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PAR VALUE vs. MARKET VALUE BULLISH vs. BEARISH How does the stock market function? : How does the stock market function? Stock exchanges Brokers Registrars Depositories and their participants Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) Slide 7: MARKET INDICES: Stock market indices are the barometer of the stock market. BSE SENSEX,NSE-50 etc are some of the market indices. Their usefulness: Indices help to recognize broad trends in the market. The investor can use the indices to allocate the funds rationally among the stocks. Technical analysts use these indices to predict the future market. Indices function as a status report on the general economy. Slide 8: WHY STOCK PRICE RISES? The price of every stock increases or decreases for the following possible reasons: News about company. News about the country. Exchange rate regime. Depends on demand and supply for that stock. Why must I Invest in Shares? : Why must I Invest in Shares? Why need I invest? So what are the various investment options? Why shares? Slide 10: Benefits of investing in shares? Because they can make big money on it. Compared to your investments in fixed deposits in banks it makes more profits ,but the bad news is that you are also expected to bear the losses ,if any. 1) Possibility of high returns 2) Easy liquidity 3) Unbeatable tax benefits 4) Income from dividends What are the expenses during atransaction? : What are the expenses during atransaction? Capital gains tax Securities transaction tax Brokerage Depository fees Slide 12: SO HOW DOES ONE BUY SHARES? There are basically two ways in which you can invest in shares: Purchase shares from the primary market (i.e. IPO's) Trade in the secondary market, i.e. stock exchanges. Slide 13: COMPUTATION OF STOCK INDEX: A stock market may either be a price index or a wealth index. In India most of the indices are using wealth index for computation of stock market. Face value=Rs.10/- Base value=100/- Index present value= (100*4100)/2800= 146.428 Slide 14: WHY STOCK MARKET IS SO VOLATILE? Acceptance of globalisation,internationalisation and integration of the Indian market with the world markets. Introduction of flexible exchange rate regime. Intro of new, innovative ,hybrid financial instruments. Human element. Technological changes. Slide 15: HOW TO MAKE MONEY IN STOCK MARKET? patience, profound knowledge. Best guess. Diversification . Portfolio management. Slide 16: ROLE OF MARKET ACTIVITIES IN ECONOMY: In theory they are required to facilitate, support, enable the healthy growth and functioning of primary markets but in practice they are not . The current focus of thinking on the SENSEX, market capitalization etc.reflects an excessive preoccupation with the secondary market activity. Beyond a point, the expansion of the secondary markets may reduce the volume of activity not only on the new issue market but also in the banks, other financial institutions, gold, real estate and commodities. The multiple serious problems visiting the stock market caution us against too much optimism and enthusiasm about the stock market. Slide 17: DRAWBACKS OF INDIAN STOCK MARKET: Unethical practices. Big irrational greed, excessive speculation. Lack of protection to interests of the genuine and small investors . Trading is extremely thin and restricted. Structural and organisational imbalance in the growth of the stock market. Volatility of the market has increased over the years. Slide 18: REMEDY: So in order to make it flawless system authorities should initiate certain measures such as Single authority Demutualization. Prescribing capital adequacy norms. Stricter registeration of brokers Margin requirements . Slide 19: THANKYOU Slide 20: ANY QUESTIONS? 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