IT fundamentals

Category: Education

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By: rojel (83 month(s) ago)

can u post ppt for itc also pls.. thanks

By: ansh29 (78 month(s) ago)

welcm....ya sure very soon u see itc ppt


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Computer overview working with windowsknow your pc : 

Computer overview working with windowsknow your pc CONTENT



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Computer is an electronic device used for storage and processing information. A computer has moved through various states of development and improvement. These states are referred to as generations of computer. Most computers follow the basic principle of Input, Process, and Output. A computer consists of two components, hardware and software. A computer has various types of files on a storage media: text storage, data storage, graphic storage, and audio storage media.

Introducing computer systems : 

Introducing computer systems Computer is an electronic device that stores , retrieves, and processes data, and can be programmed with instructions. Generations of Computer First generation – 1940-1956: Vacuum Tubes The first generation computers used valves leading to huge size and cost. The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first generation computing devices.

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Second generation -1956-1963: Transistors The second generation computer used transistors. In a span of ten years , transistors that were more efficient and cheaper replaced valves. Third generation – 1964-1971: Integrated Circuits The third generation computers used Integrated Circuits. In the early sixties , a major breakthrough was achieved when hundreds of transistors could be placed on a single silicon chip.

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Fourth generation – 1971-present: Microprocessors The fourth generation computers used microprocessors . With the introduction of very large scale integration (VLSI), thousands of transistors could be placed on a single chip Fifth generation –present and beyond: Artificial intelligence The fifth generation computer tries to influence intelligence into computers. The development of these computers is still in its infancy, but examples can be cited of various speech recognition systems and robots.

Computer systems : 

Computer systems The personal computers (PC) is although the most popular computer system , there are other computer systems too, which are categorized on the basis of size, cost and performance. A system is a group of integrated parts that have a common purpose of achieving an objective.

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Personal computer or Microcomputers Microcomputers are used for word-processing, database management, and spreadsheet calculations. Minicomputers Minicomputers are used for data processing in small organizations and as LAN servers.

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Mainframe computers Mainframes are used for data processing in large organizations and as nodes in WANs. Supercomputers Supercomputers are used for weather forecasting, aircraft, and weapon design.

Advantages of computers : 

Advantages of computers 1.Speed : Computers work at very high speeds and are much faster than humans. 2.Accuracy : Computers rarely make mistakes. In fact, most computers errors are caused by human faults. 3.Diligence : Unlike humans , computers simply do not get bored or tired. The monotony of repetitive work does not affect computers.

Disadvantages of computers : 

Disadvantages of computers Computers cannot take over all activities simply because they are less flexible than humans. 2. They cannot perform anything outside the defined scope. 3. They do not have the potential to work out an alternative solution.

Components of a pc system : 

Components of a pc system The unit that resembles a TV screen is called the monitor(visual display unit). The component that closely resembles a typewriter is called the keyboard. The box like structures that houses the necessary components to run the system is called the system unit. The printer, as the name suggests, is used to print the result of any operation. The tiny device connected to the system unit through a cord resembling a tail is called a mouse. Speakers are used to play sound applications on the computer. Microphone is used to record sound in the computer.

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How does a computer work ? INPUT (Raw Materials) PROCESS (Assembly) OUTPUT (Finished Automobile) I-P-O cycle in an Automobile Manufacturing Unit

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HARDWARE The components or devices that are connected to a computer are collectively known as hardware. Input-Output Devices The input devices are used to give instructions to the computer. For example. keyboard and mouse. The output devices are used to display output of an operation. For example, monitor and printer. Processing Devices The processing devices are used to process the instructions given to the computer. Microprocessor is an example of processing devices.

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Software A set of instructions is called a program. A set of program written to achieve a common objective is called software. We can categorize software into two types: application software system software

Data organization : 

Data organization Information on a computer is stored in the form of files. A computer file can be of the following four types: Text file Data file Graphics file Audio file

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Any kind of text information, be it letters, documents or memorandums, is stored on the computer in the form of a file, which may be broadly classified as a text file. Text storage Data storage In a manual system, data is stored in the form of a file. A manual file may contain the particulars of each employee in a company. The data to be used in a computer is also stored on a storage media i.e. the floppy disk or hard disk.

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Graphic storage The computer is also capable of storing pictures, moving videos, sketches and other forms of visual information. Audio storage The audio, which is recorded from the microphone, is saved as sound file.

Working with windows : 

Working with windows Windows explorer is the application that Microsoft Windows uses to provide a graphical user interface for accessing the file system. Windows explorer provides you the property of changing the desktop screen. You can apply beautiful pictures on your desktop and make it lively.

Exploring your computer : 

Exploring your computer A file is a named collection of some information such as a program, a set of data used by a program or a user created document. A folder is a container that contains other files or folders. Interact with a file or a folder

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Window consists of: Folders pane The Folders pane displays all the folders in a hierarchical structure. Some of the main folders that appear in this pane are: My documents Shared documents My network places Contents pane The view of the contents pane can be modified by selecting different options from the View menu. Thumbnails Tiles Icons Details

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Toolbar The toolbar of the Explorer window displays buttons which act as a shortcuts to the menu items. Back Forward Up Search Folders view

Manipulating folders and files : 

Manipulating folders and files Windows explorer provides easy access to common tasks that can be performed on files and folders. The common tasks that can be used on files and folders are: Make a new folder Create a new file Rename Copy Move Delete

Using accessories : 

Using accessories An accessory is a powerful and fully integrated set of tools for windows operating system. To open the Accessories option in windows explorer click Start -> All programs -> Accessories . The options included in accessories are as follows: Calculator Notepad WordPad Paint

Know your pc : 

Know your pc A portable computer is an electronic device that accepts information and manipulates it. A portable computer consists of certain input, output, and storage devices. There are certain display adapters in a portable computer like EGA, VGA, SVGA. To increase the capability of your computer use add-on-cards, which are plugged into the expansion slots.

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Common I/O Devices Mouse Trackball mouse Joystick mouse Light pen mouse Wireless mouse Touch Pad mouse Scanner Flatbed scanner Sheet fed scanner Handheld scanner Touch screen Resistive touch screen Infrared touch screen Surface acoustic touch screen Capacitive touch screen Printer Impact printer Non-impact printer

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Characteristics of portable computers Portable computers are productivity-enhancement tools that allow busy executives to carry their office work with them. The critical criterion for a portable computer is size. The smaller the size, the easier it is to carry around. The size of hard disk is reduced. The number of keys on the keyboard is reduced, and the keys are made to perform multiple functions.

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Introducing components of the system unit The system unit is a box-like unit filled with a number of useful components, each performing a discrete function. Interpersonal power supply Exhaust fan Speaker Motherboard Chipset Microprocessor Clock chip Memory- RAM and ROM Bus ports Expansion slots

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Storage system Storage system inside a PC consists of three logical parts, which are as follows: Diskette Drive Electronics that control drive through commands

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Introducing display adapters and their types The display adapter controls what appears on the VDU. Commonly- used display adapters are EGA VGA SVGA Introducing Add-on cards An expansion slot allows attaching of additional devices to the computer. Add-on cards are plugged into the expansion slots. They increase the capabilities of your computer. (video cards, network interface card, modem card, sound card.)

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