Slide 1: IT FUNDAMENTALS
COMPUTING PRESENTED BY:- ANSHIKA JAIN Computer overview working with windowsknow your pc : Computer overview working with windowsknow your pc CONTENT COMPUTER OVERVIEW : COMPUTER OVERVIEW INTRODUCING COMPUTER SYSTEM
INTRODUCING COMPONENTS OF A PC SYSTEM
INTRODUCING TYPES OF FILES USED TO ORGANIZE DATA Slide 4: Computer is an electronic device used for storage and
processing information. A computer has moved through
various states of development and improvement. These states
are referred to as generations of computer. Most computers follow the basic principle of Input, Process,
and Output. A computer consists of two components, hardware
and software. A computer has various types of files on a storage
media: text storage, data storage, graphic storage, and audio
storage media. Introducing computer systems : Introducing computer systems Computer is an electronic device that stores , retrieves, and processes data,
and can be programmed with instructions. Generations of Computer First generation – 1940-1956: Vacuum Tubes The first generation computers used valves leading to huge size and cost. The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first generation computing devices. Slide 6: Second generation -1956-1963: Transistors The second generation computer used transistors. In a span of ten years , transistors that were more efficient and cheaper replaced valves. Third generation – 1964-1971: Integrated Circuits The third generation computers used Integrated Circuits. In the early sixties , a major breakthrough was achieved when hundreds of transistors could be placed on a single silicon chip. Slide 7: Fourth generation – 1971-present: Microprocessors The fourth generation computers used microprocessors . With the introduction of very large scale integration (VLSI), thousands of transistors could be placed on a single chip Fifth generation –present and beyond: Artificial intelligence The fifth generation computer tries to influence intelligence into computers. The development of these computers is still in its infancy, but examples can be cited of various speech recognition systems and robots. Computer systems : Computer systems The personal computers (PC) is although the most popular computer system , there are other computer systems too, which are categorized on the basis of size, cost and performance.
A system is a group of integrated parts that have a common purpose of achieving an objective. Slide 9: Personal computer or Microcomputers Microcomputers are used for word-processing, database management, and spreadsheet calculations. Minicomputers Minicomputers are used for data processing in small organizations and as LAN servers. Slide 10: Mainframe computers Mainframes are used for data processing in large organizations and as nodes in WANs. Supercomputers Supercomputers are used for weather forecasting, aircraft, and weapon design. Advantages of computers : Advantages of computers 1.Speed : Computers work at very high speeds and are much faster than humans.
2.Accuracy : Computers rarely make mistakes. In fact, most computers errors are caused by human faults.
3.Diligence : Unlike humans , computers simply do not get bored or tired. The monotony of repetitive work does not affect computers. Disadvantages of computers : Disadvantages of computers Computers cannot take over all activities simply because they are less flexible than humans.
2. They cannot perform anything outside the defined scope.
3. They do not have the potential to work out an alternative solution. Components of a pc system : Components of a pc system The unit that resembles a TV screen is called the monitor(visual display unit).
The component that closely resembles a typewriter is called the keyboard.
The box like structures that houses the necessary components to run the system is called the system unit.
The printer, as the name suggests, is used to print the result of any operation.
The tiny device connected to the system unit through a cord resembling a tail is called a mouse.
Speakers are used to play sound applications on the computer.
Microphone is used to record sound in the computer. Slide 14: How does a computer work ? INPUT
(Raw Materials) PROCESS
(Finished Automobile) I-P-O cycle in an Automobile Manufacturing Unit Slide 15: HARDWARE The components or devices that are connected to a computer are collectively known as hardware.
The input devices are used to give instructions to the computer. For example. keyboard and mouse.
The output devices are used to display output of an operation. For example, monitor and printer.
The processing devices are used to process the instructions given to the computer. Microprocessor is an example of processing devices. Slide 16: Software A set of instructions is called a program. A set of program written to achieve a common objective is called software.
We can categorize software into two types:
system software Data organization : Data organization Information on a computer is stored in the form of files. A computer file can be of the following four types:
Audio file Slide 18: Any kind of text information, be it letters, documents or memorandums, is stored on the computer in the form of a file, which may be broadly classified as a text file. Text storage Data storage In a manual system, data is stored in the form of a file. A manual file may contain the particulars of each employee in a company. The data to be used in a computer is also stored on a storage media i.e. the floppy disk or hard disk. Slide 19: Graphic storage The computer is also capable of storing pictures, moving videos, sketches and other forms of visual information. Audio storage The audio, which is recorded from the microphone, is saved as sound file. Working with windows : Working with windows Windows explorer is the application that Microsoft Windows uses to provide a graphical user interface for accessing the file system.
Windows explorer provides you the property of changing the desktop screen. You can apply beautiful pictures on your desktop and make it lively. Exploring your computer : Exploring your computer A file is a named collection of some information such as a program, a set of data used by a program or a user created document.
A folder is a container that contains other files or folders. Interact with a file or a folder Slide 22: Window consists of: Folders pane The Folders pane displays all the folders in a hierarchical structure.
Some of the main folders that appear in this pane are:
My network places Contents pane The view of the contents pane can be modified by selecting different options from the View menu.
Details Slide 23: Toolbar The toolbar of the Explorer window displays buttons which act as a shortcuts to the menu items.
view Manipulating folders and files : Manipulating folders and files Windows explorer provides easy access to common tasks that can be performed on files and folders. The common tasks that can be used on files and folders are:
Make a new folder
Create a new file
Delete Using accessories : Using accessories An accessory is a powerful and fully integrated set of tools for windows operating system.
To open the Accessories option in windows explorer click Start -> All programs -> Accessories .
The options included in accessories are as follows:
Paint Know your pc : Know your pc A portable computer is an electronic device that accepts information and manipulates it. A portable computer consists of certain input, output, and storage devices.
There are certain display adapters in a portable computer like EGA, VGA, SVGA.
To increase the capability of your computer use add-on-cards, which are plugged into the expansion slots. Slide 27: Common I/O Devices Mouse
Light pen mouse
Touch Pad mouse
Sheet fed scanner
Resistive touch screen
Infrared touch screen
Surface acoustic touch screen
Capacitive touch screen
Non-impact printer Slide 28: Characteristics of portable computers Portable computers are productivity-enhancement tools that allow busy executives to carry their office work with them.
The critical criterion for a portable computer is size. The smaller the size, the easier it is to carry around.
The size of hard disk is reduced.
The number of keys on the keyboard is reduced, and the keys are made to perform multiple functions. Slide 29: Introducing components of the system unit The system unit is a box-like unit filled with a number of useful components, each performing a discrete function.
Interpersonal power supply
Memory- RAM and ROM
Expansion slots Slide 30: Storage system Storage system inside a PC consists of three logical parts, which are as follows:
Electronics that control drive through commands Slide 31: Introducing display adapters and their types The display adapter controls what appears on the VDU. Commonly- used display adapters are
SVGA Introducing Add-on cards An expansion slot allows attaching of additional devices to the computer. Add-on cards are plugged into the expansion slots. They increase the capabilities of your computer.
(video cards, network interface card, modem card, sound card.) Slide 32: THANK YOU