent compounds can be seen at 254 nm (short wave length) or at 366 nm (long wave length). Spots of non fluorescent compounds can be seen fluorescent stationary phase is used - silica gel Gf . Non UV absorbing compounds like ethambutol, dicylomine dipping the plates in 0.1% iodine solution . 20


Detectors- 21 UV cabinet Diode –array detectors .


Instrumentation- 22 Detector consists of following- Lamp selector Entrance lens slit Monochromator entrance slit Grating Mirror Slit aperture disc Mirror Beam splitter Reference photo multiplier Measuring photo multiplier Photo diode for transmission measurements.

9.Scanning and documentation-:

9.Scanning and documentation- Scanning- The scanner converts band into peak and peak hieght or area is related to the concentration of substance on spot/band. The peak height and area under spot are measured by instrument and recorded . 23 Scanner


Documentation- Documentation is important because labeling every single chromatogram can avoid mistake in respect of order of application. Type of plate, chamber system, composition of mobile phase, running time and detection method should be recorded . 24

Factor affecting HPTLC:

Factor affecting HPTLC Types of stationary phase. Mobile phase Layer thickness Temperature Mode of development Amount of sample Dipping zone, etc. 25

Applications of HPTLC:

Applications of HPTLC Pharmaceutical industry- Quality control,identity purity test etc. Food Analysis- : Quality control , additives , pesticides ,stability testing etc. Clinical Applications- Metabolism studies , drug screening ,stability testing etc Industrial Applications- Process development and optimization etc . Forensic- Poisoning investigations Biomedical Analysis- Seperation of gangliosides Environment Analysis- Pesticides in drinking water etc . Cosmetics- Hydrocortisone & cinchocaine in lanolin ointment etc. Natural products ,plant ingredients- Glycosides in herbal drugs, Piperine in piper longum etc . Finger print Analysis - Finger prints for identification of liquorice , ginseng etc. Analysis of drugs in blood- 26


. . 27 Thank You…

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