Applied Mechanics

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SpaceTEC® Certification Readiness Course : SpaceTEC® Certification Readiness Course Applied Mechanics

Introduction : Introduction Objective: Provide basis for demonstrating a basic knowledge which will allow you to: Interpret a basic drawing Produce a layout/template Fabricate a project

Applied Mechanics Topics : Applied Mechanics Topics Machine Shop Safety Hand Tools Non-Cutting Cutting Drill Presses, Twist Drills, Drilling Holes Measurement Hardware and Materials Basic Calculations Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings

Objectives : Objectives Recognize safe and unsafe work practices in a shop Identify and correct hazards in the shop area Perform your job in a manner that is safe for you and other workers

Safety in the Shop : Safety in the Shop Must consider Personal protection and grooming Proper housekeeping Safe work practices Fire protection

Personal Protection and Grooming : Personal Protection and Grooming Always wear approved eye protection Plain safety glasses with side shields Plastic safety goggles Face shields Note: Lenses MUST be made of approved safety shatterproof glass !

Personal Protection and Grooming : Personal Protection and Grooming Never wear loose clothing Remove wrist watches, rings and bracelets Never wear gloves when operating machinery Long hair must be protected by hair net or cap No canvas or open-toes sandals

Housekeeping : Housekeeping Stop machine before cleaning it Keep machine, floors and hand tools clean Use brush and not cloth to remove chips Never use compressed air to remove chips from machine

Safe Work Practices : Safe Work Practices Before operating any machine you must understand its mechanism and how to stop Always stop machine before measuring, cleaning, or making any adjustments Clamp all work securely in place prior to operation Use proper wrench for job

Safe Work Practices : Safe Work Practices Pressured Lines Flexible pressurized lines Can Experience 5% to 8% growth Relieve Stress on fluid or pneumatic lines Bends in lines help take up surges Accumulators also take up surges Compressed air in the shop area Check filters for moisture Check operating pressure before using pneumatic tools

Safe Work Practices. : Safe Work Practices. Cutting, Forming, Drilling, Sanding Always Wear eye protection/dust mask Place work in a suitable holder: Bench-mounted vise Soft metal caps over steel jaws to protect work When Cutting: Keep hands, fingers away from cutting surfaces When Drilling: Back up materials Don’t use your hands! Always know what is behind Keep work from spinning Place clamp or table stop on right-hand side of work

Fire Protection : Fire Protection Always dispose of oily rags in proper metal containers Know location and operation of every fire extinguisher Know location of nearest fire exit from building Know location of nearest fire-alarm box and its operating procedure

Hand Tools : Hand Tools Two Basic Types Noncutting Include vises, hammers, screwdrivers, wrenches and pliers Used basically for holding, assembling or dismantling parts Cutting Includes Chisels, Saws (Hacksaws), Hand Files, Punches, Reamers, tap and dies,etc.

Hand Tools : Hand Tools Tool Inventory Tool Selection

Non-Cutting Hand Tools : Non-Cutting Hand Tools Hammers and Mallets Metal-Head Hammers The Ball Peen Hammer Hammer head held in place by a wedge Face of the hammer is the striking surface The Ball Peen Hammer is the hammer most often used by machinists

Non-Cutting Hand Tools : Non-Cutting Hand Tools Hammers and Mallets Soft-Faced Hammer Used for forming soft metals Striking easily-damaged surfaces Should Not be used for striking punches, chisels, bolts, or nails Dead Blow Hammer

Non-Cutting Hand Tools : Non-Cutting Hand Tools Hammers and Mallets Mallet Hammer-like tool Made of hickory, rawhide, rubber, or plastic Used for shaping metal or wood-working

Non-Cutting Hand Tools : Non-Cutting Hand Tools Screwdrivers Classified by shape, type of blade, and blade length Common – slotted head Phillips – head forms perfect cross Offset – used when vertical space is limited Sizes Flat screwdrivers are generally sized by width of blade or size screw it fits Almost all other types (Phillips, etc) are sized by point sizes Phillips #1, #2, #3, #4 are most common

Screwdriver Drives : (a) Slotted, (b) Phillips, (c) Pozidriv, (d) Torx, (e) Hex, (f) Robertson, (g) Tri-Wing, (h) Torq-Set, (i) Spanner Screwdriver Drives

Non-Cutting Hand Tools : Non-Cutting Hand Tools Screwdrivers Made for one purpose only – loosening or tightening screws When using a screwdriver, Select the largest blade that will fill the screw head Wrong size blade will damage screw head and screwdriver blade

Non-Cutting Hand Tools : Non-Cutting Hand Tools Punches Center Used to start holes for drilling Automatic or manual Prick Used to transfer dimensions Tapered, or Drive Punch Used for driving out rivets, pins, bolts bound in holes Pin, or Drift Same as tapered only straight shank

Non-Cutting Hand Tools : Non-Cutting Hand Tools Wrenches – designed to fit a nut or bolt head and exert a turning motion Open End – open parallel jaws on one or both ends Box End – box, or completely surround bolt head or nut Combination – open end on one end, box of the same size on the other Socket – square drive on one end that fits T, ratchet, screwdriver grip, speed handle Adjustable – one fixed jaw, one adjusted by thumbscrew Special Hook Spanner – curved arm with hook for slotted nuts Allen – six-sided bars shaped in an “L”

Non-Cutting Hand Tools : Non-Cutting Hand Tools Torque wrench – precision tool to measure amount of turning or twisting force applied Deflecting beam Dial indicating Micrometer setting

Torque wrench : Torque wrench

Torque Wrench : Torque Wrench Torque Also known as twisting force Force X Distance (Moment) Used to deliver loads safely throughout a structure F, L, T, where: F = Force L = Lever length T = Applied Torque

Torque Wrench : Torque Wrench Torque wrench extensions Increase lever length Increase applied force Require recalculation of applied force Formula: Where: A = Lever length of wrench B = Lever length of wrench plus extension Te = Required torque on bolt Tw = Torque reading on wrench dial Tw = Te X A B

Torque Calculation w/Extension : Torque Calculation w/Extension Example: 40 ft lbs required torque on 3/8“ bolt 4 in. extension necessary at 45-degree angle resulting in 2” effective length increase on 18” torque wrench Tw = Te (40 ft lbs) X A (18 in.) B (18” + 2”) Tw = 720 = 36 ft lbs. 20 A = Lever length of wrench B = Lever length of wrench plus extension Te = Required torque on bolt Tw = Torque reading on wrench dial

Non-Cutting Hand Tools : Non-Cutting Hand Tools Use of Machinist Vise 1. Open jaws (1) of vise wide enough to allow you to insert the object you want to clamp. CAUTION Use brass or copper caps on vise jaws to protect soft material when clamping. CAUTION Do not strike vise with a heavy object or try to hold large work in a small vise.

Non-Cutting Hand Tools : Non-Cutting Hand Tools 2. Insert object (2) to be clamped between vise jaws and tighten handle (3). 3. Work should be held firmly in place, but the jaws should not be so tight that they mar the finish. A piece of rawhide or leather may be used to protect highly polished surfaces: NOTE When holding hard material in vise jaws tightened by hand, give the vise handle a sharp rap for final tightening. Use of Machinist Vise

Non-Cutting Hand Tools : Non-Cutting Hand Tools Soldering Iron Preparation Place the soldering iron in its stand and plug in. The iron will take a few minutes to reach its operating temperature of about 400°C. Dampen the sponge in the stand. The best way to do this is to lift it out the stand and hold it under a cold tap for a moment, then squeeze to remove excess water. It should be damp, not dripping wet. Wait a few minutes for the soldering iron to warm up. You can check if it is ready by trying to melt a little solder on the tip. Wipe the tip of the iron on the damp sponge. This will clean the tip. Melt a little solder on the tip of the iron. This is called 'tinning' and it will help the heat to flow from the iron's tip to the joint. It only needs to be done when you plug in the iron, and occasionally while soldering if you need to wipe the tip clean on the sponge.

Non-Cutting Hand Tools : Non-Cutting Hand Tools Soldering Iron Use Hold the soldering iron like a pen, near the base of the handle. Imagine you are going to write your name! Remember to never touch the hot element or tip. Touch the soldering iron onto the joint to be made. Make sure it touches the joint. Hold the tip there for a few seconds and... Feed a little solder onto the joint. It should flow smoothly. Apply the solder to the joint, not the iron. Remove the solder, then the iron, while keeping the joint still. Allow the joint a few seconds to cool before you move the joint Inspect the joint closely.

Cutting Hand Tools : Cutting Hand Tools Hacksaw Blade teeth always face forward Low pressure, let blade do the work Hand Snips Straight – cutting straight lines Curved – cutting outside of curves Hawksbill – cutting inside of curves or radii Aviation – compound leverage-type for cutting aluminum alloy or stainless steel sheet Left-to-right (red) Right-to-left (green) Straight (yellow)

Chisels : Chisels Hard steel cutting tool for cutting or chipping any material softer than itself Used for: Shearing rivets Splitting seized or damaged nuts from bolts Made of eight-sided tempered and hardened tool steel bar stock Cutting edge should be beveled 60-70 degrees for general use Types: Flat or cold Single or double bevel point Round nose Diamond point

Files : Files Files are used for cutting, smoothing off, or removing small amounts of metal, wood, plastic, or other material. Files are made in various lengths, shapes, and cuts. Every file has five parts: the point (1), edge (2), face or cutting teeth(3), heel or shoulder (4) and tang (5). The tang is used to attach the handle

Hand Files and File Card : Hand Files and File Card Types of Files Flat, mill, square, round or rattial, triangular, three square, half round, wood and vixen Most common is the mill, rattial and vixen Clean all files with a File Card File in forward direction only Keep file well oiled

Files : Files Most Common files types

Use and Care of Files : Use and Care of Files Apply pressure only on forward stroke Do not store files where they rub together or against other tools Never use file as pry bar or a hammer Do not knock file on vise or other metallic object to clean it (use brush or file card) Too much pressure also results in "pinning" which scratches work surface Small particles wedged between teeth

Hand Cutting Tools : Hand Cutting Tools Reamers Used to bring hole to size and produce good finish Solid Hand Reamer Made of carbon steel or high-speed steel Available in inch sizes from .125 - 1.500 in. Metric from 1 – 26 mm in diameter Not adjustable and may have straight or helical flutes

Reamer Use and Precautions : Reamer Use and Precautions Place end of reamer in hole and place tap wrench on square end of reamer Rotate reamer clockwise to align with hole Check reamer for squareness with work Use cutting lubricant where required Rotate reamer slowly clockwise and apply downward pressure Never turn reamer backward (counterclockwise), it will dull teeth Never attempt to remove too much material Frequently clear hole of chips

Hand Cutting Tools : Hand Cutting Tools Taps and Dies Taps > used to make internal threads Dies > used to make external threads

Taps : Taps Made from high quality tool steel, hardened and ground Two, three, or four flutes cut lengthwise across threads to form cutting edges Provide room for chips Admit cutting fluid to lubricate tap End of shank square so either a straight or t-handle tap wrench can be used to turn tap

Taps : Taps Inch tap markings Major diameter Number of threads per inch Type of thread ½ in.—13 UNC ½ in. = major diameter of tap 13 = number of threads per inch UNC = Unified National Coarse (type of thread)

Taps : Taps Taper Tapered from end six threads Used to start thread easily Used for tapping hole that goes through work as well as blind hole Plug Tapered for three threads Tread hole through workpiece Bottoming tap Not tapered but chamfered at end Used for threading to bottom of blind hole

Tap Drill Size : Tap Drill Size Hole drilled to correct tap drill size Leave proper amount of material for tap to cut thread (75%) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. A = body size B = tap drill size C = minor diameter TDS = tap drill size D = major diameter of tap N = number of threads per inch Find tap drill size for a 7/8 in. –9NC tap

Threading Dies : Threading Dies Used to cut external threads on round work Most common threading dies Adjustable split die Adjustable screw plate die Solid die

Threading Dies : Threading Dies Solid die Used for chasing damaged threads May be driven by suitable wrench Not adjustable Adjustable split die Has adjusting screw that permits adjustment over or under standard depth of thread Fits into die stock

To Thread With a Hand Die : To Thread With a Hand Die Chamfer end of workpiece with file or on grinder Fasten work securely in vise Select proper die and die stock Lubricate tapered end of die with suitable cutting lubricant Place tapered end of die squarely on workpiece

Slide 48: Press down on die stock handles and turn clockwise several turns Check die to see that it has started squarely with work If not square, remove die and restart Turn die forward one turn and reverse it approximately one-half turn to break chip During threading process, apply cutting fluid frequently If thread must be cut to shoulder, remove die and restart it with tapered side of die facing up (complete the thread)

Drill Presses : Used to drill precision holes Four main parts: Floor stand Adjustable table Adjustable spindle Electric motor Always clamp to drill press base Drill diameter has no bearing on drill speed Drill pressure is critical Hard and slow for hard metal; fast for soft Make sure drill bit is secured to the chuck Drill Presses

Drill Press Photo : Drill Press Photo

Twist Drills : Twist Drills Hardened shank contains flutes, which form cutting surfaces, flow cutting fluid, and provide for chip removal Included angle of bits: 135 degrees 118 degrees 90 degrees 60 degrees Note: Straight shank drill bits measure up to ½ inch Twist Drills

Drilling Holes : Drilling Holes 135 degrees (included angle) High speed, low pressure for very hard materials 118 degrees (included angle) High pressure, low speed for steel 90 degrees (included angle) Used primarily for soft material Medium pressure Low pressure, high speed for aluminum 60 degrees (included angle) Used primarily for soft material Medium pressure Note: When drill point is about to break through material, reduce pressure

Slide 53:

Drilling Holes (Con’t) : Drilling Holes (Con’t) Locate/position hole Use center punch Drill pilot hole first # 40 bit Drill up to size (Square to material) If you are reaming, drill hole .0003 to .007 undersize then ream up to size Rotate reamer in cutting direction only when cutting or removing

Aerospace Hardware : Aerospace Hardware Typical Types of Hardware Bolts Nuts Washers Screws Cotter pins and safety wire Rivets Turnlock fasteners Miscellaneous items such as 0-rings, crush washers, etc. Control cable hardware Fluid lines and fittings Electrical wiring and connectors

Hardware : Hardware Bolts – Typical Head Markings

Hardware : Hardware Bolts A bolt with a single raised dash is a AN corrosion resistant steel bolt An AN Clevis bolt is for shear applications only. This type of bolt is used only where shear loads occur and never in tension. It is often inserted as a mechanical pin in a control surface. They have a slotted headed A bolt head with a triangle, recessed or not, is a “Close Tolerance” bolt and must be driven into a hole.

Aerospace Bolt ID : Aerospace Bolt ID Bolt Sizes “AN” represent Air Force – Navy standard for bolt If the letter "C" follows the AN designation (ANC) that identifies a stainless steel bolt. The letter "H" after AN (ANH) identifies a drilled head bolt. The first number after "AN" designates the diameter (1/16" increments) The last number, either single or double digit denotes length; a single digit denotes nominal length to the 1/8th of an inch; double digit numbers denote the first digit as a whole measure in inches, the second an additional nominal sizing to the 1/8 inch measure. The "A" at the very end of all the numbers designates that there will be no hole in the shank. Meaning that the hole is "Absent".

Aerospace Bolt ID : Aerospace Bolt ID Bolt Sizes Example: AN4-8A AN means the bolt is manufactured according to Air Force-Navy specs. 4 identifies the diameter of the bolt shank in 1/16" increments 8 identifies the length of the shank in 1/8" increments A means the shank of the bolt is undrilled (no letter here means a drilled shank)

Safety Wire : Safety Wire Items shall be safety wired in such a configuration that the safety wire shall be put in tension when the parts tend to loosen. Safety wiring is considered a redundant means of securing components to prevent the component from loosening should the primary retention capability fails during operation.

Slide 61:

Aircraft Circular AC 43.13-1B : Aircraft Circular AC 43.13-1B AC 43.13-1B covers all the aspects of general safety wire practices. Three common wire sizes 0.020, 0.032, 0.041. Safety wire shall be new for each application.

Safety wire pliers : Safety wire pliers Four different types

Wire : Wire Should be six to eight turns per inch. The pigtail S/B ¼-to ½-inch (three to six twists).

Hardware : Hardware Rivets Shop head of a rivet is one and one-half (1½) larger than the shank The bucked end is also one and one-half (1½) the shank diameter Aluminum (2117-T) rivets are heat treated by manufacture and can be driven when used. They are known as field rivets Aluminum (2017–T) is a refrigerated rivet and must be driven within one hour. The (2024-T) is also a refrigerated rivet and must be driven within 10 to 20 minutes after removal from refrigeration.

Aerospace Rivets : Aerospace Rivets Identification Types of Solid Shank Rivets Universal (AN470 or MS20470) Round Flathead Countersunk (AN426 or MS20426) Brazier

Aerospace Rivets : Aerospace Rivets Head of solid shank rivets are marked to identify specific material of the rivet. 1100 very soft material (Plugs) 2017T and 2024T (Refrigerated) 5056T used to rivet magnesium

Aerospace Rivets : Aerospace Rivets Rivet Installation Use a center punch to mark hole, then drill pilot hole Drill hole up to size Countersink for 100 degree rivet (Pg 542) Flat rivet set is used for installing countersunk rivets Rivet must be flush with material being riveted Universal Rivet, use slightly greater radius rivet set to install rivet Spacing is 3X rivet diameter Edge distance is minimum of 2x diameter Length of rivet protruding is 1 ½ diameter Bucked end is 1 ½ diameter When installing a rivet always use a slightly larger drill than rivet diameter!

Slide 69:

Aerospace Rivets : Aerospace Rivets Drill Bits to use for Rivet Installations See “Drill Sizes” #40 drill bit for 3/32 rivet #30 drill bit for 1/8 rivet #20 drill bit for 5/32 rivet #10 drill bit for 3/16 rivet Example: #10 drill bit measures .1935 3/16” rivet diameter is .1875

Aerospace Rivets : Aerospace Rivets Rivet Removal Center punch rivet first to indent the head, then drill center of rivet with one size smaller drill bit. Drill off the rivet head only! Knock out rivet with ball peen hammer using pin punch slightly smaller than rivet diameter Critical to keep hole the same diameter!

Rivet Measurement : Rivet Measurement Rivet Measurement AN426AD-4-8 (Countersink) #4 is the diameter in 32nds #8 is the length in 16ths Rivet Pitch is distance between rivets in the same row Question: What would be the necessary length of the rivet to go through two ¼ inches pieces of 2024-T3 aluminum and be ready to drive?

Rivet Measurement : Rivet Measurement Answer The total thickness is ½ inch or (16/32) plus we need the rivet to protrude 1 ½ diameter so we can buck or drive it. Therefore the total length of the rivet must be 1/8 X 1.5=.1875 or 3/16 (6/32). 6/32 + 16/32 = 22/32. The rivet would be an AN426AD-4-11

Basic Math : Basic Math Fractions Of the following fractions what one is most nearly to 0.17187? 11/64, 9/32 or 11/32 What do you have to do? - Multiplying using a Fractions 35 x 5/7 = _____ How did you arrive with the answer?

Basic Math : Multiplication of Decimals 9.45 X 120 = ________ 2.13 x .203 = ________ Addition of Decimals 2.34 + 37.5 = ________ 2.34 + 37.5 + .09 = ________ Basic Math

Basic Math : Multiplication of Decimals – Answer: 9.45 X 100 = 945 9.45 X 20 = 189 945 + 189 = 1134 2.13 X .200 = .426 2.13 X .003 = .00639 .426 + .00639 = .43239 Basic Math

Basic Math : Addition of Decimals– Answer: 2.34 + 37.50 = 39.84 2.34 + 37.50 + .09 = 39.93 Basic Math

Basic Math : Expressing a decimals as a percentage .90 as a percent Move the decimal two places to the right Affix the percent symbol to the right after dropping the decimal point .90 – 90. – 90% Expressing a percent as a decimal Keeping in mind that a percent is simply a decimal with the decimal point moved two places to the right, all that is necessary to express a percent as a decimal is to move the decimal point two places to the left Basic Math

Basic Math : Basic Math Areas Volumes Area = pi r 2 Area = axb Volume = axbxc Volume = [pi] r2 h

Basic Math : Basic Math Ideal Gas Law PV=nRT V=volume in liters n=moles of gas P=pressure in atm T=temperature in Kelvin's R is the molar gas constant For given gas R is constant and for given number of moles of gas the equation can be solved to relate pressure, temperature and volume between two different states

Basic Math : Basic Math Gas Laws Examples: Container size of gas halved; temperature remains same Equation P1V1=P2V2

Basic Math : Basic Math Temperature conversion Fahrenheit and Celsius The equation relating the two is C = (F-32) * 5 / 9 From F to C:        - subtract 32        - multiply by 5        - divide by 9From C to F:        - multiple by 9        - divide by 5        - add 32

Basic Math : Basic Math Gearing Used to transmit power between shafts rotating usually at different speeds Two main types Spur gears – the larger Pinion gears – the smaller Pinion to Spur gear ratio: # of teeth on spur gear / # of teeth on pinion gear Ex: 150-tooth spur; 30-tooth pinion: 150/30 = 5 or 5 to 1; also expressed as a ratio, i.e. 5 : 1

Basic Measurement : Basic Measurement Measuring Tools, Torque and Gearing

Basic Measurement : Basic Measurement The Micrometer Precision measuring instrument Handle with care Four types of Micrometers Outside Inside Depth Thread

Basic Measurement : Most common: One inch, outside Micrometer Basic Measurement

Basic Measurement : Basic Measurement Micrometer (Con’t) Used to measure Thickness Diameter Other items Storing a Micrometer Never tighten Anvil against Spindle, leave a small opening Store in a dry place, box, or pouch If dropped, check for accuracy with Gauge Block before using

Basic Measurement : Basic Measurement How to use and read a Micrometer Hold frame in palm of hand with little finger or third finger inside the frame Tighten around object until ratchet clicks Micrometers with Vernier scale allow you to read the fraction of the division on the barrel scale One revolution of micrometer is 0.025 Gauge Block should be used to check calibration

Basic Measurement : Basic Measurement

Basic Measurement : Basic Measurement

Basic Measurement : Basic Measurement

Basic Measurement : Basic Measurement

Basic Measurement : Basic Measurement Depth Micrometer Used to measure Holes Grooves Recesses When using a Depth Micrometer: Make sure base has a flat, smooth surface to rest on Hold firmly in place to prevent lift-off and ensure an accurate measurement

Basic Measurement : Basic Measurement How to use and read a Depth Micrometer Graduations on the barrel are numbered in the opposite direction of those on an outside micrometer Pay attention to numbers you can’t see 4 tenths + 25 thousandths + 10 thousandths = 0.435

Basic Measurement : Basic Measurement Calipers Digital Dial Vernier Easy to read Can be used to measure Outside Inside Depth

Basic Measurement : Basic Measurement Vernier Caliper: The main scale is divided in inches. Each inch is divided into 40 parts, like the sleeve on the micrometer Each division is equal to 0.025 inch A movable jaw that matches the fixed jaw slides along the main scale bar Contains 25 divisions that equal 24 divisions on the main scale

Basic Measurement : Basic Measurement How to read a Vernier Caliper: Read the nearest number located on the main scale (in inches) and add to that the number of subdivisions. Make sure to read from the zero on the movable jaw Vernier scale and not the jaw edge! Scan down the movable jaw Vernier scale and select the number that matches up exactly with the main scale Add this number to the numbers from the main scale

Basic Measurement : Basic Measurement

Basic Measurement : Basic Measurement Ball gauges (Small Hole gauge) Used to measure small holes up to ½ inch in diameter Insert ball gauge into hole and tighten Remove ball gauge and use a micrometer to determine size of hole by measuring 90 degrees to separation (spilt) on the ball gauge Store with ball retracted (backed-off)

Basic Measurement : Basic Measurement Telescoping Gauges Used to measure inside cylinders, typically up to six inches in diameter. Allow spring loaded “T” gauge to extend to inside opening Lock shaft Measure with micrometer Store with ‘T” gauge extended.

Basic Measurement : Basic Measurement The steel rule Lengths vary – most common 6 in or 36 in Can be used as a straight edge Usually contains four scales, 1/32, 1/64, 1/10, 1/100. The fractional divisions of an inch are found by dividing the inch into equal parts: Halves, quarters, eights, sixteenths, thirty- seconds and sixty-fourths or Decimals of 100th of an inch

Basic Measurement : Basic Measurement The Combination Set

Basic Measurement : Basic Measurement Combination Set Can be used as a ordinary rule 16ths, 32nds scales Tri-square 90°, 45° angles, Bubble Level Protractor Precision angles Center head Used to find the center of an object Each head slides along the blade and can be locked in place

Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings : 3 types of working drawings Detail drawing Single part Assembly drawing Two or more parts assembled together Installation drawing All necessary information for a part or an assembly to be installed on the vehicle/rocket/aircraft Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings

Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings : Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings Orthographic Projection, Six views

Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings : Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings Lines

Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings : Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings Lines

Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings : Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings Title Block Name of the firm Name of the part The scale Name of the draftsmen, the checker and the person approving the drawing The date Drawing number

Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings : Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings Title Block

Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings : Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings Orthographic Projection, 3 views

Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings : Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings

Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings : Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings Tolerance When a given dimension on a print shows the allowable variation, the plus (+) figure indicates the maximum and the minus (–) figure indicates minimum allowable variation. Also called the “the extreme permissible dimensions of the hole or part. Example: Using .225 + .0025 - .005 The hole could be as large as .2275 The hole could be as small as .2200

Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings : Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings Schematics diagrams do not indicate the locations of individual components in the vehicle or rocket, but do locate components with respect to each other

Blueprint Reading and Schematics : Blueprint Reading and Schematics

References : References Karr “Technology of Machine Tools” Navy Manual Tools and Their Uses AC 43.13-1B Acceptable Methods, Techniques, and Practices - Aircraft Inspection and Repair AC65-9A Airframe and Powerplant Mechanics General Handbook AC 65-15A [Large AC] Airframe and Powerplant Mechanics Airframe Handbook

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