Forest and wildlife resources

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Forest and wildlife resources:

Forest and wildlife resources 1

Introduction :

Introduction We human beings along with all living organisms form a complex web of ecological system in which we are only a part and very much dependent on this system for our very existence. Forests play a key role in the ecological system as these are also the primary producers on which all other living beings depend . 2

Biodiversity/Biological diversity : Rich wildlife and cultivated speices, diverse in form &function but closely integrated in a system through multiple network of interdependencies. In this planet we share immense biodiversity. :

Biodiversity/Biological diversity : Rich wildlife and cultivated speices , diverse in form &function but closely integrated in a system through multiple network of interdependencies. In this planet we share immense biodiversity . Biodiversity 3

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Flora and Fauna in I ndia India is one of the world’s richest countries in terms of biological diversity & has nearly 8% of the total number of species in the world which are estimated to be 1.6 million. These flora and fauna are so well integrated in our daily life and are taken for granted by us. Lately, they have been under great stress mainly due to our insensitivity to our environment. at least 10% of India’s recorded wild flora & 20% of its mammals are on the threatened list. i.e., on the verge of extinction like Cheetah, pink-headed duck, mountain quail, forest spotted owlet and plants like madhuca insignis( a wild variety of mahua) & hubbardia heptaneuron( a species of grass). Pink headed duck 4

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Over 81,000 species of fauna and 47,000 species of flora are found in India. Of the estimated 47,000 plant species , about 15,000 flowering species are endemic (indigenous) to India. Among the larger animals in India, 79 species of mammals, 44 of birds, 15 of reptiles, and 3 of amphibians are threatened? Nearly 1,500 plant species are considered endangered. Flowering plants and vertebrate animals have recently become extinct at a rate estimated to be 50 to 100 times the average expected natural rate. Do you know ? 5

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VANISHING FORESTS The forest cover in the country is estimated tobe 637,293sq km, which is 19.39% of the total geographical area. Dense forest:11.48%, open forest: 7.76%; mangrove:0.15%. According to the state Forest Report-1999, the dense forest cover has increased by 10,098 sq km since 1997. This increase is due to the plantation by different agencies.& also Report does not differentiate between natural forests and plantations therefore these reports fail to deliver the accurate information. 6

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DIFFERENT CATEGORIES OF EXISTING PLANTS AND ANIMALS SPECIES,.-based on the International Union for Conservation of Natural Resources-(IUCN) 1.Normal species: species whose population levels are considered to be normal their survival, such as cattle, sal , pine, rodents, etc. PINE TREE Cattle 7

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ENDANGERED species: these are the species which are in danger of extinction. The survival of such species is difficult if the negative factors that have led to their decline continue to operate. Example: black buck, crocodile, Indian wild ass, Indian rhino, lion, tailed macaque, sangai ( brow anter deer in Manipur) etc. 3. Vulnerable species: species whose population has declined to levels from where it is likely to move into the endangered category in the near future if the negative factors continue to operate. Examples: blue sheep, Asiatic elephant, Gangetic dolphin, etc. 8

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4.Rare species: species with small population may move into the endangered or vulnerable category if the negative factors affecting them continue to operate. The examples: Himalayan brown, wild Asiatic buffalo, desert fox and hornbill,etc. 5.Endemic species : these species are only found in some particular areas usually isolated by natural or geographical barriers. Example: Andaman teal, Nicobar pigeon, Andaman wild pig, mithun in Arunchal Pradesh. 6.Extinct species : these are not found after searches of known or likely areas where they may occur. A species may be extinct from a local area, region, country, continent or the entire earth. Examples: Asiatic cheetah, pink head duck. ANDAMAN TEAL WILD ASIATIC BUFFALO HORNBILL 9

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ASIATIC Cheetah: world’s fastest land mammal is a unique and specialized member of cat family and can move at the speed of 112 km/hr. Cheetah is often mistaken for a leopard but has distinguishing marks are the long tear dropped shaped lines on each side of the nose from corner of its eyes to its mouth. prior to 20th century Cheetah’s were widely distributed in Asia & Africa, today i.e is nearly extinct due to decline in habitat and prey. the species were declared extinct in India long back in 1952 . 10

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Factors causing depletion of flora & fauna ? The greatest damage inflicted on Indian forests was by the colonial period due to the expansion of the railways , commercial & scientific forestry and mining activities. 2. Agricultural expansion is one of the major causes of depletion of forest resources. As per Forest Servey of India. between 1951-1980 over 26.200 sq.km of the forest area was converted into agricultural land all over India. 3. Tribal belts especially in North- Eastern & central India, have been deforested or degrated by shifting cultivation ( jhum ), a type of 'slash and burn' agriculture. 11

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4.Large-scale development projects have also contributed significantly to the loss of forests. Since 1951, over 5,000 sq.km of forests have been cleared for river valley projects, and it is still being continued like the Narmada Sagar Project in MP, which would inundate 40,000 hectares of forests. 5.Mining is another important factor behind deforestation. Example--The Buxa Tiger Reserve in West Bengal is seriously threatened by the ongoing dolomite mining & it has disturbed natural habitat of many species and blocked the migration route of several others, including the great Indian Elephant. 6.Many environmentalists hold the view that the greatest degrading factors behind the depletion of forests is the grazing & fuel-wood collection & the substantial part of the fuel-fodder demand is met by lopping rather than by felling entire trees. 7. Forest ecosystems are the repositaries of the country's most valuable forests products, minerals and others resources that meet the demand of the rapidly expanding industrial-urban economy. 12

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13 Source : Wildlife protection society of India

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Are the colonial policies to be blamed? Some environmentalists say that the promotion of few favoured species in many parts of India-termed as "enrichment plantation", in which single commercially valuable speices was extensively planted and other species eliminated.for EXAMPLE: Teakmonocutural has damaged the natural forests in South India and Chir Pine( Pinusroxburghii ) plantations in the Himalayas have replaced the Himalays oak and Rhododendron forests. 14

CAUSES OF WILDLIFE DESTRUCTION:

15 CAUSES OF WILDLIFE DESTRUCTION Human Nature

Habitat Loss :

16 Habitat Loss S econd most critical factor in species extinction. There now 20% less forest cover than existed 300 years ago

Poaching and hunting :

17 Poaching and hunting Another major cause of animal species extinction. Poaching and illegal trade in animals are US$2 billion to $3 billion

Habitat Loss and Fragmentation:

18 Habitat Loss and Fragmentation Extensive human demand resulted into Habitat Loss. Rainforests are the main habitats Tropical rainforests are cleared for wood / timber resources development of petroleum resources mineral resources for cash-crop plantations and subsistence farming

National and International Wildlife Trade:

19 National and International Wildlife Trade Pet Trade Fur Trade Meat Trade Body Parts Trade Trade for Biomedical Research

Some Other Causes :

20 Some Other Causes Climate change / Global warming Pollution Introduced (Invasive) Species Farmer / Rancher Shootings

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The Himalayan Yew It is a medicinal plant found in various parts of Himachal Pradesh and Arunachal Pradesh. a chemical compound called ' taxol ' is extracted from the bark, needles, twigs and roots of this tree, and it has been been successfully used to treat some cancers, and the drug is now the biggest selling anti-cancer drug in the world. the species are under great threat due to over exploitation. lately thousands of trees have dried up. 21

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Important factors /causes of environmental degration ? Habitat destruction, hunting, poaching, over-exploitation, environmental pollution, poisioning and forest fires are the factors which have led to decline in India's biodiversity. unequal access, inequitable consumption of resources and differential sharing of responsibility for environmental well-being. over-population in third-world countries is often cited as another cause. 22

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'The destruction of forests and wildlife is not just a biological issue. The biological loss is strongly correlated with the loss of cultural diversity.' Discuss/ justify. 23

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Destruction of forests and wildlife - a biological is a loss. Such loss is strongly correlated with the loss of cultural diversity because -- such losses have increasingly marginalised & impoverished many indigenous & other forest- resources-dependent communities, who directly depend on various components of the forests and wildlife for food, drink, medicine, culture, spirituality ect . within the poor, women are affected more than men.In many societies, women bear the major responsiblity of collection of fuel, fodder, water and other basic subsistence needs.As these resources are depleted the condition of women worsens as sometimes they have to walk a lot of distance to collect these resources., which in turn causes serious health problems for women and negligence of home and children because of increased hours of work which often have social implications. the indirect impact of degration such as severe drought or deforestation-induced floods,ect . also hits the poor the hardest. Poverty in these cases is a direct outcome of envrionmental destruction. Thus forest & wildlife, are vital to the quality of life and environment in the subcontinent. 24

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Conservation of forest and wildlife resources in India. In the background of rapid decline in wildlife population and forestry has become essential. we need to conserve forests because: 1. conservation preserves the ecological diversity and our life support systems- water,air and soil. 2. it also preserves the genetic diversity of plants and animals for better growth of species and breeding. for example, in agriculture we are still dependent on traditional crop varities . 3. Fisheries too are heavily dependent on the maintenance of aquatic biodiversity. 4. central govt. has also announced several projects forprotecting specific animals, which were gravely threatened, includind the tiger, one horned rhinoceros, the kashmir stag or hangul , three types of crocodiles- fresh water crocodiles, salt water crocodile and the gharial , the Asiatic lion and the others. Most recently the indian elephant, black buck( chinkara ) the great indian bustard( godawan ) and the snow leopard etc. have been given full or partial legal protection against hunting and trade throughout india . 25

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PROJECT TIGER: Tiger is one of the key wildlife speciesin the faunal web. --in 1973 the authorities realised that its population was dwindling and that there is major threat to tiger population. 1973' Project Tiger' was launched. There are 27 tiger reserves in India. Corbett National park in Uttaranchal, Sunderbans in West Bengal, Bandhavgarh in MP, Sariska wildlife sactuary in Rajasthan, Manas Tiger Reserve in kerala are some of the tiger reserves in India. --Threat to tiger population is from:poaching for trade, shrinking habitat, depletion of prey base species, growing human population, etc. --the trade of tiger skins and the use of their bones in traditional medicines, especially in the Asian countries left the tiger population on the verge of extinction India and Nepal provide habitate to two-third of tiger population and have become prime targets for poaching and illegal trading. 26

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TYPES AND DISTRIBUTION OF FOREST AND WILDLIFE RESOURCES 27

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DISTRIBUTION OF FOREST AND WILD LIFE RESOURCES RESERVED FORESTS PROTECTED FORESTS UNCLASSED FORESTS 28

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Govt role in conservation of wildlife:

7/17/2011 made by anuj agrawal xa 30 Govt role in conservation of wildlife Wildlife protection act 1972 Project tiger 1972-73 Forest protection act 1980-88 Anti poaching agencies State wildlife dept State forest dept Ministry of environment and forest Army (IF APPLICABLE) Police Border security force Coast guards Wildlife conservation society

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COMMUNITY AND CONSERVATION 31

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IN SOME AREAS OF INDIA , LOCAL COMMUNITIES ARE STRUGGLING TO CONSERVE THESE HABITATS ALONG WITH GOVERNMENT OFFICIAS, RECOGNISING THAT ONLY THIS WILL SECURE THEIR OWN LONG-TERM LIVELIHOOD. IN SARISKA TIGER RESERVE RAJASTHAN VILLAGERS HAVE FOUGHT AGAINST MINING BY CITING THE WILDLIFE PROTECTION ACT. 32

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SACRED GROVES NATURE WORSHIP IS AN AGE OLD TRIBAL BELIEF BASED ON THE PREMISE THAT ALL CREATIONS OF NATURE HAVE TO BE PROTECTED. SUCH BELIES HAVE PRESERVED SEVERAL VIRGIN FORESTS IN PRISTINE FROM CALLED SACRED GROVES. THE MUNDAS AND THE SANTHALS OF CHHOTA NAGPUR REGION WORSHIP MAHUA(BASSI LATIFOLIA) AND KADAMBA (ANTHOCAPHALUS CADAMBA) TREES, AND THE TRIBALS OF ORISSA AND BIHAR WORSHIP THE TAMARIND (TAMARINDUS INDICA) AND MANGO(MANGIFERA INDICA) TREES DURING WEEDINGS. 33

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MOVEMENTS CHIPKO MOVEMENT BEEJ BACHAO ANDOLAN NAVDANYA IN INDIA JOINT FOREST MANAGEMENT (JFM) PROGRAMME FURNISHES A GOOD EXAMPLE FOR INVOLVING LOCAL COMMUNITIES IN THE MANAGEMENT AND RESTORSTION OF DEGRADED FORESTS. 34

conclusion:

7/17/2011 made by anuj agrawal xa 35 conclusion Forests and wildlife are the renewable natural resource and if all the planned programmes are effectively executed, in a few decades the flora and the fauna will start flourishing Where is my mamma

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