ANTHONY CRASTO -colchinine


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ANTHONY CRASTO presents colchinine molecule, helping millions, million hits on google


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COLCHININE MOLECULE REVIEW BY DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO N-​[(7 S )-​1,​2,​3,​10- tetramethoxy -​9- oxo -​5,​6,​7,​9- tetrahydrobenzo [ a ] heptalen -​7- yl ] acetamide

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Colchicine Systematic ( IUPAC ) name N-​[(7 S )-​1,​2,​3,​10- tetramethoxy -​9- oxo -​5,​6,​7,​9- tetrahydrobenzo [ a ] heptalen -​7- yl ] acetamide A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (periodic disease) CAS number 64-86-8

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Identifiers CAS number 64-86-8 ATC code M04 AC01 PubChem CID 6167 IUPHAR ligand 2367 DrugBank DB01394 ChemSpider 5933 UNII SML2Y3J35T KEGG D00570 ChEBI CHEBI:27882 ChEMBL CHEMBL107 Chemical data Formula C 22 H 25 N O 6 Mol. mass 399.437 SMILES eMolecules & PubChem

Colchicine is a medication used for gout. It is a toxic natural product and secondary metabolite, originally extracted from plants of the genus Colchicum (autumn crocus, Colchicum autumnale, also known as "meadow saffron"). It was used originally to treat rheumatic complaints, especially gout, and still finds use for these purposes today despite dosing issues concerning its toxicity.[1] It was also prescribed for its cathartic and emetic effects. Colchicine's present medicinal use is in the treatment of gout, familial Mediterranean fever, pericarditis and Behçet's disease. It is also being investigated for its use as an anticancer drug.:

Colchicine is a medication used for gout . It is a toxic natural product and secondary metabolite , originally extracted from plants of the genus Colchicum ( autumn crocus , Colchicum autumnale , also known as "meadow saffron"). It was used originally to treat rheumatic complaints, especially gout , and still finds use for these purposes today despite dosing issues concerning its toxicity. [1] It was also prescribed for its cathartic and emetic effects. Colchicine's present medicinal use is in the treatment of gout , familial Mediterranean fever , pericarditis and Behçet's disease . It is also being investigated for its use as an anticancer drug. Oral colchicine has been used for many years as an unapproved drug with no prescribing information, dosage recommendations, or drug interaction warnings approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). [2] On July 30, 2009 the FDA approved colchicine as a monotherapy for the treatment of three different indications: familial Mediterranean fever, acute gout flares, and for the prophylaxis of gout flares, [2] and gave URL Pharma a three-year marketing exclusivity agreement [3] in exchange for URL Pharma doing 17 new studies and investing $100 million into the product, of which $45 million went to the FDA for the application fee. URL Pharma raised the price from $0.09 per tablet to $4.85, and the FDA removed the older unapproved colchicine from the market in October 2010 both in oral and IV form, but gave pharmacies the opportunity to buy up the older unapproved colchicine . [4] Colchicine in combination with probenecid has been FDA approved prior to 1982. [3]

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References ^ a b " Colchicine for acute gout: updated information about dosing and drug interactions" . National Prescribing Service . 14 May 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2010. ^ a b "FDA Approves Colchicine With Drug Interaction and Dose Warnings" . July 2009. ^ a b [1] FDA Orange Book; search for colchicine ^ Questions and Answers for Patients and Healthcare Providers Regarding Single-ingredient Oral Colchicine Products

Biosynthesis :

Several experiments have shown that the biosynthesis of colchicine involves the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine as precursors. Indeed, the feeding of Colchicum autumnale with radioactive amino acid, tyrosine-2-C14, caused the latter to be partially incorporated in the ring system of colchicine . The induced absorption of radioactive phenylalanine-2-C14 by Colchicum byzantinum , another plant of the Colchicaceae family, resulted in its efficient absorption by colchicine . [19] However, it was proven that the tropolone ring of colchicine resulted, in essence, from the expansion of the tyrosine ring. Further radioactive feeding experiments of Colchicum autumnale revealed that Colchicine can be synthesized biosynthetically from (S) - Autumnaline . That biosynthesic pathway occurs primarily through a para-para phenolic coupling reaction involving the intermediate isoandrocymbine . The resulting molecule undergoes O - methylation directed by S- Adenosylmethionine (SAM) . Two oxidation steps followed by the cleavage of the cyclopropane ring leads to the formation of the tropolone ring contained by N - formyldemecolcine . N - formyldemecolcine hydrolyzes then to generate the molecule demecolcine , which also goes through an oxidative demethylation that generates deacetylcolchicine . The molecule of colchicine appears finally after addition of acetyl-Coenzyme A to deacetylcolchicine ., [20][21] Biosynthesis

Mechanism of Action :

Colchicine inhibits microtubule polymerization by binding to tubulin , one of the main constituents of microtubules . Availability of tubulin is essential to mitosis , and therefore colchicine effectively functions as a "mitotic poison" or spindle poison . [10] The mitosis inhibiting function of colchicine has been of great use in the study of cellular genetics . To see the chromosomes of a cell under a light microscope, it is important that they be viewed near the point in the cell cycle in which they are most dense. This occurs near the middle of mitosis , so mitosis must be stopped before it completes. Adding colchicine to a culture during mitosis is part of the standard procedure for doing karyotype studies. Apart from inhibiting mitosis (a process heavily dependent on cytoskeletal changes), colchicine also inhibits neutrophil motility and activity, leading to a net anti-inflammatory effect. Mechanism of Action

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3.コルヒチンの生合成 コルヒチン ( Colchicine ) はユリ科 イヌサフラン に含まれ、トロポロン ( tropolone ) 骨格を有する珍しい構造をもつ含窒素化合物である。3環性でありながら窒素原子が環の中に含まれない非複素環化合物であり、しかもアミドであるため塩基性を示さない。典型的なアルカロイドには見えないが、生合成的見地からすればコルヒチンは純然たる 真正アルカロイド の1種である。標識化合物を用いた投与実験で、コルヒチンの A 環部および C-5 、 C-6 、 C-7 はフェニルアラニンに由来することが明らかにされている。その結果、コルヒチンのユニークな基本骨格は 図4 に示すようにドーパミン(またはチラミン)とケイヒ酸が縮合してできるフェネチルイソキノリンが酸化カップリング、転位、環拡大反応を経て生合成されると推定されている。この生合成スキームで中間体とされるフェネチルイソキノリン誘導体アウタムナリン ( Autamnaline ) はイヌサフランの同属近縁種 Colchicum cornigerum から実際に単離されている。ベンジルイソキノリンアルカロイドが比較的広く分布するのに対してコルヒチンなどフェネチルイソキノンアルカロイドは天然界では極めて稀な存在である。 イヌサフランの種子は欧州において 17 世紀から通風治療に用いられていたが、その活性成分としてコルヒチンが単離されたのは 1886 年のことであった。コルヒチンは今日でも抗通風薬として用いられるが、その他、細胞分裂において紡錘糸の形成を阻害するというユニークな生物活性が知られている。一方で染色体分裂は阻害しないので、コルヒチン処理により倍数体の細胞ができる。これを利用して農業分野において種なし果実などをつくるのに利用されている。


Colchicine ( Colchicine ) is the lily family dog saffron is included in, which is a nitrogen-containing compound having a skeleton with an unusual structure ( tropolone ) tropolone . Is a non-heterocyclic compounds that are not included in the nitrogen atom in the ring yet ring of 3, do not show because it is a basic amide addition. The typical alkaloid is not visible, colchicine is pure from the standpoint of biosynthesis genuine alkaloid which is a kind of.In the experiment using the labeled compound administration, C-5, C-6, C-7 can be derived from phenylalanine has been found to part and the A ring of colchicine . As a result, the basic skeleton unique colchicine Figure 4 is biosynthesized through oxidative coupling, dislocation phenethyl isoquinoline can be fused cinnamic acid and ( tyramine ) or dopamine, as shown in, the ring-expansion reaction has been estimated. ( Autamnaline ) actually have been isolated from related species of genus Colchicum cornigerum dog saffron Autamunarin phenethyl isoquinoline derivatives that are intermediates in this biosynthetic scheme. Phenethyl iso-quinone in the world of natural alkaloids such as colchicine is extremely rare is the presence as opposed to a relatively wide distribution benzyl isoquinoline alkaloid. Saffron seeds of dogs have been used to treat ventilation from the 17th century in Europe, it was isolated colchicine as the active ingredient of which was that of 1886. Colchicine is used as an anti-drug ventilation Even today, other unique biological activity, that inhibit the formation of spindle fibers in cell division are known. Chromosome division because it does not inhibit the other hand, can be of polyploid cells by colchicine treatment. Has been used to make, such as seedless fruit in the field of agriculture to take advantage of this Translation

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This paper presented a very neat use of RCM and quite clever strategy to construct the 7,7-fused core of colchicine . For the first time, the 7,7-fused bicyclic system could be accessed very quickly in a single step. This main strategy is summarized in the retrosynthetic analysis below.

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The key reactions were formylation of 6 mediated by SnCl4 to give 7 and the synthesis of propargylic alcohol 14 which was achieved in three steps from 5 , using the Ohira-Bestman reagent in the last step. Next, sequential RCM reactions were performed on 14 using Grubbs' second generation catalyst ( 15 ) after the protection of the OH group with TMS. The reaction proved to be very efficient, providing the desired 16 in 74% yield from 14 .

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This intermediate 16 was further elaborated as shown in Scheme 4 via oxidative rearrangement. Compound 18 could be obtained in high yield. However, going along a more well-known route of previous total syntheses of colchicine , intermediate 19 could be obtained in modest yield, along with 20 , from 17 . This latter route effectively constituted a formal synthesis of colchicine . The final completion of this molecule by a novel sequence is currently under investigation

History :

The plant source of colchicine , the autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale ) , was described for treatment of rheumatism and swelling in the Ebers Papyrus (ca. 1500 B.C.), an Egyptian medical papyrus . [5] The use of the bulb-like corms of Colchicum for gout probably traces back to ca. 550 A.D., as the " hermodactyl " recommended by Alexander of Tralles . Colchicum extract was first described as a treatment for gout in De Materia Medica by Pedanius Dioscorides in the first century CE . Colchicum corms were used by the Persian physician ibn Sina (Avicenna) and other Islamic physicians, were recommended by Ambroise Pare in the sixteenth century, and appeared in the London Pharmacopoeia of 1618. Colchicum plants were brought to America by Benjamin Franklin , who suffered from gout himself and had written humorous doggerel about the disease during his stint as Envoy to France . History



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FT-IR spectra of Colchicine (4000-400) cm -1

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FT-Raman spectra of Colchicine (4000-100) cm -1


KEGG Drug D00570 KEGG Compound C07592 PubChem Compound 6167 PubChem Substance 46505639 ChemSpider 5933 ChEBI 23359 ChEMBL 23359 Therapeutic Targets Database DAP001254 PharmGKB PA449092 IUPHAR 2367 Guide to Pharmacology 2367 HET LOC Drug Product Database 396 RxList http :// / cdi / colchicine.html Wikipedia EXT LINKKKS

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Thanks DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D MOBILE-+91 9323115463 GLENMARK SCIENTIST , NAVIMUMBAI, INDIA web link Congratulations! Your presentation titled " Anthony Crasto Glenmark scientist, helping millions with websites " has just crossed MILLION views.

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