POVERTY PRESENTATION

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Homelessness and Poverty : 

Homelessness and Poverty Presented by: Andrea Haskamp Selma Suljic Bob Watkins Lindsay Dykstra

Allow yourself to consider the following... : 

Allow yourself to consider the following... On any given night in Grand Rapids, Michigan alone there are an estimated 700 to 800 people sleeping in emergency shelters throughout the Heartside area.

Slide 3: 

Of the Heartside homeless population, 46% report having chronic health conditions such as arthritis, high blood pressure, diabetes, or cancer.

Slide 6: 

Of the Heartside homeless population, 26% report having acute infectious conditions such as a cough, cold, bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, or sexually transmitted diseases other than AIDS.

Slide 11: 

Of the Heartside homeless population, 85% are single with no children with them.

Of the Heartside homeless population, 22% have some college or technical training. : 

Of the Heartside homeless population, 22% have some college or technical training.

Slide 16: 

Of the Heartside homeless population, 38% report indicators of alcohol use problems.

Slide 18: 

Of the Heartside homeless population, 26% report indicators of drug use problems, 39% report indicators of mental health problems, 66% report indicators of one or more of these problems.

Slide 27: 

Having few desires, feeling satisfied with what you have, is very vital: satisfaction with just enough food, clothing, and shelter to protect yourself from the elements. -The Dalai Lama

Slide 32: 

What difference does it make to the dead, the orphans, and the homeless, whether the mad destruction is wrought under the name of totalitarianism or the holy name of liberty or democracy? -Mohandas Gandhi

Slide 36: 

It is in the shelter of each other that the people live. -Irish proverb

Slide 37: 

The homeless are among the least threatening & most vulnerable people in our society.

Slide 40: 

My home is a place of warmth and love. No one should be denied a home. 
 -Gail Porter

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Don't try to drive the homeless into places we find suitable. Help them survive in places they find suitable. -Daniel Quinn

Slide 48: 

Home is a sanctuary for me and the place where I can relax. Everyone should have the right to a safe and secure home. 
 - Corinne Bailey Rae

Slide 50: 

Of the Heartside homeless population, 30% of homeless people are employed.

Slide 52: 

33% of the Heartside homeless population are veterans.

Slide 55: 

All these people talking about morality should just take a walk downtown. They don't want to go downtown because instantly they see homeless people and they don't want to. -Neil Young

Slide 57: 

Of the Heartside homeless population, 55% have no health insurance.

Slide 59: 

32 degrees is the average winter temperature in West Michigan the homeless must endure.

Two Organizations We Got To Know : 

Two Organizations We Got To Know

Guiding Light Mission Chapel : 

Guiding Light Mission Chapel

Community Beds at Guiding Light Mission : 

Community Beds at Guiding Light Mission

Heartside Ministry Art Gallery : 

Heartside Ministry Art Gallery

Guiding Light Mission : 

Guiding Light Mission Guiding Light Mission exists to create a healing experience that allows individuals to discover a new life in Christ. We expect re-engagement in community. We provide food and shelter to all and resources to men that support their social, physical, spiritual and intellectual needs. 34,192 overnight stays were provided at Guiding Light Mission in 2009. 92,589 free meals were served at Guiding Light Mission in 2009. Spiritual Truth and Recovery Training is the right S.T.A.R.T. for men suffering from chronic homelessness, substance abuse, spiritual destitution and life challenges. Up to 36 men at any given time find substance abuse and life recovery at Guiding Light Mission through the state-certified program. Visit Guiding Light Mission at www.lifeonthestreet.org

General Demographics of the Heartside Area : 

General Demographics of the Heartside Area Heartside Map Total population of 2,472 people 55.1 % of that population are Whiteo 33.6 % are Black or African Americano 7.2% are Hispanic or Latinoo 3.6 % are Two or More Raceso 1.4 % are American Indian or Alaska Nativeo 1.8 % are Asian or Pacific Islanderso 0.3 % are classified as Other Race

General Demographics of the Heartside Area : 

General Demographics of the Heartside Area 44.6% are female & 55.4% are male 27% are between the age of 45 to 64 19 % are between the age of 25 and 34 18.2% are between the age of 35 and 44 13.6% are over the age of 64

Impact of Poverty in Heartside : 

Impact of Poverty in Heartside As the economic downturn in our country increasingly affects people of all varieties of life on the macro level, the level of poverty in the Heartside neighborhood is a constant. (Stuart Ray, Guiding Light Mission)

Impact of Poverty on the Homeless Population at a Mirco, Mezzo, & Macro Level. : 

Impact of Poverty on the Homeless Population at a Mirco, Mezzo, & Macro Level. The impact on poverty on the Homeless population at the micro, mezzo, and macro level.The pervasive poverty that has overcome our nation has caused the public to face the effects it has been having on our own people for centuries. With one eye open to the multi- systemic effects poverty has, now is the time to open the other eye of the public and policy makers to the implications for change. Homelessness is one of the most marked and devastating impacts poverty has. “Homelessness and poverty are inextricably linked” (Michigan’s Campaign to End Homelessness, 2007). There are 79,940 homeless people in the state of Michigan alone. Of the 31,781 adult homeless singles, 64% are men, and 62% have experienced homelessness more than once.

Impact of Poverty on the Homeless Population at a Mirco, Mezzo, & Macro Level. : 

Impact of Poverty on the Homeless Population at a Mirco, Mezzo, & Macro Level. They are often the most disconnected and disenfranchised persona among the homeless population – not only from natural supports such as family and friends, but also public health and welfare service systems. Many struggle with psychiatric and substance abuse disorders, exacerbating their isolation and prolonged homelessness. They find it very difficult to navigate and access housing and services(MCEH, 2007). The homeless population is up against many troubles and tribulations on the micro, mezzo, and macro levels. In particular to 65% of individuals experiencing poverty and homelessness are living with a long term disabilities: 24% have a chronic illness or physical disability(ies) 51% have a mental illness 44% abuse alcohol or other drugs 18% are dually diagnosed (mental illness and substance abuse) 8% have mobility issues

Impact of Poverty on the Homeless Population at a Mirco, Mezzo, & Macro Level. : 

Impact of Poverty on the Homeless Population at a Mirco, Mezzo, & Macro Level. Poverty and homelessness affects individuals systemically as well. With 53% of homeless people without any form of income, access to proper healthcare education and economic opportunity becomes unfair at best (Michigan’s Campaign to End Homelessness, 2007). Poverty, homelessness, substance abuse, and mental illness become concentrated to areas where resources are within walking distance; creating dependence on those systems and services, and reliance on governmental funds and programs. The support systems to those who are homeless become others who are in the same situations, sometimes chronically. The recreation and socialization opportunities outside of this community are scarce and limited to those who have access to or can afford transportation; this also include particular conveniences like grocery stores. The isolation involved with those who are homeless and in poverty stricken situations is characterized by crime and illegal activities as a means of economic opportunity and adaptation to lifestyle. The current policies that are in place prevent those who have been incarcerated from obtaining subsidized housing, employment, and the list goes on. Policy makers will need to turn their focus to the prevention of homelessness and chronic homelessness before change will occur.

Mental Health Among the Homeless Population : 

Mental Health Among the Homeless Population 1/3 to 1/2 of all homeless adults in the United States have major mental illness (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder). Up to 75% of all homeless population adults in the United States have major mental illness, severe substance use disorders, or both.

Mental Health Among the Homeless Population : 

Mental Health Among the Homeless Population Deinstitutionalization Deinstitutionalization has three components Release of persons residing in psychiatric hospitals to alternative facilities in the community The diversion of potential new admissions to alternative facilities The development of special services for the cane of a noninstitutionalized mentally ill population

Mental Health Among the Homeless Population : 

Mental Health Among the Homeless Population The rationale for deinstitutionalizatin was well intended for the well being of the mentally ill population. The assumptions were: Community based care would be more theraputic than hospital-based care Community based would be more humane than hospital-based care Community based care would be more cost-effective than hospital-based care.

Mental Health Among the Homeless Population : 

Mental Health Among the Homeless Population None of the previous assumptions of deinstitutionalization have been empirically tested and failed in the long run. Community based care is more humane if the community based services are mandated and adequate resources have been provided to ensure proper service implementation. Community based care is not cost effective if all the hidden costs associated with responsible programming are considered.

Mental Health Among the Homeless Population : 

Mental Health Among the Homeless Population While some people were able to thrive in a community setting; we have not witnessed positive outcomes in our community based programs for the chronic mentally ill population. Some severely mentally ill people have not been successful in the community because: Alcohol and other substances are available and with the use of these substances the progress they have previously made in an institution is eliminated. There is a lack of adequate housing resulting in a large homeless mentally ill population.

Mental Health Among the Homeless Population : 

Mental Health Among the Homeless Population The homeless mentally ill population There is a lack subsidized units of housing for people with disabilities. People with mental illness have been forgotten during federal housing policy changes. Pathways to ending up on the streets include; Inability to deal with ordinary landlord-tenant situations. Their desire to be independent along with inadequate community services results in them stopping their medications and a lack of organization to deal with housing arrangements.

Mental Health Among the Homeless Population : 

Mental Health Among the Homeless Population Severely mentally ill persons in the criminal justice system Numerous people are “jailed for crimes they commit only because there is no place in America to put them and no one is willing to treat them” (Ribeiro, 2006, p.5). Today, “if you are mentally ill, you can't get insurance coverage and you can't get treated by the state, and so you may be more likely to get care inside prison than outside” (Cocco, 2002, p.1).

Mental Health Among the Homeless Population : 

Mental Health Among the Homeless Population The homeless mentally ill population A large number of mentally ill people reside in jails and prisons. Long-term hospitalization in state hospitals is not an option. Clinicians and researchers see a resemblance between the population that used to reside in hospitals and the population currently residing in the criminal justice system. Instead of hospitalization the mentally ill have been unlawfully incarcerated due to a small crime and because they are found within the community these so called “crimes” are more likely noticed by police.

Mental Health Among the Homeless Population : 

Mental Health Among the Homeless Population Solutions.... Access to hospital care Facilitate access to hospital care for patients who need long term care. Just like people that suffer from somatic illnesses, some mentally ill people need hospitalization. Hospitalization needs to be an option for as long as it is needed. Importance needs to be directed towards mental health as there is towards physical health.

Mental Health Among the Homeless Population : 

Mental Health Among the Homeless Population Solutions.. Improvement of Community Care Program planning for community care that focuses on patient specific needs. People with long term illness need to receive services over a long period of time preferably by the same agency and/or clinician. Clinicians providing long term community care need to be trained in mental health in order to provide adequate care.

Mental Health Among the Homeless Population : 

Mental Health Among the Homeless Population Solutions... Even though individuals with mental illnesses appear to be different from most people, reality is that they are human as we all are. As human beings they are entitled to honor and humane treatment for their mental illnesses.

Housing and the Homeless Population : 

Housing and the Homeless Population An estimated 63 percent of people who experience homelessness at any given point in time are single adults. Approximately 9 percent enter nearly five times a year and stay nearly two months each time. The remaining 10 percent enter the system just over twice a year and spend an average of 280 days per stay—virtually living in the system and utilizing nearly half its resources.

Housing and the Homeless Population : 

Housing and the Homeless Population When individuals or families become homeless unexpectedly they will enter the homeless assistance system in some form, most often an emergency shelter. Throughout the nation, 1.6 million people received reprieve from at a shelter in 2008 alone In Kent County, $30 million dollars is spent annually on shelter. Of that monies, 60% is directly allocated to emergency shelter; totaling $18 million

Housing and the Homeless Population : 

Housing and the Homeless Population Ending chronic homelessness requires permanent housing with supportive services, and implementing policies to prevent high-risk people from becoming chronically homeless. The federal stimulus act last year set aside $1.5 billion to prevent homelessness by helping people pay rent, utility bills, moving costs or security deposits (Bello, 2010). Prevention strategies should focus on people who are leaving hospitals, psychiatric, facilities, substance abuse treatment programs, prisons, and jails.

Housing and the Homeless Population : 

Housing and the Homeless Population The most successful model for housing people who experience chronic homelessness is Permanent Supportive Housing. Supportive Housing works well for those who face the most complex challenges- individuals who are not only homeless but also have serious persistent issues that may include; substance abuse, mental illness, and HIV/AIDS.

Substance Abuse among the Homeless Population : 

Substance Abuse among the Homeless Population Substance abuse is often times viewed as a cause and effect of homelessness. It is estimated that 20-35% of homeless adults have a substance use disorder. These numbers skyrocket to 50% in the homeless male population. There is also the estimate that 15-30% of the homeless abuse assorted drugs (Dietz, 2008). One of the most generally used methods of treatment for opioid addiction is some type of residential detoxification. But after detox, the relapse rate is 65 to 80% after a month.

Substance Abuse among the Homeless Population : 

Substance Abuse among the Homeless Population One of our main problems today is that there are not adequate aftercare programs for individuals who are homeless/in poverty and are also substance abusers. Individuals who receive treatment through detox are greatly benefitted by this service, but without the proper steps to follow up, they are more likely to fall back into patterns of behavior that lead to relapse. We need to require these aftercare steps after individuals complete their detox treatment.

Substance Abuse among the Homeless Population : 

Substance Abuse among the Homeless Population Aftercare is beneficial to the client because it is focused on preventing relapse and helping to strengthen behaviors that are learned in detox. In residential substance abuse treatment, it was found that longer durations of treatment (6 months or longer) were found to be more effective than short durations. A few of the reasons as to lack of aftercare may be poor motivation on the part of the client, inaccessible or inadequate services offered, or a disconnect between the detox program and aftercare.

Substance Abuse among the Homeless Population : 

Substance Abuse among the Homeless Population We need to give proper education on aftercare and place equal emphasis in treatment on the detox and aftercare processes. There needs to be adequate information to provide the client with a wide array of options so that there are choices for the diversity and needs of the individuals we serve. We should also start thinking about residential detox programs implementing the aftercare services themselves so that clients aren’t lost in the shuffle of paperwork and transfers to other agencies. We need to unify these services because they are both so intimately connected with the client’s recovery process. Aftercare should be mandatory for clients entering detox because of its importance in the recovery process. In this way, they are given every opportunity to empower themselves to succeed.

Conclusion and a Goodbye.... : 

Conclusion and a Goodbye.... We spent six days experiencing poverty and homelessness in our little corner of the world. We were able to glimpse a life that some will rise up from, and others will not. This was our window into the rest of the world and into what we want to do to help change it. The three largest problems that we see in regards to homelessness have to do with mental health, substance abuse, and housing. These are three barriers to the process of raising up out of homelessness and poverty that we want broken down.

Conclusion and a Goodbye.... : 

Conclusion and a Goodbye.... Mental health and substance abuse can turn in to cycles that lead to the same addictions and same danger if they aren’t given the proper attention and care. Our mentally ill need to be kept safe and provided with proper care through institutionalization and those with substance abuse problems need to have access to all of the services of aftercare to continue with the progress they make. We should advocate for programs that deal with substance abuse such as needle exchange that both the U.S. Health and Humans Services secretary and the U.S. Surgeon General have both concluded effectively reduce the spread of disease while at the same time not increasing the rate of drug use. Ultimately, preventative services and quality of social services within shelters needs to be allocated in a more economically means, seeking to solve the problem of homelessness instead of maintain and reinforce it. We need more affordable housing to be made available so that getting out of homelessness is an attainable goal. We need to work towards these goals because after all, we’re all in this together.

Slide 104: 

A big THANKS goes out to the Heartside Community for allowing us to explore, learn, and grow along your side. You have reminded us to always hold on to that last little bit of hope.

References : 

References Bello, M. (2010, March 25). Apartment rents cheaper than stays in homeless shelters. USA Today. Bluthenthal, R., Heinzerling, K., Anderson, R., Flynn, N., & Kral, A. (2008). Approval of syringe exchange programs in California: Results from a local approach to HIV prevention. American Journal of Public Health, 98(2), 278-283. Coalition to End Homelessness. (2009). http://www.help4homeless.org. Cocco, M. (2002) We must stop treating the mentally ill as criminals, Retrieved August 8, 2010, from http://www.commondreams.org/views02/031903.htm. Dietz,T.L. (2008). Drug and alcohol use among homeless older adults: Predictors of reported current and lifetime substance misuse problems in a national sample. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 28, 235-255 Eyrich-Garg, K.M., Cacciola, J.S., Carise, D., Lynch, K.G., and McLellan, A.T. (2008). Individual characteristics of the literally homeless, marginally housed, and impoverished in the US a substance abuse treatment-seeking sample. Social Psychiatry Epidemiol, 43, 831-842. Guiding Light Mission (n.d.). Retrieved August 11, 2010, from http://www.lifeonthestreet.org/. Grand Rapids Area Coalition to End Homelessness. (August 2009). Homeless System Analysis. Heartside Ministry (2007). Retrieved August 11, 2010, from http://www.heartside.org/donation_form.php. Lamb, H.R. (2001) Some perspectives on deinstitutionalization. Psychiatric Services, 52(8), 1039-1045.

References : 

References Ribeiro, C. (2006, August 1). Deinstitutionalization of the Mentally Ill. . Retrieved August 8, 2010, from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/47201/deinstitutionalization_of_the_mentally.html?cat=72 Scallet, L. (1989) Mental health and homelessness: Evidence of failed policy? Health Affairs, 8(4), 184-188. Torey, E.F. & Zdanowicz, M. (1998) Why Deinstitutionalization Turned Deadly Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition)A18. Shepard, D.S., Calabro, J.A. B., Love, C.T., McKay, J.R., Tetreault, J., and Yeom, H.S. (2006). Counselor incentives to improve client retention in an outpatient substance abuse aftercare program. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services, 33, 629-635. Thompson, S.J., Barczyk, A.N., Gomez, R., Drever, L., and Popham, A. (2009). Homeless, street-involved emerging adults: Attitudes toward substance use. Journal of Adolescent Research, 25, 231-257. Tempalski, B., Flom, P., Friedman, S., Jes Jarlais, D., Friedman, J., McKnight, C., & Friedman,R. (2007). Social and political factors predicting the presence of syringe exchange programs in 96 US metropolitan areas. American Journal of Public Health, 97(3), 437-446. Tuten, M., Jones, H.E., Lertch, E.W., and Stitzer, M.L. (2007). Aftercare plans of inpatients undergoing detoxification. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 33, 547- 555.

References : 

References Van Den Berg, C., Smit, C., Van Brussel, G., Coutinho, R., & Prins, M. (2007). Full participation in harm reduction programmes is associated with decreased risk for human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus: Evidence from the Amsterdam cohort studies among drug users. Addiction, 102, 1454-1462. Vlahov, D., Des Jarlais, D., Goosby, E., Hollinger, P., Lurie, P., Shriver, M., & Strathdee, S. (2001). Needle exchange programs for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus infection: Epidemiology and policy. American Journal of Epidemiology, 154(12), S70-S77.

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