water level measurement

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BHARATI VIDYAPEETH’S COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING FOR WOMEN KATRAJ,PUNE-43 PROJECT SEMINAR ON Water level measurement using rs485 Interface on river model Guided by: Prof. S.A.ITKARKAR Sponsored by: Central Water And Power Research Station(CWPRS), Pune Presented by: SUCHITRA AMBEGAONKAR ANNU YADAV PRIYANKA BANDARU

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INTRODUCTION The CWPRS undertakes hydraulic physical model studies for Water Resources projects which involve deployment of instrumentation for precision measurements of water levels . The Water level measurement systems based on Water Surface Follower (WSF) and Guided Wave Radar (GWR) technology will be used on various physical hydraulic models.

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1. Yangtze River flood control model project report Xiwei Yang; Minyi Ke ; Yonghui Chen; Hao Li; Jianzhou Liu; This paper appears in: Information Engineering and Computer Science (ICIECS), 2010 2nd International Conference on Issue Date : 25-26 Dec. 2010 On page(s): 1 - 4 Date of Current Version : 30 December 2010 The Yangtze River model was constructed to study the flood evolution in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River. To automatically measure and dynamically track the water level in the river model, water level meter was designed. An optical scale with 1um resolution was used as a position detection sensor; the optical scale output signals were processed and then were counted by the reversible counter T2 of the AT89S52 microcontroller. Water surface detection probe was designed based on the water with low electrical conductivity, and the probe was fixed on the sliding rule of the optical scale; a stepper motor was used to drive the probe slid up and down. When probe downward contacted the water surface, the counter value was read and the height of water level was displayed. LITERATURE SURVEY

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Government of India Central Water & Power Research Station Khadakwasla , Pune – 411 024 Fabrication and Supply of Water Surface Followers (16 Nos ) and Guided Wave Radar (GWR) based Level Transmitters (6 Nos.) with RS 485 Interface TENDER DOCUMENT FOR

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PURPOSE The Central Water and Power Research Station undertakes hydraulic physical model studies for Water Resources projects which involve deployment of instrumentation for precision measurements of water levels. The Water level measurement systems based on WSF and GWR technology will be used on various physical hydraulic models. In certain model conditions, where the bed gradients are steep and rapidly varying type of flow conditions are expected, the WSF type instruments would not be suitable. It is therefore proposed to procure GWR based level transmitters for measuring the rapidly varying water levels at certain points in the model. Cont…

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Water level measurement A physical model of the Mithi river and the flood banks is being constructed to a scale of 1:150 horizontal and 1:30 vertical. This model will be housed in a hanger of size 80 m X 26.5 m. The model is basically a tidal model with capability to simulate flood discharge in the Mithi River and the adjoining streams for extreme rainfall conditions. The model will be used for simulating the flooding conditions in on either bank of Mithi river, Mumbai.

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The water level measurements would be an important parameter to assess the flooding conditions in an urban set up. These measurements need to be carried out using reliable, robust and precision instrumentation. CWPRS is developing the technology and design for a contact type water level measuring instrument generally known as Water Surface Followers (WSF). It is proposed to use this technology for water level measurements at 16 locations in the Mithi river model especially in the tidal reach.

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GRAPH PLOTTED FOR WATER LEVELS WITH RESPECT TO TIME

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BLOCK DIAGRAM LCD MICROCONTROLLER 8051 SIGNAL CONDITIONING CIRCUIT STEPPER MOTOR DRIVER SENSORS SERIAL COMMUNICATION STEPPER MOTOR PERSONAL COMPUTER RIVER

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SPECIFICATIONS HARDWARE : 8051 MICROCONTROLLER RS 485 LCD 20X4 DC STEPPER MOTOR:12V DC 4 PHASE WITH 2KgCm TORQUE POWER SUPPLY: 230V,50Hz AC mains SOFTWARE : Assembly Language Programming 8051 microcontroller

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SENSORS WATER SURFACE FOLLOWER The instrument has a sharp pointed needle as a water level sensor. The water level changes are followed by the up and down movements of the needle. The movement of the needle results in 0-10V analog o/p.

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Radar level transmitters provide non-contact type of level measurement in case of liquids in a metal tank. They make use of EM i.e. electromagnetic waves usually in the microwave X-band range which is near about 10 GHz GUIDED WAVE RADAR TRANSMITTER

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Comparison of Water Level Measuring Instruments WSF Type GWR Type 1. Contact Type Sensor Non Contact Type Sensor 2. Measurement Range Measurement Range Dependent on Lead Independent of Size of Screw Size Equipment 3. Can’t Record Fast Variation of Can Record Fast Variation of Water Levels Water Levels 4. Lesser Cost Higher cost

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SIGNAL CONDITIONING CIRCUIT The signal conditioning circuitry essentially consists of a wheat-stone bridge, an a.c . voltage amplifier and a power amplifier to drive the stepper motor. The Wheatstone bridge consists of 3 equal resistances connected to form 3 arms of the bridge. The fourth arm consists of the resistance of the water path between the sensor tip and the immersed ground plate, in parallel with a series combination of a resistance one fixed resistance and one adjustable resistance to facilitate balancing of the bridge for 0.2 mm depth of immersion. The final power amplifier delivers an undistorted power output to the motor to drive at full speed. An a.c .. Stepper motor has been used to drive the sensor.

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MICROCONTROLLER 8051 FEATURES QUANTITY ROM 4K BYTES RAM 128 BYTES TIMER 2 I/O PINS 32 SERIAL PORT 1 INTERRUPT SOURCES 6 8051 is an 8 bit processor. The CPU can work on 8 bits of data at a time. Microcontroller has a CPU in addition to a fixed amount of RAM,ROM,I/O ports and Timer all on a single chip. It is ideal for applications in which cost and space are critical.

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SERIAL COMMUNICATION RS485 is the most versatile communication standard in the standard series defined by the EIA. That is why RS485 is currently a widely used communication interface in data acquisition and control applications where multiple nodes communicate with each other. One of the main problems with RS232 is the lack of immunity for noise on the signal lines. Twisted pairs in RS485 communication however adds immunity which is a much better way to fight noise. With RS485 communication distances of 1200 m are possible. RS485 drivers are produced that can achieve a bit rate of 35 mbps

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Stepper motor driver Microcontrollers are good devices for driving stepper motors because they are fast, compatible with the discrete movements of steppers Some examples of use are precision movements, multi-axis control. Stepper motors, on the other hand, effectively have multiple "toothed" electromagnets arranged around a central gear-shaped piece of iron. The electromagnets are energized by an external control circuit, such as a microcontroller .

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ALGORITHM 1. POWER ON 2. INITIALISE LCD 3. INITIALISE SERIAL COMMUNICATION FOR 9600 BAUD RATE 4. DISPLAY WELCOME MESSAGE 5. DELAY 2 SEC. 6. DISPLAY MAIN MESSAGE 7. SELECT MANUAL MODE 8. ALIGN SENSOR AT UPPER SURFACE OF THE WATER. 9. PRESS RESET TO SET HEIGHT COUNTER TO "0000" 10. SELECT AUTO MODE 11. SET SAMPLING TIME 12. PRESS START 13. CHECK VOLTAGE LEVELS OF BOTH SENSORS. 14. IF SENSOR1 LEVEL IS LOW AND SENSOR2 LEVEL IS HIGH SENSORS ARE AT WATER SURFACE . SEND DATA TO SERIAL PORT. DO NOTHING UNTIL NEXT SAMPLE.

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15. IF BOTH SENSORS HAVE LOGIC HIGH LEVELS THEN SENSORS ARE ABOVE WATER SURFACE. SO MOVWE DOWNWARDS .DECREMENT COUNTER DISPLAY ON LCD .WAIT TILL BOTH SENSOR LEVEL ARE LOGIC LOW. 16. MOVE UPWRDS UNTIL SENSOR1 LEVEL IS LOW AND SENSOR2 LOGIC LEVEL HIGH. KEEP ON DISPLAYNG CURRENT POSITION ON LCD.WHEN PROPER POSITION REACHED SEND CURRENT POSITION TO SERIAL PORT. 17. IF BOTH SENSORS HAVE LOGIC LOW LEVELS THEN SENSORS ARE BELOW WATER SURFACE. SO MOVE UPWARDS .INCREMENT COUNTER DISPLAY ON LCD .WAIT TILL BOTH SENSOR LEVEL ARE LOGIC HIGH. 18. MOVE DOWNWARDS UNTIL SENSOR1 LEVEL IS LOW AND SENSOR2 LOGIC LEVEL HIGH. KEEP ON DISPLAYNG CURRENT POSITION ON LCD.WHEN PROPER POSITION REACHED SEND CURRENT POSITION TO SERIAL PORT Cont…

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FLOWCHART

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REFeRENCES 1."Yangtze River flood control model project report".Information Engineering and Computer Science (ICIECS), 2010 2nd International Conference. 2.Water surface follower reference manual- CWPRS, Pune 3.Level measurement guide for complete level solutions, feb 2008- Sensor systems SIEMENS. 4. "AT89 series hardware description", http://www.atmel.com/dyn/resources/prod-documents/doc0499.pdf, 1997 5. http://cwprs.gov.in/

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