gsm ppt1


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introduction to gsm


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What is GSM? :

What is GSM? The Global System for Mobile communications is a digital cellular communications system. It was developed in order to create a common European mobile telephone standard but it has been rapidly accepted worldwide. Formerly it was Groupe Spéciale Mobile (founded 1982) now: Global System for Mobile Communication

Evolution of GSM. :

Evolution of GSM. The idea of cell-based mobile radio systems appeared at Bell Laboratories (in USA) in the early 1970s. However, mobile cellular systems were not introduced for commercial use until the 1980s. But in the beginnings of cellular systems, each country developed its own system, which was an undesirable situation for the following reasons: The equipment was limited to operate only within the boundaries of each country. The market for each mobile equipment was limited. In order to overcome these problems, the Conference of European Posts and telecommunications (CEPT) formed, in 1982 ,the Group Special Mobile (GSM) in order to develop a pan-European mobile cellular radio system . The standardized system had to meet certain criteria: Spectrum efficiency International roaming Low mobile and base stations costs Good subjective voice quality Compatibility with other systems such as ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) Ability to support new services

PowerPoint Presentation:

GENERATION OF GSM 1 st generation :- Analog mobile technologies :- AMPS , TACS & NMT. 2 nd generation :- digital mobile technologies :- GSM , CDMA 2.5generation :- Enhancement of GSM:- GPRS 3 rd generation :- Technologies coursed by ITU-IMT The following table lists the key events in the GSM evolution AMPS—Advanced Mobile Phone System TACS----Total Access Communication System. NMT----Nordic Mobile Telephones Tele-services Bearer or Data Services Supplementary services GSM SERVICES

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GSM EDGE 2.5 G GPRS 2G 2.5 g+ UMTS 3G WCDMA GPRS -Wireless Data Services . EDGE —Provides 3 times the data capacity of GPRS. 3G ---Uses WCDMA technologies Over Air interface (5MHz).

PowerPoint Presentation:

GSM STANDARDS GSM-900 Standard The GSM-900 standard is a standard for digital voice transmission in the 900 MHz band. This so called “ primary band " includes two sub bands of 25 MHz GSM-1800 Standard In GSM-1800, 1800 MHz band was allocated for digital mobile telephone services which has frequency of 75 MHz. This was three times the bandwidth allocated for GSM-900. GSM-1900 Standard GSM-1900 is the standard for the 1900MHz band. It includes the same network component as the GSM-900 or GSM-1800. The band width of this standard is 60 MHz. GSM Channels/Carriers The following table will show the channels and carriers of different GSM models

PowerPoint Presentation:

P-GSM(Primary-GSM) 900 E-GSM 900(Extended-GSM) R-GSM 900(Railways-GSM) GSM 1800 GSM 1900 Uplink frequency 890-915 MHz 880-915 MHz 886-915 MHz 1710-1785 MHz 1850-1910 MHz Down link frequency 935-960 MHz 925-960 MHz 931-960 MHz 1805-1855 MHz 1930-1990 MHz Channel spacing 200 kHz 200 kHz 200 kHz 200 kHz 200 kHz Carrier Frequency 124 174 144 374 299 Duplex spacing 45 MHZ 45 MHZ 45 MHZ 95 MHZ 80 MHZ

PowerPoint Presentation:

Type of access Technology FDMA (Frequency division Multiple Access):- In FDMA, signals from various users are assigned different frequencies. Frequency guard bands are maintained between adjacent signal spectra to minimize crosstalk between channels. TDMA (TIME DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS):- In a TDMA system, data from each user is conveyed in time intervals called “Time slots” . Several slots make up a frame . Each slot is made up of a preamble plus information bits addressed to various stations .the functions of the preamble are to provide identification and incidental information and to allow synchronization of the slot at the intended receiver .Guard times are used between each user’s transmission to minimize crosstalk between channels. GSM NUMBERING STRUCTURE: MSISDN :- The real telephone number of a mobile station is the mobile subscriber ISDN number (MSISDN). It is assigned to the subscriber (his or her SIM, respectively), such that a mobile station set can have several MSISDNs depending on the SIM. - CC+NDC+SN - 12digits IMSI - Each registered user is uniquely identified by its international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI). It is stored in the subscriber identity module (SIM) A mobile station can only be operated if a SIM with a valid IMSI is inserted into equipment with a valid IMEI. MCC (3)+MNC (2)+MSIN (10) - 15 digits

GSM Multiplex structure:

GSM Multiplex structure TMSI - The VLR, which is responsible for the current location of a subscriber, can assign a temporary mobile subscriber identity (TMSI) which has only local significance in the area handled by the VLR. It is stored on the network side only in the VLR and is not passed to the HLR. 4 octets IMEI - The international mobile station equipment identity (IMEI) uniquely identifies a mobile station internationally. It is a kind of serial number. The IMEI is allocated by the equipment manufacturer and registered by the network operator and registered by the network operator who stores it in the EIR. By means of IMEI one recognizes obsolete, stolen or non-functional equipment. TAC+FAC+SNR+Spare - 15 digits LAI - Each LA of an PLMN has its own identifier. The Location Area Identifier (LAI) is also structured hierarchically and internationally unique as follows: MCC+MNC+LAC GSM works on a combination of frequency-division multiplexing and time-division multiplexing for providing multiple access by mobile stations. GSM utilizes a cellular concept, in which a geographical area is divided into planned radio cells , with one BTS per cell with which a mobile can make contact. The radio cells, each having the exclusive use of specific FDM channels. The same frequencies are only used after sufficiently long distances in neighboring cell clusters. The cell radius can vary according to user density from 300 mtrs to 35 Kms .

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Different interfaces used in Mobile :

Different interfaces used in Mobile Um interface The "air" or radio interface standard that is used for exchanges between a mobile (ME) and a base station (BTS / BSC). Abis interface This is a BSS internal interface linking the BSC and a BTS, and it has not been totally standardised . The Abis interface allows control of the radio equipment and radio frequency allocation in the BTS. A interface The A interface is used to provide communication between the BSS and the MSC. The interface carries information to enable the channels, timeslots and the like to be allocated to the mobile equipments being serviced by the BSSs. The messaging required within the network to enable handover etc to be undertaken is carried over the interface. B interface The B interface exists between the MSC and the VLR . As most VLRs are collocated with an MSC, this makes the interface purely an "internal" interface. The interface is used whenever the MSC needs access to data regarding a MS located in its area. C interface The C interface is located between the HLR and a GMSC or a SMS-G. When a call originates from outside the network, i.e. from the PSTN or another mobile network it ahs to pass through the gateway so that routing information required to complete the call may be gained. In addition to this, the MSC may optionally forward billing information to the HLR after the call is completed and cleared down. D interface The D interface is situated between the VLR and HLR. E interface The E interface provides communication between two MSCs. The E interface exchanges data related to handover between the anchor . F interface The F interface is used between an MSC and EIR. The communications along this interface are used to confirm the status of the IMEI of the ME gaining access to the network. G interface The G interface interconnects two VLRs of different MSCs and uses to transfer subscriber information, during e.g. a location update procedure. H interface The H interface exists between the MSC the SMS-G. It transfers short messages I interface The I interface can be found between the MSC and the ME. Messages exchanged over the I interface are relayed transparently through the BSS.

PowerPoint Presentation:

GSM System Architecture Mobile Station (MS) Mobile Equipment (ME) Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) Base Station Subsystem (BSS) Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Base Station Controller (BSC) Network Switching Subsystem(NSS) Mobile Switching Center (MSC) Home Location Register (HLR) Visitor Location Register (VLR) Authentication Center (AUC) Equipment Identity Register (EIR) Mobile Equipment Portable, vehicle mounted, hand held device Uniquely identified by an IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) Voice and data transmission Monitoring power and signal quality of surrounding cells for optimum handover Power level : 0.8W – 20 W 160 character long SMS. Subscriber Identity Module (SIM ) Smart card contains the International Mobile Subscriber Identity ( IMSI ) Allows user to send and receive calls and receive other subscribed services Encoded network identification details - Key Ki,Kc and A3,A5 and A8 algorithms Protected by a password or PIN Can be moved from phone to phone – contains key information to activate the phone The Mobile Station is made up of two entities: Mobile Equipment (ME) Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)

Mobile station(MS):

Mobile station(MS) The mobile station (MS) represents the terminal equipment used by the wireless subscriber supported by the GSM Wireless system. Man machine interface. The SIM may be a removable module, while the equipment identity is not linked to a particular subscriber. Functions of a Mobile Station :- Radio transmission termination. Radio Channel Management. Speech Encoding/Decoding .Radio Link error Protection. Flow control of data. Mobility Management. SIM (Subscriber identity Module ) - It is basically a removable smart card in compliance with the ISO 7816 standard and a plug-in module (25 x 15 mm) .It includes a microprocessor with all the subscriber-related information . SIM (and consequently MS) is protected by a Personal Identification Number (PIN). It has a PIN Unblocking Key (PUK) used to unblock it. Information stored in a SIM card- Serial number International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) Security authentication and cyphering information Temporary Network information (LAI, TMSI) List of services subscribed by the user

PowerPoint Presentation:

The BSS is responsible for communicating with mobile stations in cell areas. BTS is a network element with transmission and reception devices (transceivers) to and from the MS, including antennas signal processing specific devices for the Air interface management It can be considered as a complex radio modem controlled by the BSC It is involved also in the transmission and reception with the BSC through the A- bis interface It has just executive functions (no management Function Broadcast/receive to/from the MS either signalling and traffic signals Perform source and channel coding Modulate/Demodulate signals to be broadcasted/received through the Air interface radio channel Multiplex the information to be transmitted over each carrier. BSC One BSC controls one or more BTS’s and can perform inter-BTS and intra-BTS handover. BSC Function Control and supervise the BTSs Configure each cell with the allocation and the release of traffic and signalling channels Manage the paging operation Collect the signals quality measures acquired by the BTSs over the downlink and uplink channels Manage all the radio interfaces Manage the handover procedures Transcode and Sub-multiplex the bit stream BSS

Network Switching Subsystem(NSS):

Network Switching Subsystem(NSS) Mobile Switching Center (MSC ) Heart of the network Manages communication between GSM and other networks Call setup function and basic switching Call routing Billing information and collection Mobility management - Registration - Location Updating - Inter BSS and inter MSC call handoff MSC does gateway function while its customer roams to other network by using HLR/VLR. Home Location Registers (HLR) - permanent database about mobile subscribers in a large service area(generally one per GSM network operator) database contains IMSI,MSISDN,prepaid/ postpaid,Roaming restrictions, supplementary services. Visitor Location Registers (VLR) Temporary database which updates whenever new MS enters its area, by HLR database Controls those mobiles roaming in its area Reduces number of queries to HLR Database contains IMSI,TMSI,MSISDN,MSRN,Location Area, authentication key

Network Switching Subsystem(NSS):

Network Switching Subsystem(NSS) Authentication Center (AUC) Protects against intruders in air interface Maintains authentication keys and algorithms and provides security triplets (RAND,SRES,Kc) Generally associated with HLR Equipment Identity Register (EIR) - Database that is used to track handsets using the IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) Made up of three sub-classes: The White List, The Black List and the Gray List Only one EIR per PLMN Call control identification of the subscriber establishing a call and release of the connection after the call is over Mobility management taking care of the location of the subscribers before, during and after a call Collecting the charging information about a call number of the caller and of the called subscriber length and type of the provided services Transfer the acquired charging information to the Billing centre Signalling with other networks and BSS through the different interfaces Subscriber data handling Data storage permanently or temporarily in some databases OMCR:- It is used to monitor and maintain the alarms of the system. Function of NSS

PowerPoint Presentation:

Logical Channels Traffic Channel TCHf - Full rate traffic channel. TCH h - Half rate traffic channel. Broadcast Channels BCCH - Broadcast Network information, e.g. for describing the current control channel structure. The BCCH is a point-to-multipoint channel (BSS-to-MS). SCH - Synchronisation of the MSs. FCHMS - frequency correction. Common Control Channels AGCH - Acknowledge channel requests from MS and allocate a SDCCH. PCHMS - terminating call announcement. RACHMS - access requests, response to call announcement, location update, etc. CBCH: Cell Broadcast Channel is an optional GSM Phase II implementations for SMS broadcast messages, for example road traffic reports or network engineering messages.

PowerPoint Presentation:

NCH: Used for GSM Phase II voice services such as Voice Broadcast Service (VBS) or Voice Group Calling Service (VGCS Dedicated Control Channels DCCH comprise the following bi-directional (uplink / downlink) point to point control channels: SDCCH - For signalling exchanges, e.g. during call setup, registration / location updates. FACCHs - FACCH for the SDCCH. The SDCCH burst is stolen for a full signalling burst. Function not clear in the present version of GSM (could be used for e.g. handover of an eight-rate channel, i.e. using a "SDCCH-like" channel for other purposes than signalling). SACCHs - SDCCH in-band signaling, e.g. for link monitoring logical channels CONTD. Advantages of GSM over Analog system Capacity increases Reduced RF transmission power and longer battery life. International roaming capability. Better security against fraud (through terminal validation and user authentication). Encryption capability for information security and privacy. Compatibility with ISDN,leading to wider range of services GSM Applications Mobile telephony GSM-R Telemetry System - Fleet management - Automatic meter reading - Toll Collection - Remote control and fault reporting of DG sets Value Added Services

PowerPoint Presentation:

MS sends dialed number to BSS BSS sends dialed number to MSC 3,4 MSC checks VLR if MS is allowed the requested service. If so, MSC asks BSS to allocate resources for call. MSC routes the call to GMSC GMSC routes the call to local exchange of called user 7, 8, 9,10 Answer back(ring back) tone is routed from called user to MS via GMSC,MSC,BSS Outgoing Call Incoming Call Calling a GSM subscribers Forwarding call to GSMC Signal Setup to HLR 5. Request MSRN from VLR Forward responsible MSC to GMSC Forward Call to current MSC 9. Get current status of MS 11. Paging of MS 13. MS answers 15. Security checks 17. Set up connection Call Routing

PowerPoint Presentation:

Types of GSM handover Within the GSM system there are four types of handover that can be performed for GSM only systems: Intra-BTS handover: This form of GSM handover occurs if it is required to change the frequency or slot being used by a mobile because of interference, or other reasons. In this form of GSM handover, the mobile remains attached to the same base station transceiver, but changes the channel or slot. Inter-BTS Intra BSC handover: This for of GSM handover or GSM handoff occurs when the mobile moves out of the coverage area of one BTS but into another controlled by the same BSC. In this instance the BSC is able to perform the handover and it assigns a new channel and slot to the mobile, before releasing the old BTS from communicating with the mobile. Inter-BSC handover: When the mobile moves out of the range of cells controlled by one BSC, a more involved form of handover has to be performed, handing over not only from one BTS to another but one BSC to another. For this the handover is controlled by the MSC. Inter-MSC handover: This form of handover occurs when changing between networks. The two MSCs involved negotiate to control the handover


REFERENCES The GSM system for mobile communication Mouly & Marie- Bernadette Pautet GSM system Engineering Asha Mehrotra (Artech House Publisher) Haug.T . “Developing GSM Standard” pan-European Digital cellular Radio Conference, Nice France, 1991



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