psikologi kanak-kanak dan remaja

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

oleh Dr. Fauziah Abdul Rahim

Comments

Presentation Transcript

SGDY 3023 PSIKOLOGI kANaK-KanAK DAN REMAJA:

SGDY 3023 PSIKOLOGI k A N a K - K a n A K DAN REMAJA Lecturer’s Name: Dr. Fauziah Abdul Rahim 0.95 BSKP building ziah@uum.edu.my Hope you’ll learn, have fun and do well in this course!!! 1 Welcome to

Some rules to remember…:

Some rules to remember… Everyone has the:- capability to think and learn obligation to respect one’s own and other’s intellectual opinion opportunity to learn from their mistakes responsibilities to help others if they need help right on themselves to be committed and do well in whatever that they do and learn 2

Perspektif perkembangan ‘life span’ – Paul Baltes (1987):

Perspektif perkembangan ‘life span’ – Paul Baltes (1987) Perkembangan satu proses yg memberi kesan sepanjang hayat Berlaku pelbagai arah Melibatkan ‘gain’ and ‘loss’ Melibatkan ciri kekenjalan ‘plasticity’ Dibentuk / pengaruhi oleh konteks sosio-budaya Dipengaruhi oleh pelbagai faktor Wachs (2000) – school shootings – gene for agression , permissive parenting, the availability of guns or too much violence in the media Untuk memahami perkembangan kita perlu pelbagai disiplin 3

Apa perbezaannya:

Apa perbezaannya Pertumbuhan Kuantitatif - boleh diukur cth: berat badan, tinggi pertumbuhan umum dan khusus Perkembangan Kualitatif - tidak boleh diukur cth: pemikiran, perasaan 4

What is the difference between growth and development?:

What is the difference between growth and development? Growth Physical growth as physical changes that occur from conception to maturity Development Systematic continuities and changes in the individual that occur between conception and death Include psychological, physical, emotional, social and intellectual (+ spiritual) Maturation and learning – process involved in development Maturation- developmental changes in the body or behaviour that result from the aging process rather than from learning, injury, illness, or other life experiences influenced by heredity Learning-a relatively permanent change in behaviour (or behavioural potential) that results from one’s experiences or practice 5

Perkembangan/development:

Perkembangan/ development Perubahan yg berlaku pd manusia daripada percambahan hingga lahir fizikal personaliti sosial kognitif kematangan 6

What is Developmental Psychology (DP)?:

What is Developmental Psychology (DP)? Shaffer (2002:p.2) A branch of psychology devoted to identifying and explaining the continuities and changes that individuals display over time 7

What is Developmental Psychology (DP)?:

What is Developmental Psychology (DP)? Cook and Cook (2005) Physical development Cognitive development Social development 8

What is Developmental Psychology (DP)?:

What is Developmental Psychology (DP)? Woolfolk (1998) – development Refers to certain changes that occur between conception and death – changes that remain for a reasonably long period Physical Personal Social cognitive 9

General Principles of development:

General Principles of development People develop at different rates Individual differences Development is relatively orderly E.g people learn to sit before they walk, babble before they talk Development takes place gradually Does not occur over night- any change is likely to take time 10

Prinsip perkembangan:

Prinsip perkembangan pertumbuhan berlaku pd kadar berbeza (perbezaan individu) kadar perkembangan mengikut susunan yg umum (cth: merangkak & berdiri sebelum berjalan) perkembangan berlaku secara mendadak & juga perlahan 11

Prinsip perkembangan:

Prinsip perkembangan Berlaku dgn interaksi baka dan persekitaran kadar perkembangan boleh diterangkan dalam bentuk tahap perkembangan dipengaruhi oleh persekitaran bergntg pada masa ( cth : perkembangan bahasa kedua dsb .) setiap indivisu itu unik tetapi wujud perbezaan yg boleh diramalkan berdasarkan jantina 12

Controversial issues about human development: Do we know the answer?:

Controversial issues about human development: Do we know the answer? Nature/nurture Active/passive Continuity/discontinuity Quantitative/ qualitative 13

Isu-isu dalam perkembangan manusia:

Isu-isu dalam perkembangan manusia Adakah baka atau persekitaran yang memainkan peranan yang kritikal kepada perkembangan manusia? Adakah manusia berkembang secara menerus (continuity) atau secara mendadak mengikut tahap (discontinuity)? Adakah manusia menjadi ‘habuan’ persekitaran (pasif) atau manusia secara aktif mempengaruhi perkembangan mereka secara unik dan tersendiri? 14

What is the difference between nature and nurture?:

What is the difference between nature and nurture? Nature (Baka) Wiggam (1923,p.42) heredity is the chief maker of people and there’s nothing that you can do about it Watson (1995,p.82) give me a dozen healthy infants I can train them to become doctors, lawyers even thief and beggar Nurture (Persekitaran) How can nurture influence development? 15

Baka (nature) lwn persekitaran (nurture):

Baka ( nature ) lwn persekitaran ( nurture ) Faktor baka kromosom gen kelenjar hormon Pengaruh baka : buta warna kecerdasan kesihatan mental/fizikal skizofrenia /gangguan personaliti terencat akal penagihan dadah/gila 16

Baka (nature) lwn persekitaran (nurture):

Baka ( nature ) lwn persekitaran ( nurture ) Faktor persekitaran pralahir kesihatan ibu mengandung & usia pemakanan tekanan psikologi perkembangan janin semasa bersalin Pengaruh persekitaran : pemakanan ibu & bayi keluarga rakan sebaya/sekolah media massa budaya hidup 17

What is the difference between active and passive?:

What is the difference between active and passive? Active Are children born curious and active creatures? Passive Are children the product/ shaped by the environment? 18

What is the difference between continuity and discontinuity?:

What is the difference between continuity and discontinuity? Continuity (berterusan) Additive process occurs gradually and continually Discontinuity (bertahap) Series of abrupt changes each of which elevates the child to a new and presumably more advanced level of functioning 19

Quantitative vs Qualitative changes:

Quantitative vs Qualitative changes Quantitative Changes in degree Height, weight Qualitative Changes that make the individual fundamentally different in some way Tadpole into a frog 20

Kaedah Kajian :

Kaedah Kajian 21

Penyelidikan:

Penyelidikan Kajian ke atas pasangan kembar Gould (1981) “ the only really adequate natural experiment for separating genetic from environmental effects in humans ” - esp. identical twins (termed monozygotic) 22

Penyelidikan:

Penyelidikan Kajian ke atas anak angkat DeFries , Plomin & Fulkner (1994) 23

Penyelidikan:

Penyelidikan Kajian ke atas prasekolah & rumah (2009) Zigler (1994) - kanak2 yg ke pra sekolah IQ tinggi drpd yg tak pergi Molfese , DiLalla & Bunce (1997) - persekitaran rumah yg menggalakkan perkembangan kognitif dan sosial-emosi . 24

Apa rumusan penyelidikan?:

Apa rumusan penyelidikan? “Most human behaviours are not influenced by nature or nurture but by nature and nurture” (Robert Plomin , 1995) “Genes are never expressed directly in behaviour . There is a long chains of events involving genes, physiological processes, and the environment. The way heredity is expressed depends on the specific environment in which this expression occurs” (Miller, 1996) 25

KAEDAH KAJIAN PSIKOLOGI PERKEMBANGAN:

KAEDAH KAJIAN PSIKOLOGI PERKEMBANGAN Stanley Hall – baik untuk kaji setiap tahap perkembangan sepanjang hayat (life-span) manusia Pd abad ke 20 penyelidikan mengikut tahap umur Bermula pada tahun 1960an-1970an Ada yg fokus Bayi Kanak-kanak Remaja Dewasa Warga tua – gerontology 26

Bagaimana menyelidik perkembangan?:

Bagaimana menyelidik perkembangan? Kaedah Saintifik Mencari dan mendapatkan maklumat secara pencerapan yg sistematik sebelum berfikir dan membuat analisis Dapatan daripada penyelidikan akan memberi penerangan yang jitu dengan bukti yang kukuh dan konsisten . Kaedah saintifik melibatkan proses penjanaan idea dan menguji idea tersebut semasa membuat pengamatan sebelum sesuatu teori dapat dihasilkan . Teori menghasilkan penjanaan jangkaan dan hipotesis mengenai sesuatu pengamatan . Jika sesuatu hipotesis yg diuji mempunyai bukti yg kukuh maka teori itu diteruskan jika tidak teori itu dapat diubah . 27

Cara mengumpul data (bukti):

Cara mengumpul data (bukti) Kaedah penyelidikan bergantung kepada apa yang hendak diuji dan pendekatan apa yg sesuai yg dapat memberi jawapan kepada persoalan kajian tersebut . Self report Behavioural observation Naturalistic observation Structured vs unstructured observation Microgenetic method 28

Kaedah Penyelidikan Umum:

Kaedah Penyelidikan Umum Experimen independent vs dependent variables Manipulasi variable – independent Random assigned individuals – masalah etika penyelidikan Dua kumpulan – ‘treatment’ vs ‘control’; kajian dijalankan dalam makmal/’laboratory situation’ Memperihalkan kesan treatment – ‘causal relation ship’ Quasi experiment – tidak randomly assigned; selalunya dalam situasi diluar makmal Survey – Korelasi Memperihalkan hubungkait variables – lihat ada hubungkait yang sistematik Singer dan Singer (1981) – kesan pengaruh TV (ganas) dan tahap keganasan Hampir mendekati +1.00 hubungkait positif yang tinggi/kuat Hampirt mendekati -1.00 hubungkait yang negative (inverse) yang tinggi dan kuat Hampir mendekati 0.00 tiada hubungkait Pencerapan( Observation ) naturalistic Soal selidik ( Interview ) 29

Developmental Research Design:

Developmental Research Design Cross sectional Longitudinal Sequential 30

Designs for Studying Development:

Designs for Studying Development Longitudinal Same participants studied repeatedly at different ages. Cross-sectional Participants of differing ages all studied at the same time. Sequential Several similar cross-sectional or longitudinal studies are conducted at varying times. Microgenetic Participants are presented with a novel task and their mastery is followed over a series of sessions.

Strengths and Limitations of Research Designs:

Strengths and Limitations of Research Designs

Sequential Designs :

Sequential Designs

Can Musical Experience Enhance Intelligence? :

Can Musical Experience Enhance Intelligence?

Children’s Research Rights:

Children’s Research Rights Protection from harm Informed consent Privacy Knowledge of results Beneficial treatments

authorStream Live Help