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The task of data collection begins after a research problem has been defined and research design /plan chalked out. TYPES OF DATA : TYPES OF DATA 1) PRIMARY DATA : Are those which are collected afresh and for the first time and thus happen to be original in character and known as Primary data. 2) SECONDARY DATA : Are those which have been collected by someone else and which have already been passed through the statistical process are known as Secondary data. COLLECTION OF PRIMARY DATA : COLLECTION OF PRIMARY DATA There are several methods of collecting primary data, particularly in surveys and descriptive researches. In descriptive research, we obtain primary data either through observation or through direct communication with respondents in one form or another or through personal interviews. COLLECTION OF SECONDARY DATA : COLLECTION OF SECONDARY DATA These are already available i.e. they refer to the data which have already been collected and analyzed by someone else. Secondary data may either be published or unpublished data. Researcher must be very careful in using secondary data, because the data available may be sometimes unsuitable. Methods of data Collection :Primary Data : Methods of data Collection :Primary Data 1) OBSERVATION METHOD : Observation method is a method under which data from the field is collected with the help of observation by the observer or by personally going to the field. In the words of P.V. Young, “Observation may be defined as systematic viewing, coupled with consideration of seen phenomenon.” 2) INTERVIEW METHOD: : 2) INTERVIEW METHOD: This method of collecting data involves presentation or oral-verbal stimuli and reply in terms of oral-verbal responses. There are different type of interviews as follows : A) personal interviews : the interviewer asks questions generally in a face to face contact to the other person or persons. B) telephonic interviews : when it is not possible to contact the respondent directly, then interview is conducted through –Telephone. Slide 8: C) structured interviews : in this case, a set of pre-decided questions are there. D) unstructured interviews : in this case, we don’t follow a system of pre-determined questions. E) focused interviews : attention is focused on the given experience of the respondent and its possible effects. F) clinical interviews : concerned with broad underlying feelings or motivations or with the course of individual’s life experience, rather than with the effects of the specific experience, as in the case of focused interview. Slide 9: G) group interviews : a group of 6 to 8 individuals is interviewed. H) qualitative and quantitative interviews : divided on the basis of subject matter i.e. whether qualitative or quantitative. I) individual interviews : interviewer meets a single person and interviews him. J) selection interviews : done for the selection of people for certain jobs. K) depth interviews : it deliberately aims to elicit unconscious as well as other types of material relating especially to personality dynamics and motivations. 3) QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD: : 3) QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD: This method of data collection is quite popular, particularly in case of big enquiries. The questionnaire is mailed to respondents who are expected to read and understand the questions and write down the reply in the space meant for the purpose in the questionnaire itself. The respondents have to answer the questions on their own. HOW TO CONSTRUCT A QUESTIONNAIRE: : HOW TO CONSTRUCT A QUESTIONNAIRE: Researcher should note the following with regard to these three main aspects of a questionnaire: General form Question Sequence Determine the type the Questions : A) Direct Question B) Indirect Question C) Open Form Questionnaire Slide 12: D) Closed Form Questionnaire E) Dichotomous Questions F) Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) 4) SCHEDULE METHOD: It is one of the important methods for the study of social problems. In the words of Thomas Carson Macormic, “The schedule is nothing more than a list of questions which it seems necessary to test the hypothesis .” 5) CASE STUDY METHOD : : 5) CASE STUDY METHOD : It is essentially an intensive investigation of the particular unit under consideration. Its important characteristics are as follows : a) the researcher can take one single social unit or more of such units for his study purpose. b) the selected unit is studied intensively i.e. it is studied in minute details. 6) SURVEY METHOD : : 6) SURVEY METHOD : One of the common methods of diagnosing and solving of social problems is that of undertaking surveys. Festinger and Kat of the opinion that, “Many research problems require systematic collection of data from population through the use of personal interviews or other data gathering devices.” 7) PANEL METHOD : : 7) PANEL METHOD : In this method, data is collected from the same sample respondents at the some interval either by mail or by personal interview. This is used for studies on : 1) Expenditure Pattern 2) Consumer Behaviour 3) Effectiveness of Advertising 4) Voting Behaviour and so on Slide 16: THANK YOU You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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