medicinal plants

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ENGLISH MEDICINAL PLANTS ENGLISH PROJECT WORK

Ancient archaeological records of medicinal plants :

Ancient archaeological records of medicinal plants 3500 BCE - India had an extensive pharmacopoeia. Much of that knowledge is still used as part of the Ayurveda medical system. 2250 BCE – Egypt and Babylon were trading medicinal plants. 900 BCE - Archaeological records demonstrate the use of medicinal and psychoactive plants in the New World. 330 BCE - One of the Theophrastus’s students, Alexander the Great, sent medicinal plants from Asia back to Greece for cultivation. 2000 YA - The first written Chinese records although use is probably as ancient as India’s.

HISTORY OF HERBAL:

HISTORY OF HERBAL Dioscorides, in the 1st Century AD, was a Greek physician who described the medicinal properties of plants - he described the use of 500 species of plants in his book De Materia Medica. The first herbal written in the Anglo-Saxon world was an 11th Century book known as the Herbarium of Apuleius Platonicus. The first herbal to break from Dioscorides and print descriptions of local flora, with accurate drawings of the plants was by Leonhart Fuchs, his extremely well illustrated herbal De Historia Stirpium was published in 1543.

Vienna Dioscorides Arabic – 6th Century:

Vienna Dioscorides Arabic – 6 th Century

Fuchs herbal –1543:

Fuchs herbal –1543

Best English Herbals:

Best English Herbals In 1597, John Gerard published his outstanding book The Herball, Or Generall Historie of Plantes - it is a huge volume of 1392 pages and 2200 woodcut illustrations of plants - it was widely used by physicians and became widely quoted and referenced - the book has remained in print for 400 years. The last major herbal published in English was John Ray’s herbal, published in 1688 - it is also a major taxonomic work and Ray was the first person to divide the flowering plants into two main groups - the dicots and monocots.

Gerard’s Herbal - 1597:

Gerard’s Herbal - 1597

John Ray’s Herbal - 1688:

John Ray’s Herbal - 1688

LIST OF MEDICINAL PLANTS:

LIST OF MEDICINAL PLANTS ALFALFA (Medicago sativa) ALOEVERA ARNICA (Arnica montana) ASHWAGANDHA (Withania somnifera) PAPAYA (Carica papaya) LAVENDER (Lavandula officinalis) PEPPER MINT (Mentha x. peperita)

alfalfa:

alfalfa Alfalfa is widely grown throughout the world as forage for cattle, and is most often harvested as hay, but can also be made into silage, grazed, or fed as greenchop. Alfalfa usually has the highest feeding value of all common hay crops. It is used less frequently as pasture. When grown on soils where it is well-adapted, alfalfa is often the highest yielding forage plant, but its primary benefit is the combination of high yield per hectare and high nutritional quality. Its primary use is as feed for high producing dairy cows—because of its high protein content and highly digestible fiber—and secondarily for beef cattle, horses, sheep, and goats. Humans also eat alfalfa sprouts in salads and sandwiches. Dehydrated alfalfa leaf is commercially available as a dietary supplement in several forms, such as tablets, powders and tea. Alfalfa is believed by some to be a galactagouge, a substance that induces lactation. Alfalfa can cause bloating in livestock, care must be taken with livestock grazing on alfalfa because of its high bloat hazard.

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Like other legumes, its root nodules contain bacteria, sinorhizobium meliloti, with the ability to fix nitrogen, producing a high-protein feed regardless of available nitrogen in the soil. Its nitrogen-fixing abilities (which increases soil nitrogen) and its use as an animal feed greatly improve agricultural efficiency. Alfalfa can be sown in spring or fall, and does best on well-drained soils with a neutral pH of 6.8 – 7.5. Alfalfa requires sustained levels of potassium and phosphorus to grow well. It is moderately sensitive to salt levels in both the soil and in irrigation water, although it continues to be grown in the arid southwestern United States, where salinity is an emerging issue. Soils low in fertility should be fertilized with manure or a chemical fertilizer, but correction of pH is particularly important. Usually a seeding rate of 13 – 20 kg/hectare (12 – 25 lb/acre) is recommended, with differences based upon region, soil type, and seeding method. A nurse crop is sometimes used, particularly for spring plantings, to reduce weed problems and soil erosion, but can lead to competition for light, water and nutrients.

Alfalfa gallery:

Alfalfa gallery

ALOEVERA:

ALOEVERA Preparations made from the plant Aloe vera are often referred to as "aloe vera“. Scientific evidence for the cosmetic and therapeutic effectiveness of aloe vera is limited and when present is frequently contradictory. Despite this, the cosmetic and alternative medicine industries regularly make claims regarding the soothing, moisturizing, and healing properties of aloe vera, especially via Internet advertising. [ Aloe vera gel is used as an ingredient in commercially available lotions, yogurt, beverages, and some desserts, although at certain doses, it has toxic properties when used either for ingested or topical applications. Aloe vera has a long association with herbaL medicine, although it is not known when its medical applications were first suspected. Early records of Aloe vera use appear in the Ebers Papyrus from 16th century BC, in both Dioscorides' De Materia Medica and Pliny the Elder's Natural History written in the mid-first century CE along with the Juliana Anicia Codex produced in 512 AD. The species is used widely in the traditional herbal medicine of China, Japan, Russia, South Africa, the United States, Jamaica, Latin America and India.

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Over-the-counter (OTC) laxative products in the United States prior to 2003, when the Food and Drug Administration ruled that aloin was a class III ingredient, thereby banning its use. Aloe vera has potential toxicity, with side-effects occurring at some dose levels both when ingested or applied topically. Although toxicity may be less when aloin is removed by processing, aloe vera that contains aloin in excess amounts may induce side-effects. A 2-year National Toxicology Program (NTP) study on oral consumption of non-decolorized whole leaf extract of aloe vera found evidence of carcinogenic activity in male and female rats. The NTP says more information is needed to determine the potential risks to humans. Aloe vera juice is marketed to support the health of the digestive system, but there is neither scientific evidence nor regulatory approval to support this claim. The extracts and quantities typically used for such purposes appear to be dose-dependent for toxic effects. Aloe vera leaves contain phytochemicals under study for possible bioactivity, such as acetylated mannans, polymannans, anthraquinone C-glycosides, anthrones and anthraquinones, and various lectins.

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Aloe vera may be effective in treatment of wounds. Evidence on the effects of its sap on wound healing, however, is limited and contradictory. Some studies, for example, show that aloe vera promotes the rates of healing, while, in contrast, other studies show that wounds to which aloe vera gel was applied were significantly slower to heal than those treated with conventional medical preparations. A 2007 review concluded that the cumulative evidence supports the use of aloe vera for the healing of first to second degree burns. Topical application of aloe vera may also be effective for genital herpes and psoriasis. However, it is not effective for the prevention of radiation-induced injuries. Although anecdotally useful, it has not been proven to offer protection from sunburn or suntan. In a double-blind clinical trial, both the group using an aloe vera containing dentifrice and the group using a fluoridated dentifrice had a reduction of gingivitis and plaque, but no statistically significant difference was found between the two. Gels from Aloe vera have been compared to those derived from other aloe species and with other plants belonging to the family Asphodelaceae. Bulbine rutescenfs , for example, is used widely for burns and a host of skin afflictions. Aloe vera extracts might have antibacterial and antifungal activities, which possibly could help treat minor skin infections, such as boils and benign skin cysts and may inhibit growth of fungi causing tinea. For bacteria, inner-leaf gel from aloe vera was shown in one study to inhibit growth of Streptococcus and Shigella species in vitro. In contrast, aloe vera extracts failed to show antibiotic properties against Xanthomonas species.

Aloevera gallery:

Aloevera gallery

arnica:

arnica Arnica montana has been used medicinally for centuries, however there are no scientific studies that prove the medical effectiveness. The roots contain derivatives of thymol, which are used as fungicides and preservatives. Arnica is currently used in liniment and ointment preparations used for strains, sprains, and bruises. Commercial Arnica preparations are frequently used by professional athletes. The thymol derivatives concentrated in the plants roots have been clinically shown to be effective vasodilators of subcutaneous blood capillaries. A study of wound-healing after surgery to treat varicose veins found a trend towards a beneficial effect of reduction of pain and hematoma following surgery.

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Homeopathic preparations of Arnica are widely marketed and used. In the UK, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency has registered the product for sprains and bruising under the National Rules for Homoeopathic Products (2006). These rules allow claims of efficacy for these conditions to be made on the packaging in the absence of similar evidence to that required for conventional medicines under the Medicines Act 1968 and 1971. A systematic review of clinical trials showed that homeopathic Arnica was no more effective than a placebo. In some quarters, the fact that homeopathic Arnica has been the subject of published clinical trials at all has drawn criticism grounded on the allegation that the basic premise of the high dilutions used in homeopathy would be inherently flawed. With respect to the range of homeopathic Arnica creams available on the market, these are generally formulated using the mother tincture rather than a dilution and therefore contain measurable quantities of the medicinally active substance.

Arnica gallery:

Arnica gallery

ashwagandha:

ashwagandha Withania somnifera is prone to several pests and diseases. Leaf spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata is the most prevalent disease, which is most severe in the plains of Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh. Biodeterioration of its pharmaceutically active components during leaf spot disease has been reported. Oxyrachis tarandus (a treehopper/cowbug species) feeds on the apical portions of the stem, making them rough and woody in appearance and brown in colour. The apical leaves are shed and the plant gradually dies away. Carmine red spider mite ( Tetranychus urticae ) is the most prevalent pest of Withania somnifera in India.

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The main active constituents are alkaloids and steroidal lactones. These include tropine and cuscohygrine. The leaves contain the steroidal lactones, withanolides, notably withaferin A, which was the first withanolide to be isolated from W. somnifera . In Ayurveda, the berries and leaves of W. somnifera are locally applied to tumors, tubercular glands, carbuncles, and ulcers. The roots of W. somnifera are used to prepare the herbal remedy ashwagandha, which has been traditionally used to treat various symptoms and conditions. Recent research in mice indicates that withaferin A has anti-metastatic activity. The effect of a semipurified root extract of W. somnifera containing mostly withanolides was investigated using a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. The transgenic mice showed reversal of behavioral deficits and plaque load after treatment with the extract for 30 days.

Ashwagandha gallery:

Ashwagandha gallery

lavender:

lavender The essential oil was used in hospitals during World War I to disinfect floors and walls. Lavender is used extensively with herbs and aromatherapy. According to folk wisdom, lavender has many uses. Infusions of lavender are believed to soothe insect bites, burns, and headaches. Bunches of lavender repel insects. In pillows, lavender seeds and flowers aid sleep and relaxation. An infusion of flowerheads added to a cup of boiling water soothes and relaxes at bedtime. Lavender oil (or extract of Lavender) heals acne when used diluted 1:10 with water, rosewater, or witch hazel; it also treats skin burns and inflammatory conditions. A recent clinical study investigated anxiolytic effects and influence on sleep quality. Lavender oil with a high percentage of linalool and linalyl acetate, in the form of capsules, was generally well tolerated. It showed meaningful efficacy in alleviating anxiety and related sleep disturbances.

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In vitro, lavender oil is cytotoxic. It increases photosensitivity as well. Lavender oil is cytotoxic to human skin cells in vitro (endothelial cells and fibroblasts) at a concentration of 0.25%. Linalool, a component of lavender oil, may be its active component. Aqueous extracts reduced mitotic index, but induced chromosomal aberrations and mitotic aberrations in comparison with control, significantly. Aqueous extracts induced breaks, stickiness, pole deviations and micronuclei. These effects were related to extract concentrations. However, according to a 2005 study "although it was recently reported that lavender oil, and its major constituent linalyl acetate, are toxic to human skin cells in vitro, contact dermatitis to lavender oil appears to occur at only a very low frequency. The relevance of this in vitro toxicity to dermatological application of lavender oils remains unclear." In terms of phototoxicity, a 2007 investigative report from European researchers stated that, "Lavender oil and sandalwood oil did not induce photohaemolysis in our test system. However, a few reports on photosensitivity reactions due to these substances have been published.

Lavender gallery:

Lavender gallery

papaya:

papaya Papaya is marketed in tablet form to remedy digestive problems. Papain is also applied topically (in countries where it grows) for the treatment of cuts, rashes, stings and burns. Papain ointment is commonly made from fermented papaya flesh, and is applied as a gel-like paste. Harrison Ford was treated for a ruptured disc incurred during filming of Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom by papain injections.

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Papaya is frequently used as a hair conditioner, but should be used in small amounts. Papaya releases a latex fluid when not quite ripe, which can cause irritation and provoke allergic reaction in some people. The papaya fruit, seeds, latex, and leaves also contains carpaine, an anthelmintic alkaloid (a drug that removes parasitic worms from the body), which can be dangerous in high doses. It is speculated that the latex concentration of unripe papayas may cause uterine contractions, which may lead to a miscarriage. Papaya seed extracts in large doses have a contraceptive effect on rats and monkeys, but in small doses have no effect on the unborn animals. Excessive consumption of papaya can cause carotenemia, the yellowing of soles and palms, which is otherwise harmless. However, a very large dose would need to be consumed; papaya contains about 6% of the level of beta carotene found in carrots (the most common cause of carotenemia).

Papaya gallery:

Papaya gallery

peppermint:

peppermint Peppermint has a long tradition of medicinal use, with archaeological evidence placing its use at least as far back as ten thousand years ago. Peppermint has a high menthol content, and is often used as tea and for flavouring ice cream, confectionery, chewing gum, and toothpaste. The oil also contains menthone and menthyl esters, particularly menthyl acetate. Dried peppermint typically has 0.3-0.4% of volatile oil containing menthol (7-48%), menthone (20-46%), menthyl acetate (3-10%), menthofuran (1-17%) and 1,8-cineol (3-6%). Peppermint oil also contains small amounts of many additional compounds including limonene, pulegone, eucalyptol, caryophyllene and pinene. [ It is the oldest and most popular flavour of mint-flavoured confectionery. Peppermint can also be found in some soaps and skin care products. Menthol activates cold-sensitive TRPM8 receptors in the skin and mucosal tissues, and is the primary source of the cooling sensation that follows the topical application of peppermint oil.

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One animal study has suggested that Peppermint may have radioprotective effects in patients undergoing cancer treatment. The aroma of peppermint has been found to enhance memory. As such, it can be administered by instructors to their students before examinations, to aid recall. Peppermint flowers are large nectar producers and honey bees as well as other nectar harvesting organisms forage them heavily. A mild, pleasant varietal honey can be produced if there is a sufficient area of plants. Peppermint oil has a high concentration of natural pesticides, mainly menthone. In 2007, Italian investigators reported that 75% of the patients in their study who took peppermint oil capsules for four weeks had a major reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms, compared with just 38% of those who took a placebo. A second study in 2010, conducted in Iran, found similar results. 2011 research showed that peppermint acts through a specific anti-pain channel called TRPM8 to reduce pain sensing fibres. The authors feel that this study provides information that is potentially the first step in determining a new type of mainstream clinical treatment for Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Similarly, some poorly designed earlier trials found that peppermint oil has the ability to reduce colicky abdominal pain due to IBS with an NNT (number needed to treat) around 3.1, but the oil is an irritant to the stomach in the quantity required and therefore needs wrapping for delayed release in the intestine. This could also be achieved by using the whole herb or leaves rather than the volatile components alone. Peppermint relaxes the gastro-esophageal sphincter, thus promoting belching. Peppermint oil is also used in some Chinese medicines / medicated oils.

Peppermint gallery:

Peppermint gallery

Some other medicinal plants:

Some other medicinal plants

PUMPKIN:

PUMPKIN

PINEAPPLE:

PINEAPPLE

BLACK RADDISH:

BLACK RADDISH

Ginseng root:

Ginseng root

Foxglove:

Foxglove

Cinchona :

Cinchona

Monkshood:

Monkshood

Strychnos nux-vomica:

Strychnos nux-vomica

Calabash curare:

Calabash curare

Lippia dulcis:

Lippia dulcis

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MADE BY:- ABHIROOP CHAUDHARY ANUBHAV SINGH AMAN CHAUDHARY HIMANSHU KUMAR JITERDRA NATH TIWARI MANISH RAJ MOHANTY MANISH CHAUDHARY MB NAVEEN TBISH FAIZI Thank you

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