Male Reproductive Physiology

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Presentation Description

A presentation dealing with the Physiology of Male Reproduction

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By: sazaki224 (45 month(s) ago)

thank you very much

By: ifedayo (63 month(s) ago)

just what the students need. Ajayi O Ifedayo University of Benin, Nigeria.

By: DrNSBaboo (70 month(s) ago)

A very good presentation Dr NS Baboo

Presentation Transcript

MALE REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 1 MALE REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY By Dr.M.Anthony David MD Professor of Physiology

THE MALE UROGENITAL TRACT : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 2 THE MALE UROGENITAL TRACT

TESTIS: THE MALE GONAD : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 3 TESTIS: THE MALE GONAD SEMENIFEROUS TUBULE RETE TESTIS VAS DEFERENS EFFERENT DUCTULES EPIDIDYMIS

TESTIS: CROSS SECTION : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 4 TESTIS: CROSS SECTION SEMENIFEROUS TUBULE SERTOLI CELLS SPERMATAZOON

PRIMARY SEXUAL ORGANS : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 5 PRIMARY SEXUAL ORGANS TESTES : ONE PAIR DUCTULAR SYSTEM GLANDS PENIS

TESTES: ONE PAIR : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 6 TESTES: ONE PAIR HAS SEMENIFEROUS TUBULES: SERTOLI CELLS SPERMATOGONIA SPERM CELLS IN VARIOUS STAGES INTERSTITIAL CELLS OF LEYDIG: SECRETE TESTOSTERONE, THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE HORMONE

DUCTULAR SYSTEM : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 7 DUCTULAR SYSTEM RETE TESTIS EFFERENT DUCTULES EPIDIDYMIS VAS DEFERENS FUNCTION: TRANSPORT OF MATURE SPERMATOZOA.

GLANDS : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 8 GLANDS SEMINAL VESICLES PROSTATE GLAND: BOTH SECRETING SEMEN BULBO-URETHRAL GLANDS: SECRETE A MUCOID SUBSTANCE

PENIS : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 9 PENIS ERECTILE: DUE TO SPONGIOUS TISSUES DUAL STATES: FLACCID ERECT DUAL FUNCTIONS: EXPULSION OF URINE EXPULSION OF SEMEN

PENIS: DUAL STATES : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 10 PENIS: DUAL STATES

SPERMATOGENESIS: some definitions : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 11 SPERMATOGENESIS: some definitions The production of spermatozoa which occurs in the sertoli cells of the semeniferous tubules is called as spermatogenesis. The conversion of the spermatids into spermatozoa is called as spermiogenesis. The release of the spermatazoon into the lumen of the semeniferous tubule is called as spermiation. The final maturation of the spermatazoon which occurs in the female genital tract is called as capacitation.

SPERMATOGENESIS: SCHEMA : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 12 SPERMATOGENESIS: SCHEMA SPERMATOGONIA (DIPLOID) PRIMARY SPERMATOCYTES (DIPLOID) MITOSIS

SPERMATOGENESIS Contd. : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 13 SPERMATOGENESIS Contd. PRIMARY SPERMATOCYTES SECONDARY SPERMATOCYTES (HAPLOID) MEIOSIS I SPERMATIDS (HAPLOID) SPERMATOZOA (HAPLOID) MEIOSIS II SPERMIOGENESIS

Slide 14: 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 14

FROM SPERMATID TO SPERM: SPERMIOGENESIS… : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 15 FROM SPERMATID TO SPERM: SPERMIOGENESIS…

Slide 16: 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 16

MALE REPRODUCTION: HORMONAL REGULATION : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 17 MALE REPRODUCTION: HORMONAL REGULATION HYPOTHALAMUS GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE ANTERIOR PITUITARY TESTES FSH LH S E R T O L I CELL LEYDIG CELL TESTOSTERONE INHIBIN REP.TRACT & OTHER ORGANS SPERMATOGENESIS - ve feedback - ve feedback

TESTOSTERONE : THE MALE SEX HORMONE : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 18 TESTOSTERONE : THE MALE SEX HORMONE

TESTOSTERONE - FUNCTIONS : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 19 TESTOSTERONE - FUNCTIONS INITIATION & MAINTAINANCE OF SPERMATOGENESIS.  GnRH FROM THE HYPOTHALAMUS INHIBITS LH SECRETION VIA ANTERIOR PITUITARY. DIFFERENTIATION & MAINTAINANCE OF MALE SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS:Facial Hair & Body Habitus.

TESTOSTERONE - FUNCTIONS : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 20 5. INDUCES DIFFERENTIATION & MAINTAINS ACCESSORY REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS. 6. STIMULATES PROTEIN ANABOLISM, BONE GROWTH & IT’S CESSATION. 7. ENHANCES LIBIDO & AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR BY MASCULINIZING THE BRAIN. 8. STIMULATES SECRETION OF ERYTHROPOIETIN FROM THE KIDNEYS TESTOSTERONE - FUNCTIONS

Slide 21: 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 21

SERTOLI CELL : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 22 SERTOLI CELL

FUNCTIONS OF SERTOLI CELLS : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 23 FUNCTIONS OF SERTOLI CELLS PROVIDE THE BLOOD TESTES BARRIER, WHICH IS ALSO CALLED AS SERTOLI CELL BARRIER. NOURISH DEVELOPING SPERMS DURING SPERMATOGENESIS. SECRETE ANDROGEN BINDING PROTEIN & LUMINAL FLUID. SECRETE PARACRINE AGENTS STIMULATING SPERM PROLIFERATION & DIFFERENTIATION.

FUNCTIONS OF SERTOLI CELLS : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 24 5. SECRETE THE REGULATORY PROTEIN INHIBIN. 6. SECRETE PARACRINE AGENTS FACILITATING LEYDIG CELL FUNCTION. 7. PHAGOCYTOSIS OF DEFECTIVE SPERM. 8. SECRETE MULLERIAN INHIBITING SUBSTANCE(MIS) DURING INTRA UTERINE LIFE. FUNCTIONS OF SERTOLI CELLS

MATURE SPERMATOZOON : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 25 MATURE SPERMATOZOON

SEMEN ANALYSIS : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 26 SEMEN ANALYSIS IS A TEST FOR INFERTILITY. SEMEN HAS: SPERMS SECRETIONS: SEMINAL VESICLES PROSTATE COWPER’S GLANDS BULBO-URETHRAL GLANDS

SEMEN ANALYSIS : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 27 VOLUME: 2.5 to 3.5 ml PER EJACULATE. SPERM COUNT: 100 Millions/ml. <20% CAN BE ABNORMAL. IF THE COUNT IS <20 Million/ml, IT INDICATES THAT HE IS STERILE. SPEED OF SPERMS: 3mm/min. REACH FALLOPIAN TUBE 30- 40 MINUTES AFTER COITUS. SEMEN ANALYSIS

SEMEN: COMPOSITION : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 28 SEMEN: COMPOSITION COLOR: WHITE, OPALESCENT SPECIFIC GRAVITY: 1.028 Ph : 7.35 – 7.50 OTHER CONSTITUENTS: SEMINAL VESICLES: 60% VOLUME. PROSTATE GLAND: 20% VOLUME

SEMEN : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 29 SEMEN IS LIQUID WHEN EJACULATED COAGULATES BOTH: IN VITRO & IN THE VAGINA UNDERGOES SECONDARY LIQUEFACTION AFTER 15 minutes.

SPERMATOZOA : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 30 SPERMATOZOA ARE FERTILE UPTO 24 to 48 hrs AFTER DEPOSITION. ARE MOTILE, HOWEVER FOR 48 – 60 hrs.`

PENILE ERECTION: REFLEX PATHWAYS : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 31 PENILE ERECTION: REFLEX PATHWAYS THOUGHTS EMOTIONS SIGHT, SMELL INPUT FROM MECHANORECEPTORS OF PENIS NEURONS TO PENIS NEURONS RELEASE GASEOUS NEUROTRANSMITTER NITRIC OXIDE INHIBITION ON SYMPATHETIC NEURONS DECREASED PENIS ARTERIAL DILATATION + VENOCOMPRESSION = ERECTION

FUNCTION OF PENIS IN COITUS (SEXUAL INTERCOURSE) : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 32 ERECTION EJACULATION FUNCTION OF PENIS IN COITUS (SEXUAL INTERCOURSE)

ERECTION : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 33 VASCULAR: SMALL ARTERIAL DILATATION VENOCONSTRICTION PARASYMPATHETIC FACILITATION (Point) SYMPATHETIC INHIBITION SMOOTH MUSCLES RELAX ERECTION

EJACULATION : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 34 EJACULATION SYMPATHETIC FACILITATION (“Shoot”) SKELETAL MUSCLES CONTRACT HAS TWO EVENTS: EMISSION: SMOOTH MUSCLES CONTRACT & SEMEN SENT INTO URETHRA EXPULSION: RAPID CONTRACTION OF URETHRAL SMOOTH MUSCLES & SEMEN IS SENT OUT OF THE PENIS.

MALE REPRODUCTIVE ABNORMALITIES : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 35 MALE REPRODUCTIVE ABNORMALITIES CRYPTORCHIDISM (UNDESCENDED TESTES) THE DESCENT OF TESTES IS INCOMPLETE IN 10% OF NEONATES SPONTANEOUS DESCENT OCCURS LATER INCIDENCE: 2% AT INFANCY & 0.3% AFTER PUBERTY COMPLICATIONS: INCREASED INCIDENCE OF TESTICULAR MALIGNANCIES & INFERTILITY.

CRYPTORCHIDISM : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 36 CRYPTORCHIDISM

MALE HYPOGONADISM : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 37 MALE HYPOGONADISM HYPERGONADOTROPIC: IN THIS CONDITION THE GONADOTROPINS ARE INCRESED IN CIRCULATION THE LESION IS AT THE TESTES. HYPOGONADOTROPIC: A PITUITARY OR HYPOTHALAMIC DISORDER KALLMAN’S SYNDROME.

EUNUCHOIDISM : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 38 EUNUCHOIDISM DEFICIENCY OF LEYDIG CELLS FROM CHILDHOOD. TALL, NARROW SHOULDERS SMALL MUSCLES FEMININE HABITUS SMALL GENITALIA HIGH PITCHED VOICE FEMALE PATTERN PUBIC HAIR

PENILE ABNORMALITIES : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 39 PENILE ABNORMALITIES HYPOSPADIAS: URETHRAL ORIFICE VENTRAL TO THE SHAFT. EPISPADIAS: ORIFICE DORSAL TO THE SHAFT. COMPLICATIONS: INFERTILITY

HYPOSPADIAS : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 40 HYPOSPADIAS

KLINEFELTERS SYNDROME : 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 41 KLINEFELTERS SYNDROME ALSO CALLED SEMENIFEROUS TUBULE DYSGENESIS MOST COMMON SEX CHROMOSOMAL DISORDER EXTERNAL GENITALIA LIKE NORMAL MALES TESTOSTERONE ENOUGH FOR SEC.SEXUAL FEATURES SEMENIFEROUS TUBULES ARE ABNORMAL INFERTILITY INCIDENCE OF MENTAL RETARDATION MORE

Slide 42: 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 42 K L I N E F E L T E R S S Y N D R O M E

Slide 43: 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 43 THANK YOU

Slide 44: 

Popad Rep Physiol MRP 44 LET’S GO FOR A BREAK!