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Charging ahead GE EV Solutions IEEE – NYC Chapter February 22, 2011 Daniel Ciarcia Product Manager, EV

Electric Vehicle Marketplace:

Electric Vehicle Marketplace


Domestic Policy Goals Reduce dependence on foreign oil Job creation Economic Growth (energy sources local) Global Impact Europe to mitigate climate change China to balance growth with pollution Governments around the world have allocated funding for clean technology Energy Independence Local energy sources reduce price volatility Reduce export of dollars, particularly to unstable regions of the world Reduce dependence on few key regions – roughly half of the EU’s gas consumption comes from only three countries (Russia, Norway, Algeria) Developing Nations Lower-cost conventional vehicles support economic development goals. Urban air pollution and rising oil imports to be the main driver of electrification China has stated its goal of reducing the carbon intensity of its economy. Lack of Infrastructure (grids) is a huge factor. Climate Change Global support for climate change has gained momentum with Europe leading the way. Transportation accounts for roughly 15% of energy related CO2 emissions globally. In 1992, the United States ratified the United Nations’ Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which called on industrialized countries to make voluntary efforts to reduce greenhouse gases. EU energy policy provides affordable energy while contributing to the EU's wider social and climate goals Motivation To Embrace Electric Vehicles


EV Is Becoming An Economic Reality Electric vehicles emit zero tailpipe emissions at the point of use. The carbon footprint of electric vehicles is approximately 30% better than that of conventional vehicles, even when the electricity used is produced by a coal-fired power station. Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) will become increasingly favorable as the price of fuel rises in the future. Current global economic conditions will drive how quickly fuel prices begin to appreciably rise and influence the TCO of various models (ICE, Hybrid, PHEV, EV).. Economics Will Favor Electrification

One Million Electric Vehicles:

One Million Electric Vehicles Source: Department of Energy Report (Feb 2011) 70% of charging stations will be residential applications For every EV sold, we expect there will be demand for 1.4 charging stations Chargers Electric Vehicles


2009 2010 2011 2012 Compact Sedan/SUV Light Trucks Tesla Roadster Fisker Karma Zenn EV Mini EV Sport/Luxury Toyota Prius Mitsubishi i-MiEV GM Volt Nissan Leaf Tesla Model S Volvo V70 PHEV Audi A1 PHEV Ford Focus EV BYD e6 EV Smith Electric Edison Navistar eStar Ford Transit Connect Mercedes Vito E-cell Renault Kangoo Bright Auto Idea Think City Smart for two Honda insight PHEV Toyota Rav4 EV Cadillac XTS PHEV Porsche 918 PHEV Coda EV Wheego LiFe Electrical Vehicles Are Coming…


Auto OEM Gasoline Electric Vehicle Timeline 2010 2015 2020 2025 EV Tax Credits 25% of new vehicles electric* Leaf, Volt Prius, Focus Escalade, Caravan 90% of new vehicles electric by 2030* * Needed to achieve Electrification Coalition goal of 75% electric miles by 2040 150K+ EVs built in U.S. (Ford, GM, Nissan) Fundamental Transformation Electric Fuel Production Fueling Location Data Collection Vehicle Sales

GE provides the electrical infrastructure to support charging station infrastructure:

GE provides the electrical infrastructure to support charging station infrastructure General Purpose Transformers Utility Transformer Switchboards And Panelboards Switchgear Load Centers Utility Supply GE WattStation Sub-metering

Key Drivers for EV Growth:

Key Drivers for EV Growth Government Funding and Incentives Auto Manufacturer EV Pipeline The Environmental Consumer

#1 Federal Government Activity:

#1 Federal Government Activity American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Funding – $2.4B for manufacturing and infrastructure $1.5B for US-based manufacturers to produce batteries and EV components $500MM to produce other EV components like motors $400MM to demonstrate and evaluate PHEV and related infrastructure Auto Manufacturer Incentives - $8B loans for Advanced Vehicle Technologies $5.9B to Ford (factories in Ohio, Illinois, Kentucky, Michigan, Missouri, Ohio) $1.6B to Nissan (factory in Tennessee) $465MM to Telsa (factory in California) Fuel Efficient Vehicles Tax Incentives for Consumers Tax credit for EV’s, up to $7,500 Tax credit for charging stations up to $2,000 for consumers and $50,000 for public charging or 50% of the cost Final guidance is pending the issuance of EV regulations


Legislative Update State Type Incentive Amount Federal Credit ARRA 2009. $7,500 Federal Credit Charging Station: 30% of charging station cost. Up to $1,000 CA Purchase rebate BEV (< $5,000). PEV ($3,000). Various discounted utility rates for electricity used to charge EVs. $3,000 -$5,000 TX Cash grant The Texas Light Duty Motor Vehicle Purchase or Lease Incentive Program reimburses the purchase or lease of an eligible new on-road light-duty motor vehicle. Determined by type of vehicle FL Exemption EVs are exempt from most insurance surcharges. PA Purchase rebate Purchase of qualified new EV, (< 6 months after purchase date). $500 NJ Exemption Sales of zero emission vehicles are exempt from sales tax. NY Credit Available for installation of alternative fuel vehicle fueling infrastructure located in the state. 50% of cost IL Credit The Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Alternative Fuels Rebates Program provides rebates of 80% of approved incremental costs for purchase of a new alternative fuel vehicle. Up to $4,000 GA Credit Income tax credits (< 20% of EV cost Up to $5,000 2010 CAFE standard: 34.1 MPG by 2016 or ~250 grams CO2 per mile.

#1 DOE Clean Cities Initiative:

Honolulu #1 DOE Clean Cities Initiative DC-based initiative of the DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Over 90 coalitions established with 6,500 stakeholders from both the public and private sectors Coalitions supporting various clean technologies, including EV infrastructure Columbia-Willamette Puget Sound Rogue Valley Sacramento East Bay/ San Fran Silicon Valley Central Coast San Diego Region Long Beach Southern California Los Angeles Antelope Valley Treasure Valley Easter Sierra Regional Western Riverside County Coachella Valley Region Valley of The Sun Land of Enchantment Tucson Las Vegas San Joaquin Valley Yellowstone-Teton Northern Colorado Denver Southern Colorado Utah Central Oklahoma Tulsa Arkansas East Texas Houston/ Galveston Alamo Area Central Texas Dallas/Ft.Worth SE Texas Kansas City Iowa Twin Cities Red River Valley SE Louisiana Baton Rouge Alabama Gold Coast Space Coast Atlanta Middle Georgia Palmetto State Middle Tennessee East Tennessee St. Louis Triangle Centralina Wisconsin SE Area Chicago South Shore Greater Indiana Clean Fuels Ohio Commonwealth CC Partnership West Virginia Virginia NE Ohio Pittsburgh Lansing Detroit Ann Arbor Western New York Genesee Region Central New York Capital District Vermont Granite State Maine Massachusetts Ocean State Philadelphia CT (4 cities) Delaware New Jersey NYC Long Island Maryland DC

#2 Auto Manufacturer Activity:

#2 Auto Manufacturer Activity Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV): 2010 Coda Automotive Sedan 2010 Mitsubishi iMiEV BEV 2010 Nissan LEAF 2010 Ford Battery Electric Van 2010 Tesla Roadster Sport EV 2010 Chevy Volt Extended Range EV 2011 Peugeot Urban EV* 2011 Renault Kangoo Z.E. 2011 Renault Fluence Z.E. 2011 Tesla Model S 2011 BYD e6 Electric Vehicle 2011 Ford Battery Electric Small Car 2011 Opel Ampera Extended Range* 2012 Fiat 500 minicar 2012 Renault City Car* 2012 Renault Urban EV* 2012 Audi e-tron 2013 Volkswagen E-Up* 2016 Tesla EV Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV): 2010 Lexus HS 250h 2010 Mercedes E Class Hybrid 2010 Porsche Cayenne S Hybrid 2010 Toyota Camry Hybrid 2010 Toyota Prius Hybrid 2011 Audi A8 Hybrid (likely introduction) 2011 BMW 5-Series ActiveHybrid 2011 Honda CR-Z sport hybrid coupe 2011 Lexus CT 200h Hybrid Hatchback 2011 Peugeot Diesel Hybrid* 2011 Suzuki Kizashi Hybrid 2011 Audi Q5 Crossover Hybrid 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid 2011 Infiniti M35 Hybrid 2014 Ferrari Hybrid Source: *European Launch

#2 Auto Manufacturer Launch Cities :

#2 Auto Manufacturer Launch Cities Nissan Leaf GM/Chevy Volt Toyota Plug-In Prius BMW Mini E Ford Plug-In Focus Source: auto manufacturer web sites & press releases


#3 The 3 Core Consumer Mindsets For this consumer, an EV at the right price point and form factor will be an obvious investment. They see the benefits and consider themselves part of the environmental movement: driving an EV will demonstrate that commitment. These consumers are driven more by the money that comes out of their wallets. While some are concerned about the total cost of ownership, the main pain point is how much they pay at the pump each visit. Reducing those charges by 2/3s is highly compelling. The innovative design, fast charging, and cool display will entice these drivers - they'll be intrigued by electric cars as a technology item first and foremost, so design cues and feature sets that reference other high tech brands will stand out. Political Arguments Regardless of need, everyone wants to see America’s dependence on oil (particularly foreign oil) reduced.


Survey of Global Initiatives Americas Europe Asia United Kingdom Offers £ 5,000 max or 25% of retail. Plans to have more than 1,000 electric vehicles for its fleet and 25,000 charging points by 2015 to support running of a target 100,000 electric vehicles. France Offers €5000 or 20% of retail, valid up to 2012. Offers up to 1,000 charging stations. €400 million budget allocated for incentives, technology, and infrastructure. Germany €3,000 to 5,000 for the first 100,000 vehicles. €500 million budget allocated for EV incentives, technology, and infrastructure. China Offers up to USD $8,800 in subsidies. Plans to invest USD $15 billion to help domestic automakers put 20 million fuel-efficient vehicles on China’s roads by 2020. India Offers $2,200 or 20% of retail for electric vehicles, plus other smaller subsidies for electric 2-wheelers which is majority of the market. Japan Enforces periodic vehicle inspection, testing, and taxation based on engine size to drive adoption. By 2020, 1 in 5 will be an EV vehicle. ¥106 billion budget allocated. United States Offers up to $7,500 for qualified vehicles (Chevrolet Volt, Nissan Leaf, Coda sedan, Tesla Roadster). $2.8 billion overall budget allocated. Canada Plans to have 1 in 20 vehicles driven in Ontario to be electrically powered by 2020. Quebec offers up to $8,000. Mexico Mexico City signed an agreement with Nissan to deliver recharging infrastructure for EVs in 2011. Brazil Plans to develop electric vehicles and build solar-powered charging stations in near future. Sources: Frost & Sullivan, J.D. Power Associates

Operational / Environmental Metrics:

Operational / Environmental Metrics On average the GE DuraStation decreases EV charging time from 12-18 hours to as little as 4-8 hours compared to standard charging, assuming a 24 kWh battery and a full-cycle charge. If 10,000 vehicle owners switched from gas-powered passenger cars to EVs, over 33,000 metric tons of CO2 emissions could be avoided annually. This is equivalent to the annual CO2 emissions of approximately 6,500 gas-powered passenger cars on U.S. roads. On average, an EV owner will save about 75% of the annual fuel costs by switching from gas to electric Assumptions: EVs have a typical 24 kWh battery with 100 mile range, vehicles travel a typical 12,000 miles per year, and the EVs are powered by the average US electricity grid mix.

EV-Related LEED Status Points:

EV-Related LEED Status Points LEED-NC: Sustainable Sites Credit 4.3 3 points available if 5% of parking is made available for low-emission & fuel efficient vehicles LEED-EB: Sustainable Site Credit 4.0 3 to 15 points available for the reduction in conventional commuting trips from 10-75% For more information on LEED, please visit

Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Infrastructure:

Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Infrastructure


Vehicle Petrol (ICE) Hybrid (HEV) Plugin Hybrid (PHEV) 100% Battery (EV, GEV, BEV) Range: 440 miles 440 miles 440 miles 100 miles Refuel Time: 5min 5min <1h Level 2 Charge 4– 8h Level 2 Charge Usage: 1st car Familiy car 1st car Family car 1st car Family car 2nd car City car Energy Efficiency: Not Efficient Efficient More Efficient Most Efficient Customer Mind: Benchmark + Electric motor + Charging + 100% Battery PHEV: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle REEV: Range Extended Electric Vehicle BEV: Battery Electric Vehicle EV: Electric Vehicle


Overview Power Pilot Inverter On board charger AC charging plug Motor Battery AC charging cable EVSE electric vehicle supply equipment EV electric vehicle Protections AC Power Supply

Charging Options – Why use Level 2?:

Charging Options – Why use Level 2? Level 1 Charging Level 2 Charging Power Source 110 VAC, 15 A (16A peak), Household Wall Outlet 208 – 240 VAC, 30 A, Dual Pole Dedicated Circuit Max Charging Power Output Up to 1.65 KW Up to 7.2 KW (240V @ 30A) Speed 12 – 18 hours 4 – 8 hours Installation Plug-in wall outlet connector Electrician Installation Needed Safety Household Circuit Breaker, UL, Ground Fault, Cable only energized when charging Household Circuit Breaker, UL, Ground Fault, Cable only energized when charging Accesibility Accessible everywhere Dedicated equipment and cable Procurement Typically included w/car After-Market Purchase

GE Hardware Lineage:

GE Hardware Lineage Charging Station POS Interface (Credit Card Swipe) Smart Metering Flex Charging Wireless Communications Watt Station Residential Home Use Low Cost Lightweight Plastic Watt Station Touch Screen Monitor Ergonomic Design Curb Appeal Retractable Cord Management

GE EV Charging Station :

Power Cord Holder LED Bar Charger Status VFD Screen Access Panel (right side) Various Form Factors - Single/Double Pedestal, Wall, Pole Plug Holder RFID (optional) GE EV Charging Station GE EV Charging Station presents a highly modular design that can be upgraded as new technology arrives and customer needs evolve


Supply Needs: 208-240VAC @ 30A with 40A overload (2 pole) GF Protection with Ground Monitor (UL 2231) Charger & Vehicle Communication (NEC 625) Connection Interlock Personnel Protection Automatic De-Energizing Device Ventilation Interlock Connection for SAE J1772 Plug & Cord LED Lights & Display RFID User Authorization Option Indoor & Outdoor Enclosure (NEMA 3R) GE EV Charging Station Specification


Details: Wave card in front of reader to initiate charging Monitor/Control of Driver Access/Usage Ethernet network to support RFID authorization service Straightforward In Field Installation Administration – Programming Cards USB connected RFID programmer Lightweight and Portable Determines class authorization, user control RFID Reader Option Optional Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) to control user access


GE’s UL Expertise U.S. Electric Vehicle Standards Certified UL lab facilities for witnessing and testing at Industrial Solutions HQ in Plainville, CT UL lab capabilities include: handling overload, endurance and short circuit, EMI testing, material and environmental analysis GE Industrial Solutions has over 3,000 unique catalog numbers that are UL listed UL collaborates with GE for industry guidance in technology and safety, and managing policy and technical content UL 2594, for EVSE UL 2231, the Standard for Safety of Personnel Protection Systems for EV Supply Circuits NEC Article 625, Electric Vehicle Charging System SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) J1772, Electric Vehicle and Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Conductive Charge Coupler US Compliance and Standards

WattStation Home Exterior:

WattStation Home Exterior LED interface and Ring Visualization of station status Weatherized Case Molded Lightweight Plastic Keylock security Nema 3R / IP54 Charging Cable Socket with interlock SAE J1772 Power Button OFF/standby button Plug-In Option SKU with plug option for easy install / removal

WattStation Home Features:

WattStation Home Features Level II – 208-240 VAC, 30 A Indoor / Outdoor (NEMA-3R) Flush Mounting System Safety Protections Ground Fault Overload Vehicle Communications SAE J1772 Connector UL Certified Power Off / Standby Switch LED Status Indicators Wrap Around Cord Management

Introducing the GE WattStation™:

Introducing the GE WattStation™ An easy-to-use charger designed by renowned industrial designer Yves Behar “Good design is when a new technology enters our life and makes it simpler, beautiful and healthy” “The GE WattStation achieves this with a welcoming design that is seamlessly integrated in the urban landscape and becomes a natural part of our daily driving routine.”


GE WattStation™ … a closer look Retractable Power Cord LED Ring Charger Status Interactive Display Panel Access Panel (on rear) Base to accept power and fasten to concrete Protected Plug Holder Card Swipe (optional) GE WattStation provides a modular design to integrate new technology


GE WattStation™ Internal Components Supply Needs: 16A@230V to 32A@400V Controller EV Communications Charger status/messages via LED Ring, Interactive Display Panel, or external comms Manages Intelligent charging (Flex Charging) Allows user configurable overload protection Performs CCID20 ground fault protection per UL 2231 Provides single phase metering Communications to Building Management Systems (BMS), EV, smart meters Contactor Responsible for energizing and de-energizing of EVSE connector, Operates in conjunction with controller to meet UL and NEC reqs Connector Compliant with SAE J1772 standard UL listed for EVSE applications Fuses Provides overload and short circuit protection Options: Wireless Communications Point of Sale (Credit Card) RFID, Smart Metering

Charging Station Communications:

Charging Station Communications BackEnd (Database, Web Services) Commercial Interests Driver Owner $ Utility EV SAE J1772, Wireless (future) Building (BMS) / Home (HEM) Kiosk / LED Wireless WiFi , GPRS, Zigbee Ethernet TCP/IP Services Email SMS eWallet Web

GE Meets Your EV Needs :

GE Meets Your EV Needs GE’s EVSE Product Line is future proof with modular hardware and remote firmware upgrades Future Proof EV Equipment Assistance with Upstream ED Infrastructure GE has the industry expertise and support to help you build a robust EV system and meet all standards Support, Service, Experience GE provides installation services with ServiceMagic network of installers, provides exceptional customer support and has over a century of experience in power engineering. GE is a brand you can rely upon. Customer EV Need GE Solution


GE Is Uniquely Positioned . . .

Thank You … Questions?:

Thank You … Questions?

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